Demographics of Haiti

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Population of Haiti (in thousands) from 1961 to 2003

Although Haiti averages approximately 255 people per square kilometer (650 per sq. mi.), its population is concentrated most heavily in urban areas, coastal plains, and valleys. The nation is multi-ethnic, home to peoples of different races and ethnic groups. 95% of Haitians are of predominantly African descent.[1] The remainding 5% of the population is primarily mulattoes, Europeans, Asians and Arabs. Hispanic residents in Haiti are mostly Cuban and Dominican. About two thirds of the Haitian population live in rural areas.

Although there was a national census taken in Haiti in 2003, much of that data has not been released to the public. Several demographic studies, including those by social work researcher Athena Kolbe, have shed light on the current status of urban residents. In 2006, households averaged 4.5 members. The median age was 25 years with a mean average age of 27 years. People aged 15 and younger counted for roughly a third of the population. Overall, 52.7 percent of the population was female.[2]

Population[edit]

According to the 2012 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 9,896,000 in 2010, compared to 3,221,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 36.2%, 59.7% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 4.5% was 65 years or older .[3]

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 3 221 39.6 56.7 3.7
1955 3 516 39.7 56.9 3.4
1960 3 869 40.3 56.5 3.2
1965 4 275 41.7 54.9 3.4
1970 4 713 41.8 54.5 3.7
1975 5 144 41.3 54.8 3.9
1980 5 692 41.1 54.9 4.0
1985 6 389 42.2 53.8 4.0
1990 7 110 43.1 52.9 4.0
1995 7 838 42.6 53.5 3.9
2000 8 578 40.3 55.7 4.0
2005 9 261 38.1 57.8 4.2
2010 9 896 36.2 59.7 4.5

Structure of the population [4][edit]

Structure of the population (01.07.2010) (Estimates) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 4 993 731 5 091 483 10 085 214 100
0-4 644 550 618 772 1 263 322 12,53
5-9 608 495 586 984 1 195 479 11,85
10-14 588 618 569 860 1 158 478 11,49
15-19 551 467 540 897 1 092 364 10,83
20-24 509 042 510 547 1 019 589 10,11
25-29 454 123 465 513 919 636 9,12
30-34 340 518 362 078 702 596 6,97
35-39 261 157 286 847 548 004 5,43
40-44 235 182 253 300 488 482 4,84
45-49 204 077 219 300 423 377 4,20
50-54 166 418 176 495 342 913 3,40
55-59 136 034 148 697 284 731 2,82
60-64 95 939 110 896 206 835 2,05
65-69 81 854 94 044 175 898 1,74
70-74 58 181 71 255 129 436 1,28
75-79 35 538 45 360 80 898 0,80
80+ 22 538 30 638 53 176 0,53
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 1 841 663 1 775 566 3 617 229 35,87
15-64 2 953 957 3 074 620 6 028 577 59,78
65+ 198 111 241 297 439 408 4,36

Structure of the population (01.07.2011) (Estimates) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 5 075 517 5 172 789 10 248 306 100
0-4 647 465 621 432 1 268 897 12,38
5-9 611 472 589 690 1 201 161 11,72
10-14 591 018 572 066 1 163 085 11,35
15-19 556 085 544 798 1 100 883 10,74
20-24 514 235 514 898 1 029 132 10,04
25-29 465 396 475 451 940 847 9,18
30-34 358 927 379 066 737 993 7,20
35-39 270 574 296 362 566 936 5,53
40-44 237 754 257 273 495 026 4,83
45-49 208 671 224 746 433 416 4,23
50-54 171 468 182 332 353 800 3,45
55-59 140 392 152 742 293 134 2,86
60-64 99 846 114 973 214 819 2,10
65-69 82 201 94 868 177 069 1,73
70-74 59 833 72 957 132 790 1,30
75-79 36 751 47 083 83 834 0,82
80+ 23 431 32 053 55 484 0,54
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 1 849 955 1 783 188 3 633 143 35,45
15-64 3 023 346 3 142 640 6 165 986 60,17
65+ 202 216 246 961 449 177 4,38

Structure of the population (DHS 2012) (Males 28 122, Females 29 844 = 57 966) :

Age Group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0-4 12,9 11,7 12,3
5-9 12,1 10,9 11,5
10-14 12,9 11,7 12,3
15-19 11,6 11,7 11,6
20-24 9,5 10,0 9,8
25-29 7,7 8,4 8,1
30-34 6,0 6,3 6,2
35-39 5,2 5,2 5,2
40-44 4,3 4,2 4,3
45-49 3,6 4,0 3,8
50-54 3,3 4,1 3,7
55-59 2,8 3,4 3,1
60-64 2,5 2,6 2,5
65-69 2,0 1,8 1,9
70-74 1,6 1,4 1,5
75-79 0,8 0,9 0,9
80+ 1,1 1,5 1,3
Age group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0-14 37,9 34,3 36,1
15-64 56,6 60,1 58,3
65+ 5,5 5,6 5,6

