Langhans giant cell
Although traditionally their presence was associated with tuberculosis, they are not specific for tuberculosis or even for mycobacterial disease. In fact, they are found in nearly every form of granulomatous disease, regardless of etiology.
They should not be confused with Langerhans cells, which are mononuclear epidermal dendritic cells derived (like Langhans cells) from monocytes and named after Paul Langerhans. (The islets of Langerhans are also named after Paul Langerhans.)
In 2012, a research paper showed that when activated CD4+ T cells and monocytes are in close contact, interaction of CD40-CD40L between these two cells and subsequent IFNγ secretion by the T cells causes upregulation and secretion of fusion-related molecule DC-STAMP (dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein) by the monocytes, which results in LGC formation.
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- Pritchard J, Foley P, Wong H (September 2003). "Langerhans and Langhans: what's misleading in a name?". Lancet. 362 (9387): 922. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14323-1. PMID 13678997.
- Sakai H, Okafuji I, Nishikomori R, et al. (January 2012). "The CD40-CD40L axis and IFN-γ play critical roles in Langhans giant cell formation". Int. Immunol. 24 (1): 5–15. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxr088. PMID 22058328.
- Sam, Amir H.; James T.H. Teo (2010). Rapid Medicine. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1405183233.