Languages constructed by J. R. R. Tolkien
The philologist and author J. R. R. Tolkien created a number of constructed languages. Inventing languages (called glossopoeia by Tolkien, from Greek γλώσσα glôssa, "language, tongue" and ποιώ, "to make" paralleling his idea of mythopoeia or myth-making) was a lifelong occupation for Tolkien, starting in his teens. An early project of Tolkien's was the reconstruction of an unrecorded early Germanic language which might have been spoken by the people of Beowulf in the Germanic heroic age.
The most developed project of Tolkien's were his Elvish languages. He first started constructing an Elvin tongue in c. 1910–1911 while he was at the King Edward's School, Birmingham. He later called it Quenya (c. 1915), and he continued actively developing the history and grammar of his Elvish languages until his death in 1973.
In 1931, he held a lecture about his passion for constructed languages, titled A Secret Vice. Here he contrasts his project of artistic languages constructed for aesthetic pleasure with the pragmatism of international auxiliary languages. The lecture also discusses Tolkien's views on phonaesthetics, citing Greek, Finnish, and Welsh as examples of "languages which have a very characteristic and in their different ways beautiful word-form".
Tolkien's glossopoeia has two temporal dimensions: the internal (fictional) timeline of events described in the Silmarillion and other writings, and the external timeline of Tolkien's own life during which he continually revised and refined his languages and their fictional history.
Inspiration and background
Tolkien was a professional philologist of ancient Germanic languages, specialising in Old English. He was also interested in many languages outside his field, and developed a particular love for the Finnish language. He described the finding of a Finnish grammar book as "entering a complete wine-cellar filled with bottles of an amazing wine of a kind and flavour never tasted before".
Glossopoeia was Tolkien's hobby for most of his life. At a little over 13, he helped construct a sound substitution cypher known as Nevbosh, 'new nonsense', which grew to include some elements of actual invented language. Notably, Tolkien claimed that this was not his first effort in invented languages. Shortly thereafter, he developed a true invented language called Naffarin which contained elements that would survive into his later languages, which he continued to work on until his death more than 65 years later. Language invention had always been tightly connected to the mythology that Tolkien developed, as he found that a language could not be complete without the history of the people who spoke it, just as these people could never be fully realistic if imagined only through the English language and as speaking English. Tolkien therefore took the stance of a translator and adaptor rather than that of the original author of his works.
Language and mythology
Tolkien was of the opinion that the invention of an artistic language in order to be convincing and pleasing must include not only the language's historical development, but also the history of its speakers, and especially the mythology associated with both the language and the speakers. It was this idea that an "Elvish language" must be associated with a complex history and mythology of the Elves that was at the core of the development of Tolkien's legendarium.
Tolkien wrote in one of his letters: "what I think is a primary ‘fact’ about my work, that it is all of a piece, and fundamentally linguistic in inspiration. [. . .] It is not a ‘hobby’, in the sense of something quite different from one’s work, taken up as a relief-outlet. The invention of languages is the foundation. The ‘stories’ were made rather to provide a world for the languages than the reverse. To me a name comes ﬁrst and the story follows. I should have preferred to write in ‘Elvish’. But, of course, such a work as The Lord of the Rings has been edited and only as much ‘language’ has been left in as I thought would be stomached by readers. (I now ﬁnd that many would have liked more.) [. . .] It is to me, anyway, largely an essay in ‘linguistic aesthetic’, as I sometimes say to people who ask me ‘what is it all about’." 
While the Elvish languages remained at the center of Tolkien's attention, the requirements of the narratives associated with Middle-earth also necessitated the development at least superficially of the languages of other races, especially of Dwarves and Men, but also the Black Speech designed by Sauron, the main antagonist in The Lord of the Rings. This latter language was designed to be the ostensible antithesis of the ideal of an artistic language pursued with the development of Quenya, the Black Speech representing a dystopian parody of an international auxiliary language just as Sauron's rule over the Orcs is a dystopian parody of a totalitarian state.
The Elvish language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language. The family was constructed from c. 1910. Tolkien worked on it up to his death in 1973. He constructed the grammar and vocabulary of at least fifteen languages and dialects in roughly periods:
- 1910–c.1930: Primitive Quendian the proto-language, Common Eldarin, Quenya and Goldogrin.
- c.1935–1955: Goldogrin had significantly changed and was now Noldorin, joined by Telerin, Ilkorin, Doriathrin and the Avarin.
- The late and mature stage dispensed with Ilkorin and Doriathrin. Noldorin matured into Sindarin.
Although the Elvish languages Sindarin and Quenya are the most famous and the most developed of the languages that Tolkien invented for his Secondary World, they are by no means the only ones. They belong to a family of Elvish languages, that originate in Common Eldarin, the language common to all Eldar, which in turn originates in Primitive Quendian, the common root of Eldarin and Avarin languages.
