Independent State of Samoa
Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa
Motto: "Faʻavae i le Atua Sāmoa"
"Samoa is founded on God"
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary dominant-party parliamentary democracy with a trace of aristocracy|
|Va'aletoa Sualauvi IIa|
|Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi|
|Independence from New Zealand|
|14 June 1889|
|16 February 1900|
|1 March 1900|
|30 August 1914|
• League mandate
|17 December 1920|
• UN trusteeship
|13 December 1946|
• Western Samoa Act 1961
|1 January 1962|
|15 December 1976|
|2,842 km2 (1,097 sq mi) (167th)|
• Water (%)
• November 2016 census
|68/km2 (176.1/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2014)|| 0.702|
high · 105th
|Currency||WS$b, Tala (WST)|
|Time zone||UTC+13c (UTC+13:00)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||WS|
Samoa (//), officially the Independent State of Samoa (Samoan: Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; Samoan: Sāmoa, IPA: [ˈsaːmoa]) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a country consisting of two main islands, Savai'i and Upolu, and four smaller islands (Manono, Apolima, Fanuatapu, and Namua). The capital city is Apia. The Lapita people discovered and settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed a unique Samoan language and Samoan cultural identity.
Samoa is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions. The country is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Western Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976. The entire island group, which includes American Samoa, was called "Navigator Islands" by European explorers before the 20th century because of the Samoans' seafaring skills. The country was governed by New Zealand until its independence in 1962.
In July 2017, Va'aletoa Sualauvi II became the head of state, succeeding Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi. The Prime Minister Tuila'epa came back to power after a landslide victory in March 2016, beginning a fifth term for the premier.
- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Geography
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Education
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The origins of the Samoans are closely studied in modern research about Polynesia in various scientific disciplines such as genetics, linguistics and anthropology. Scientific research is ongoing, although a number of different theories exist; including one proposing that the Samoans originated from Austronesian predecessors during the terminal eastward Lapita expansion period from Southeast Asia and Melanesia between 2,500 and 1,500 BCE.
Intimate sociocultural and genetic ties were maintained between Samoa, Fiji, and Tonga, and the archaeological record supports oral tradition and native genealogies that indicate inter-island voyaging and intermarriage between pre-colonial Samoans, Fijians, and Tongans. Notable figures in Samoan history included the Tui Manu'a line and Queen Salamasina (15th century). Nafanua was a famous woman warrior who was deified in ancient Samoan religion.
Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century. Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman, was the first known European to sight the Samoan islands in 1722. This visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768. Contact was limited before the 1830s, which is when English missionaries and traders began arriving.
Samoa in the 1800s
Visits by American trading and whaling vessels were important in the early economic development of Samoa. The Salem brig Roscoe (Captain Benjamin Vanderford), in October 1821, was the first American trading vessel known to have called, and the Maro (Captain Richard Macy) of Nantucket, in 1824, was the first recorded United States whaler at Samoa. The whalers came for fresh drinking water, firewood and provisions, and later, they recruited local men to serve as crewmen on their ships.
Christian missionary work in Samoa began in 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived in Sapapali'i from the Cook Islands and Tahiti. According to Barbara A. West, "The Samoans were also known to engage in ‘headhunting', a ritual of war in which a warrior took the head of his slain opponent to give to his leader, thus proving his bravery." However, Robert Louis Stevenson, who lived in Samoa from 1889 until his death in 1894, wrote in A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa, "… the Samoans are gentle people."
The Germans, in particular, began to show great commercial interest in the Samoan Islands, especially on the island of Upolu, where German firms monopolised copra and cocoa bean processing. The United States laid its own claim, based on commercial shipping interests in Pearl River in Hawaii and Pago Pago Bay in Eastern Samoa, and forced alliances, most conspicuously on the islands of Tutuila and Manu'a which became American Samoa.
Britain also sent troops to protect British business enterprise, harbour rights, and consulate office. This was followed by an eight-year civil war, during which each of the three powers supplied arms, training and in some cases combat troops to the warring Samoan parties. The Samoan crisis came to a critical juncture in March 1889 when all three colonial contenders sent warships into Apia harbour, and a larger-scale war seemed imminent. A massive storm on 15 March 1889 damaged or destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict.