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Haiti not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [3]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950–1955 154 000 89 000 65 000 45.7 26.5 19.2 6.30 220 37.6 36.3 38.9
1955–1960 165 000 87 000 78 000 44.6 23.6 21.0 6.30 194 40.7 39.4 42.0
1960–1965 177 000 86 000 91 000 43.5 21.1 22.4 6.30 171 43.6 42.3 44.9
1965–1970 183 000 84 000 99 000 40.7 18.6 22.1 6.00 150 46.3 44.9 57.6
1970–1975 188 000 85 000 104 000 38.2 17.2 21.1 5.60 135 48.0 46.8 49.3
1975–1980 217 000 87 000 129 000 40.0 16.1 23.9 5.80 131 50.0 48.5 51.5
1980–1985 259 000 94 000 164 000 42.8 15.6 27.2 6.21 122 51.5 50.2 52.9
1985–1990 264 000 94 000 170 000 39.1 13.9 25.3 5.70 100 53.6 52.2 55.0
1990–1995 265 000 93 000 172 000 35.5 12.5 23.1 5.15 85 55.3 53.7 56.8
1995–2000 268 000 93 000 175 000 32.7 11.3 21.3 4.62 70 56.9 55.2 58.7
2000–2005 265 000 95 000 171 000 29.7 10.6 19.1 4.00 56 58.1 56.4 59.9
2005–2010 265 000 90 000 175 000 27.7 9.4 18.3 3.55 49 60.7 59.0 62.4
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Disasters often cause human populations to increase long term, rather than decrease, by way of increased fertility exceeding the deaths caused by the initial disaster, as shell-shocked mothers replace every lost child with more than needed.[citation needed] In Haiti's case, the fertility rate nearly tripled after the quake, and is likely to remain elevated (above pre-quake levels) for long after.[5]

Fertility and births[edit]

The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[6]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1994–95 34 4,8 (3,0) 31 3,3 (2,2) 35 5,9 (3,7)
2000 32,6 4,7 (2,7) 29,4 3,3 (2,0) 34,0 5,8 (3,4)
2005–2006 28,7 4,0 (2,4) 26,2 2,8 (1,8) 30,1 5,0 (2,9)
2012 27,8 3,5 (2,2) 24,4 2,6 (1,9) 29,4 4,4 (2,6)

Languages[edit]

Taíno was the major pre-Columbian language in the region now known as Haiti. One of the country's official languages is Haitian Creole, a French-based creole with African influences, as well as minor Spanish and Taíno influences. French is the other official language. Spanish, though not official, is spoken by a growing amount of the population, and is spoken more frequently near the border with the Dominican Republic. English is increasingly spoken among the young and in the business sector.[citation needed]

Religion[edit]

Main articles: Religion in Haiti and Haitian Vodou

The state religion is Roman Catholicism which 80–85% of the population professes. 15–20% of Haitians practice Protestantism. Only a very small percentage of the population practice Vodou, mostly along with another religion.[7]

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Haiti

Although public education at the primary level is now free, private and parochial schools provide around 75% of educational programs offered.

In recent years, several annual literacy campaigns launched in by the Martelly administration has increased overall literacy among adults in Haiti.[8] UNESCO projects an overall literacy rate of 61.1% in Haiti by 2015.[9] As of December 2014, World bank has reported that school enrollment has increased from 78% to 90% in Haiti, very close to the goal of universal child enrollment.[10]

Labor[edit]

In 2004, 300,000 children were restavecs, which are somewhat like indentured service for minors. This was done by their parents in order that the children would be fed.[11]

Emigration[edit]

Large-scale emigration, principally to the Dominican Republic, United States, and Canada (predominantly to Quebec, with other areas of the country) – but also to Cuba, other areas of Europe and the Americas (like Argentina) such as France (with French Guiana), Spain, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Ireland; and Venezuela, Brazil, the Bahamas and other Caribbean neighbors – has created what Haitians refer to as the Eleventh Department or the Diaspora. About one of every six Haitians live abroad.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook (as of June 22, 2014).[12] Population: 9,996,731 (2014 est.)

Nationality:

Noun: Haitian(s)
Adjective: Haitian
Ethnic groups: Black 95%, Mulatto and White 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (Islam, Bahá'í Faith, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism).

Languages: French (official), Haitian Creole (official), Spanish (non-official)

Literacy: (2015 est.)

Definition: Age 15 and over that can read and write
Total population: 60.7%
Male: 64.3%
Female: 57.3%

References[edit]

  1. ^ CIA – The World Factbook – Haiti
  2. ^ Kolbe, Athena R.; Royce A. Hutson (August 31, 2006). "Human rights abuse and other criminal violations in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a random survey of households" (PDF). The Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69211-8. Retrieved 20 June 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision
  4. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
  5. ^ Haiti's Rate Of Fertility Tripled – Report
  6. ^ Worldbank – Microdata: Haiti
  7. ^ The World Factbook
  8. ^ "Haiti – Social : The fight against illiteracy, one of the Government's priorities". September 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ ""Literacy Statistics trends 1985–2015"" (PDF). 
  10. ^ "Extreme poverty drops in Haiti. Is it sustainable?". 4 December 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  11. ^ Cohen, Gigi (2004-03-24). "Haiti's Dark secret:The Restavecs". National Public Radio. 
  12. ^ "Haiti". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2011-03-03. 
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009