Finnish morphology (particularly its rich system of inflection) in part gave rise to Quenya. Another of Tolkien's favourites was Welsh, and features of Welsh phonology found their way into Sindarin. Very few words were borrowed from existing languages, so that attempts to match a source to a particular Elvish word or name in works published during his lifetime are often very dubious.
Lhammas and Valarin
Tolkien had worked out much of the etymological background of his Elvish languages during the 1930s (collected in the form of The Etymologies). In 1937, he wrote the Lhammas, a linguistic treatise addressing the relationship of not just the Elvish languages, but of all languages spoken in Middle-earth during the First Age. The text purports to be a translation of an Elvish work, written by one Pengolodh, whose historical works are presented as being the main source of the narratives in the Silmarillion concerning the First Age.
The Lhammas exists in two versions, the shorter one being called the Lammasathen. The main linguistic thesis in this text is that the languages of Middle-earth are all descended from the language of the Valar (the "gods"), Valarin, and divided into three branches:
- Oromëan, named after Oromë, who taught the first Elves to speak. All languages of Elves and most languages of Men are Oromëan.
- Aulëan, named after Aulë, maker of the Dwarves, is the origin of the Khuzdul language. It has had some influences on the tongues of Men.
- Melkian, named after the rebellious Melkor or Morgoth, is the origin in the First Age of the many tongues used by the Orcs and other evil beings. (This tongue is unrelated to the Black Speech of Sauron.)
Tolkien later revised this internal history to the effect that the Elves had been capable of inventing language on their own, before coming into contact with Valarin (see Primitive Quendian).
The Lord of the Rings
As The Lord of the Rings was intended to represent as a sequel to The Hobbit, which had not originally been intended to form part of the legendarium and used Old Norse names for the Dwarves, Tolkien came up with a literary device of real languages "translating" fictional languages. This meant that a considerable number of additional constructed languages were envisaged, but none of them became as well developed as the family of Elvish languages. In the Lord of the Rings, Tolkien adopted the literary device of claiming to have translated the original Sôval Phârë speech (or Westron as he called it) into English. This device of rendering an imaginary language with a real one was carried further:
- rendering Rohirric, the language of Rohan (related to Sôval Phâre) by Old English
- rendering names in the tongue of Dale by Old Norse forms
- and rendering names of the Kingdom of Rhovanion by Gothic forms
thus mapping the genetic relation of his fictional languages on the existing historical relations of the Germanic languages. Furthermore, to parallel the Celtic substratum in England, he used Old Welsh names to render the Dunlendish names of Buckland Hobbits (e.g., Meriadoc for Kalimac).
In addition to that, there is a separate language family that is spoken by Men, the most prominent member of which was Westron (derived from the Númenórean speech Adûnaic), the "Common speech" of the peoples of The Lord of the Rings. Most Mannish tongues showed influences by Elvish, as well as some Dwarvish influences. Several independent languages were drafted as well, an example being Khuzdul, the language of the Dwarves. Other languages are Valarin (the tongue of the Valar), and the Black Speech created by Sauron in the Second Age.
Because of the device Modern English representing Westron, there was no necessity to actually work out the details of Westron grammar or vocabulary in any detail, but Tolkien does give some examples of Westron words in Appendix F to The Lord of the Rings, where he also summarizes its origin and role as lingua franca in Middle-earth:
- "The language represented in this history by English was the Westron or 'Common Speech' of the West-lands of Middle-earth in the Third Age. In the course of that age it had become the native language of nearly all the speaking-peoples (save the Elves) who dwelt within the bounds of the old kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor [...] At the time of the War of the Ring at the end of the age these were still its bounds as a native tongue." (Appendix F)
Some samples of the language of the Dwarves, called Khuzdul, are also found in The Lord of the Rings. The situation here is a little different from the "Mannish" languages: As Khuzdul was kept secret by the Dwarves and never used in the presence of outsiders (not even Dwarvish given names), it was not "translated" by any real-life historical language, and such limited examples as there are in the text are given in the "original". Khuzdul was designed to have a "Semitic" affinity, with a system of triconsonantal roots and other parallels especially to Hebrew, just as some aspects of the Dwarves and the Jews are intentional.
Tolkien devised Adûnaic (or Númenórean), the language spoken in Númenór, shortly after World War II, and thus at about the time he completed The Lord of the Rings, but before he wrote the linguistic background information of the Appendices. Adûnaic is intended as the language from which Westron (also called Adûni) is derived. This added a depth of historical development to the Mannish languages. Adûnaic was intended to have a "faintly Semitic flavour" Its development began with The Notion Club Papers (written in 1945). It is there that the most extensive sample of the language is found, revealed to one of the (modern-day) protagonists, Lowdham, of that story in a visionary dream of Atlantis. Its grammar is sketched in the unfinished "Lowdham's Report on the Adunaic Language".