The Second Samoan Civil War reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States were locked in dispute over who should control the Samoa Islands. The Siege of Apia occurred in March 1899. Samoan forces loyal to Prince Tanu were besieged by a larger force of Samoan rebels loyal to Mata'afa Iosefo. Supporting Prince Tanu were landing parties from four British and American warships. After several days of fighting, the Samoan rebels were finally defeated.
American and British warships shelled Apia on 15 March 1899, including the USS Philadelphia. Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States quickly resolved to end the hostilities and divided the island chain at the Tripartite Convention of 1899, signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900.
The eastern island-group became a territory of the United States (the Tutuila Islands in 1900 and officially Manu'a in 1904) and was known as American Samoa. The western islands, by far the greater landmass, became German Samoa. The United Kingdom had vacated all claims in Samoa and in return received (1) termination of German rights in Tonga, (2) all of the Solomon Islands south of Bougainville, and (3) territorial alignments in West Africa.
German Samoa (1900–1914)
The German Empire governed the western Samoan islands from 1900 to 1914. Wilhelm Solf was appointed the colony's first governor. In 1908, when the non-violent Mau a Pule resistance movement arose, Solf did not hesitate to banish the Mau leader Lauaki Namulau'ulu Mamoe to Saipan in the German Northern Mariana Islands.
The German colonial administration governed on the principle that "there was only one government in the islands." Thus, there was no Samoan Tupu (king), nor an alii sili (similar to a governor), but two Fautua (advisors) were appointed by the colonial government. Tumua and Pule (traditional governments of Upolu and Savai'i) were for a time silent; all decisions on matters affecting lands and titles were under the control of the colonial Governor.
In the first month of World War I, on 29 August 1914, troops of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force landed unopposed on Upolu and seized control from the German authorities, following a request by Great Britain for New Zealand to perform this "great and urgent imperial service."
New Zealand rule (1914–1962)
From the end of World War I until 1962, New Zealand controlled Samoa as a Class C Mandate under trusteeship through the League of Nations, then through the United Nations. There followed a series of New Zealand administrators who were responsible for two major incidents. In the first incident, approximately one fifth of the Samoan population died in the influenza epidemic of 1918–1919. Between 1919 and 1962, Samoa was administered by the Department of External Affairs, a government department which had been specially created to oversee New Zealand's Island Territories and Samoa. In 1943, this Department was renamed the Department of Island Territories after a separate Department of External Affairs was created to conduct New Zealand's foreign affairs.
In 1918, during the final stages of World War I, the flu pandemic had taken its toll, spreading rapidly from country to country. American Samoa became one of only three places in the world (the others being New Caledonia and Marajó island in Brazil) to have prevented any deaths during the pandemic through the quick response from Governor John Martin Poyer after hearing news reports of the outbreak on the radio and requesting quarantine ships from the U.S. mainland. On Samoa, there had been no epidemic of pneumonic influenza in Western Samoa before the arrival of the SS Talune from Auckland on 7 November 1918. The NZ administration allowed the ship to berth in breach of quarantine; within seven days of this ship's arrival, influenza became epidemic in Upolu and then spread rapidly throughout the rest of the territory. Samoa suffered the most of all Pacific islands, with 90% of the population infected; 30% of adult men, 22% of adult women and 10% of children died. The cause of the epidemic was confirmed in 1919 by a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Epidemic concluded that there had been no epidemic of pneumonic influenza in Western Samoa before the arrival of the SS Talune from Auckland on 7 November 1918. 
The second major incident arose out of an initially peaceful protest by the Mau (which literally translates as "strongly held opinion"), a non-violent popular movement which had its beginnings in the early 1900s on Savai'i, led by Lauaki Namulauulu Mamoe, an orator chief deposed by Solf. In 1909, Lauaki was exiled to Saipan and died en route back to Samoa in 1915.
By 1918, Samoa had a population of some 38,000 Samoans and 1,500 Europeans.
However, Samoans greatly resented New Zealand's colonial rule, and blamed inflation and the catastrophic 1918 flu epidemic on its misrule. By the late 1920s the resistance movement against colonial rule had gathered widespread support. One of the Mau leaders was Olaf Frederick Nelson, a half Samoan and half Swedish merchant. Nelson was eventually exiled during the late 1920s and early 1930s, but he continued to assist the organisation financially and politically. In accordance with the Mau's non-violent philosophy, the newly elected leader, High Chief Tupua Tamasese Lealofi, led his fellow uniformed Mau in a peaceful demonstration in downtown Apia on 28 December 1929.
The New Zealand police attempted to arrest one of the leaders in the demonstration. When he resisted, a struggle developed between the police and the Mau. The officers began to fire randomly into the crowd and a Lewis machine gun, mounted in preparation for this demonstration, was used to disperse the demonstrators. Chief Tamasese was shot from behind and killed while trying to bring calm and order to the Mau demonstrators, screaming "Peace, Samoa". Ten others died that day and approximately 50 were injured by gunshot wounds and police batons. That day would come to be known in Samoa as Black Saturday. The Mau grew, remaining steadfastly non-violent, and expanded to include the highly influential women's branch.
After repeated efforts by the Samoan independence movement, the New Zealand Western Samoa Act 1961 of 24 November 1961 granted Samoa independence, effective on 1 January 1962, upon which the Trusteeship Agreement terminated. Samoa also signed a friendship treaty with New Zealand. Samoa, the first small-island country in the Pacific to become independent, joined the Commonwealth of Nations on 28 August 1970. While independence was achieved at the beginning of January, Samoa annually celebrates 1 June as its independence day.
1997 name change
On 4 July 1997 the government amended the constitution to change the country's name from Western Samoa to Samoa. American Samoa protested against the move, asserting that the change diminished its own identity.
On 7 September 2009, the government changed the driving orientation for motorists: Samoans now drive on the left side of the road like in most other Commonwealth countries. This brought Samoa into line with many other countries in the region. Samoa thus became the first country in the 21st century to switch to driving on the left.
At the end of December 2011, Samoa jumped forward by one day, omitting 30 December from the local calendar, when the nation moved to the west of the International Date Line. This change aimed to help the nation boost its economy in doing business with Australia and New Zealand. Before this change, Samoa was 21 hours behind Sydney, but the change means it is now three hours ahead. The previous time zone, implemented on 4 July 1892, operated in line with American traders based in California.
The 1960 constitution, which formally came into force with independence from New Zealand in 1962, builds on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take account of Samoan customs. The national modern Government of Samoa is referred to as the Malo.
Fiame Mata'afa Faumuina Mulinu’u II, one of the four highest-ranking paramount chiefs in the country, became Samoa's first Prime Minister. Two other paramount chiefs at the time of independence were appointed joint heads of state for life. Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole died in 1963, leaving Malietoa Tanumafili II sole head of state until his death on 11 May 2007, upon which Samoa changed from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary republic de facto.[dubious ] The next Head of State, Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi, was elected by the legislature on 17 June 2007 for a fixed five-year term, and was re-elected unopposed in July 2012. Tufuga Efi was succeeded by Va'aletoa Sualauvi II in 2017.
The unicameral legislature (the Fono) consists of 49 members serving 5-year terms. Forty-seven are matai title-holders elected from territorial districts by Samoans; the other two are chosen by non-Samoans with no chiefly affiliation on separate electoral rolls. Universal suffrage was adopted in 1990, but only chiefs (matai) may stand for election to the Samoan seats. There are more than 25,000 matais in the country, about 5% of whom are women. The prime minister, chosen by a majority in the Fono, is appointed by the head of state to form a government. The prime minister's choices for the 12 cabinet positions are appointed by the head of state, subject to the continuing confidence of the Fono.
Prominent women in Samoan politics include the late Laulu Fetauimalemau Mata'afa (1928–2007) from Lotofaga constituency, the wife of Samoa's first prime minister. Their daughter Fiame Naomi Mata'afa is a paramount chief and a long-serving senior member of cabinet. Other women in politics include Samoan scholar and eminent professor Aiono Fanaafi Le Tagaloa, orator-chief Matatumua Maimoana and Safuneitu'uga Pa'aga Neri (as of 2016[update] the Minister of Communication and Technology).