Tolkien remained undecided whether the language of the Men of Númenór should be derived from the original Mannish language (as in Adûnaic), or if it should be derived from "the Elvish Noldorin" (i.e. Sindarin) instead. In The Lost Road and Other Writings it is implied that the Númenóreans spoke Quenya, and that Sauron, hating all things Elvish, taught the Númenóreans the old Mannish tongue they themselves had forgotten.
Being a skilled penman, Tolkien not only invented many languages but also scripts. Some of his scripts were designed for use with his constructed languages, others for more practical ends: to be used in his personal diary, and one especially for English, the New English Alphabet.
The following is a list of scripts in chronological order:
- Tengwar of Rúmil or Sarati
- Gondolinic Runes
- Valmaric script
- The New English Alphabet
- The "Goblin alphabet" (in The Father Christmas Letters)
- Tengwar of Fëanor
- The Cirth of Daeron
Reception and study
The first published monograph dedicated to the Elvish languages was An Introduction to Elvish (1978) edited by Jim Allan (published by Bran's Head Books). It is composed of articles written before the publication of The Silmarillion.
With the publication of much linguistic material during the 1990s, especially in the History of Middle-earth series, and the Vinyar Tengwar and Parma Eldalamberon material published at an increasing rate during the early 2000s from the stock of linguistic material in the possession of the appointed team of editors (some 3000 pages according to them),  the subject of Tolkien's constructed languages has become much more accessible.
David Salo wrote A Gateway to Sindarin: A Grammar of an Elvish Language from J. R. R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings (University of Utah Press, 2007). Elizabeth Solopova, Languages, Myth and History: An Introduction to the Linguistic and Literary Background of J. R. R. Tolkien's Fiction (New York City: North Landing Books, 2009) gives an overview of the linguistic traits of the various languages invented by Tolkien and the history of their creation.
A few fanzines were dedicated to the subject, like Tyalië Tyelelliéva published by Lisa Star, and Quettar, the Bulletin of the Linguistic Fellowship of The Tolkien Society, published by Julian C. Bradfield. Tengwestië is an online publication of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship.
- in his early teens, Tolkien was first acquainted with the idea of a constructed language in the form of Animalic, an invention of his cousins, Mary and Marjorie Incledon. At that time, he was studying Latin and Anglo-Saxon. Mary and others, including Tolkien himself, later invented a new and more complex language called Nevbosh. The next constructed language he came to work with, Naffarin, would be his own creation. Tolkien's Not-So-Secret Vice Tolkien's Languages | The Tongues of Middle-Earth
- Tolkien's name for himself in Gautistk was Undarhruiménitupp. J. Garth, Tolkien and the Great War. p. 17. Andrew Higgins, In Dembith Pengoldh A column on Tolkien’s invented languages (2015)
- The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, letter number 163.
- Monsters & Critics, 200
- Monsters & Critics, 203
- Monsters & Critics, 209
- The Letters of J.R.R.Tolkien, pp. 219–220
- Both are published, as edited by Christopher Tolkien, in The Lost Road. Fimi, Dimitra (2009). Tolkien, Race and Cultural History: From Fairies to Hobbits. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 73, 102. ISBN 9780230219519.
- Tolkien noted some similarities between Dwarves and Jews: both were "at once natives and aliens in their habitations, speaking the languages of the country, but with an accent due to their own private tongue". Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #176, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 Tolkien also commented of the Dwarves that "their words are Semitic obviously, constructed to be Semitic." "An Interview with J.R.R. Tolkien". BBC Four. January 1971.
- Sauron Defeated, p. 240
- The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 63.
- The Lost Road and Other Writings (1996), p. 68 and note p. 75.
- W. Hammond, C. Scull, J.R.R. Tolkien, Artist and Illustrator, p. 190.
- Solopova, Elizabeth (2009), Languages, Myths and History: An Introduction to the Linguistic and Literary Background of J.R.R. Tolkien's Fiction, New York City: North Landing Books, p. 90, ISBN 0-9816607-1-1
- Fisher, Jason (2006). "Manuscripts by Tolkien". In Drout, Michael D. C. J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. Routledge. p. 403. ISBN 978-1-13588-034-7.
- "The Tolkien Language List". Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- "Elfling". Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- "The Lambengolmor List". Elvish Linguistic Fellowship. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- General references
- C. F. Hostetter, Tolkienian Linguistics: The First Fifty Years, Tolkien Studies 4 (2007).
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1983), J. R. R. Tolkien: The Monsters & the Critics, London: HarperCollins (published 1997), ISBN 0-261-10263-X