The judicial system incorporates English common law and local customs. The Supreme Court of Samoa is the court of highest jurisdiction. Its chief justice is appointed by the head of state upon the recommendation of the prime minister.
Samoa comprises eleven itūmālō (political districts). These are the traditional eleven districts which predate European arrival. Each district has its own constitutional foundation (faavae) based on the traditional order of title precedence found in each district's faalupega (traditional salutations).
The capital village of each district administers and coordinates the affairs of the district and confers each district's paramount title, amongst other responsibilities. For example, the District of A'ana has its capital at Leulumoega. The paramount title of A'ana is the TuiA'ana. The orator group which confers this title – the Faleiva (House of Nine) – is based at Leulumoega. This is also the same for the other districts. In the district of Tuamasaga, the paramount title of the district – the Malietoa title – is conferred by the FaleTuamasaga based in Afega.
The eleven itūmālō are identified to be:
- 1. Tuamasaga (Afega)1
- 2. A'ana (Leulumoega)
- 3. Aiga-i-le-Tai (Mulifanua)2
- 4. Atua (Lufilufi)3
- 5. Va'a-o-Fonoti (Samamea)
- 6. Fa'asaleleaga (Safotulafai)
- 7. Gaga'emauga (Saleaula)4
- 8. Gaga'ifomauga (Safotu)
- 9. Vaisigano (Asau)
- 10. Satupa'itea (Satupa'itea)
- 11. Palauli (Vailoa)
1 including the faipule district of Siumu
2 including islands Manono, Apolima and Nu'ulopa
3 including the Aleipata Islands and Nu'usafe'e Island
4 smaller parts also on Upolu (Salamumu, incl. Salamumu-Uta and Leauvaa villages)
In June 2017, an Act was passed changing the country's constitution to include a reference to the Trinity. As amended, Article 1 of the Samoan Constitution states that “Samoa is a Christian nation founded of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit”. According to The Diplomat, "What Samoa has done is shift references to Christianity into the body of the constitution, giving the text far more potential to be used in legal processes." The preamble to the constitution already described the country as "an independent State based on Christian principles and Samoan custom and traditions."
Samoa lies south of the equator, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand, in the Polynesian region of the Pacific Ocean. The total land area is 2,842 km2 (1,097 sq mi), consisting of the two large islands of Upolu and Savai'i (which together account for 99% of the total land area) and eight small islets.
The islets are:
- the three islets in the Apolima Strait (Manono Island, Apolima and Nu'ulopa)
- the four Aleipata Islands off the eastern end of Upolu (Nu'utele, Nu'ulua, Namua, and Fanuatapu)
- Nu'usafe'e, which is less than 1 hectare (2½ acres) in area and lies about 1.4 km (0.9 mi) off the south coast of Upolu at the village of Vaovai
The main island of Upolu is home to nearly three-quarters of Samoa's population, and to the capital city, Apia.
The Samoan islands result geologically from volcanism, originating with the Samoa hotspot, which probably results from a mantle plume. While all of the islands have volcanic origins, only Savai'i, the westernmost island in Samoa, remains volcanically active, with the most recent eruptions at Mt Matavanu (1905–1911), Mata o le Afi (1902) and Mauga Afi (1725). The highest point in Samoa is Mt Silisili, at 1858 m (6,096 ft). The Saleaula lava fields situated on the central north coast of Savai'i result from the Mt Matavanu eruptions, which left 50 km2 (20 sq mi) of solidified lava.
Savai'i is the largest of the Samoan islands and the sixth-largest Polynesian island (after New Zealand's North, South and Stewart Islands and the Hawaiian islands of Hawaiʻi and Maui). The population of Savai'i is 42,000 people.
Samoa has an equatorial/monsoonal climate, with an average annual temperature of 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) and a rainy season from November to April.
|Climate data for Apia|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.4
|Average low °C (°F)||23.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||489.0
|Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN)|
Samoa forms part of the Samoan tropical moist forests ecoregion. Since human habitation began, about 80% of the lowland rainforests have disappeared. Within the ecoregion about 28% of plants and 84% of land birds are endemic.
The United Nations has classified Samoa as an economically developing country since 2014. In 2017, Samoa's gross domestic product in purchasing power parity was estimated to be $1.13 billion U.S. dollars, ranking 204th among all countries. The services sector accounted for 66% of GDP, followed by industry and agriculture at 23.6% and 10.4%, respectively. The same year, the Samoan labour force was estimated at 50,700.
The country's currency is the Samoan tālā, issued and regulated by the Central Bank of Samoa. The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on agriculture and fishing at the local level. In modern times, development aid, private family remittances from overseas, and agricultural exports have become key factors in the nation's economy. Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labour force and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil, noni (juice of the nonu fruit, as it is known in Samoan), and copra.
Outside of a large automotive wire harness factory (Yazaki Corporation which ended production in August 2017), the manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. Tourism is an expanding sector which now accounts for 25% of GDP. Tourist arrivals have been increasing over the years with more than 100,000 tourists visiting the islands in 2005, up from 70,000 in 1996.
The Samoan government has called for deregulation of the financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline. Observers point to the flexibility of the labour market as a basic strength for future economic advances. The sector has been helped enormously by major capital investment in hotel infrastructure, political instability in neighbouring Pacific countries, and the 2005 launch of Virgin Samoa a joint-venture between the government and Virgin Australia (then Virgin Blue).
In the period before German colonisation, Samoa produced mostly copra. German merchants and settlers were active in introducing large scale plantation operations and developing new industries, notably, cocoa bean and rubber, relying on imported labourers from China and Melanesia. When the value of natural rubber fell drastically, about the end of the Great War (World War I), the New Zealand government encouraged the production of bananas, for which there is a large market in New Zealand.
Because of variations in altitude, a large range of tropical and subtropical crops can be cultivated, but land is not generally available to outside interests. Of the total land area of 2,934 km2 (725,000 acres), about 24.4% is in permanent crops and another 21.2% is arable. About 4.4% is Western Samoan Trust Estates Corporation (WSTEC).
The staple products of Samoa are copra (dried coconut meat), cocoa bean (for chocolate), and bananas. The annual production of both bananas and copra has been in the range of 13,000 to 15,000 metric tons (about 14,500 to 16,500 short tons). If the rhinoceros beetle in Samoa were eradicated, Samoa could produce in excess of 40,000 metric tons (44,000 short tons) of copra. Samoan cocoa beans are of very high quality and used in fine New Zealand chocolates. Most are Criollo-Forastero hybrids. Coffee grows well, but production has been uneven. WSTEC is the biggest coffee producer. Rubber has been produced in Samoa for many years, but its export value has little impact on the economy.
Other agricultural industries have been less successful. Sugarcane production, originally established by Germans in the early 20th century, could be successful. Old train tracks for transporting cane can be seen at some plantations east of Apia. Pineapples grow well in Samoa, but beyond local consumption have not been a major export.
Sixty percent of Samoa's electricity comes from renewable hydro, solar, and wind sources, with the remainder from diesel generators. The Electric Power Corporation has a goal of 100% renewable energy by 2021.
Only the Māori of New Zealand outnumber Samoans among Polynesian groups.
- Further information: List of Polynesian languages
Samoan (Gagana Fa'asāmoa) and English are the official languages. Including second-language speakers, there are more speakers of Samoan than English in Samoa. Samoan Sign Language is also commonly used among the deaf population of Samoa. To emphasize the importance of full inclusion with sign language, elementary Samoan Sign Language was taught to members of the Samoa Police Service, Red Cross Society, and public during the 2017 International Week of the Deaf.
Since 2012, Article 1 of the Samoan Constitution states that “Samoa is a Christian nation founded of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit”.
Samoans' religious adherence includes the following: Christian Congregational Church of Samoa 31.8%, Roman Catholic 19.4%, Methodist 15.2%, Assembly of God 13.7%, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 7.6%, Seventh-day Adventist 3.9%, Worship Centre 1.7%, other Christian 5.5%, other 0.7%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 estimate). The Head of State until 2007, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, was a Bahá'í. Samoa hosts the seventh (of nine current) Bahá'í Houses of Worship in the world; completed in 1984 and dedicated by the Head of State, it is located in Tiapapata, 8 km (5 mi) from Apia.
The Samoan government provides eight years of primary and secondary education that is tuition-free and is compulsory through age 16.
Samoa's main post-secondary educational institution is the National University of Samoa, established in 1984. The country is also home to several branches of the multi-national University of the South Pacific and the Oceania University of Medicine.
The fa'a Samoa, or traditional Samoan way, remains a strong force in Samoan life and politics. Despite centuries of European influence, Samoa maintains its historical customs, social and political systems, and language. Cultural customs such as the Samoa 'ava ceremony are significant and solemn rituals at important occasions including the bestowal of matai chiefly titles. Items of great cultural value include the finely woven 'ie toga.
Samoan mythology includes many gods with creation stories and figures of legend such as Tagaloa and the goddess of war Nafanua, the daughter of Saveasi'uleo, ruler of the spirit realm Pulotu. Other legends include the well known story of Sina and the Eel which explains the origins of the first coconut tree.
Some Samoans are spiritual and religious, and have subtly adapted the dominant religion of Christianity to 'fit in' with fa'a Samoa and vice versa. Ancient beliefs continue to co-exist side-by-side with Christianity, particularly in regard to the traditional customs and rituals of fa'a Samoa. The Samoan culture is centred around the principle of vāfealoa'i, the relationships between people. These relationships are based on respect, or fa'aaloalo. When Christianity was introduced in Samoa, most Samoan people converted. Currently 98% of the population identify themselves as Christian.
Some Samoans live a communal way of life, participating in activities collectively. Examples of this are the traditional Samoan fale (houses) which are open with no walls, using blinds made of coconut palm fronds during the night or bad weather.
The Samoan siva dance has unique gentle movements of the body in time to music and tells a story, although the Samoan male dances can be more snappy. The sasa is also a traditional dance where rows of dancers perform rapid synchronised movements in time to the rhythm of wooden drums (pate) or rolled mats. Another dance performed by males is called the fa'ataupati or the slap dance, creating rhythmic sounds by slapping different parts of the body. This is believed to have been derived from slapping insects on the body.
The form and construction of traditional architecture of Samoa was a specialised skill by Tufuga fai fale that was also linked to other cultural artforms.
Roman Catholic Immaculate Conception of Mary cathedral.
As with other Polynesian cultures (Hawaiian, Tahitian and Māori) with significant and unique tattoos, Samoans have two gender specific and culturally significant tattoos. For males, it is called the Pe'a and consists of intricate and geometrical patterns tattooed that cover areas from the knees up towards the ribs. A male who possesses such a tatau is called a soga'imiti. A Samoan girl or teine is given a malu, which covers the area from just below her knees to her upper thighs.
Albert Wendt is a significant Samoan writer whose novels and stories tell the Samoan experience. In 1989, his novel Flying Fox in a Freedom Tree was made into a feature film in New Zealand, directed by Martyn Sanderson. Another novel Sons for the Return Home had also been made into a feature film in 1979, directed by Paul Maunder. The late John Kneubuhl, born in American Samoa, was an accomplished playwright and screenwriter and writer. Sia Figiel won the 1997 Commonwealth Writers' Prize for fiction in the south-east Asia/South Pacific region with her novel "Where We Once Belonged". Momoe Malietoa Von Reiche is an internationally recognised poet and artist. Tusiata Avia is a performance poet. Her first book of poetry Wild Dogs Under My Skirt was published by Victoria University Press in 2004. Dan Taulapapa McMullin is an artist and writer. Other Samoan poets and writers include Sapa'u Ruperake Petaia, Eti Sa'aga and Savea Sano Malifa, the editor of the Samoa Observer.
In music, popular local bands include The Five Stars, Penina o Tiafau and Punialava'a. The Yandall Sisters' cover of the song Sweet Inspiration reached number one on the New Zealand charts in 1974. King Kapisi was the first hip hop artist to receive the prestigious New Zealand APRA Silver Scroll Award in 1999 for his song Reverse Resistance. The music video for Reverse Resistance was filmed in Savai'i at his villages. Other successful Samoan hip hop artists include rapper Scribe, Dei Hamo, Savage and Tha Feelstyle whose music video Suamalie was filmed in Samoa.
Lemi Ponifasio is a director and choreographer who is prominent internationally with his dance Company MAU. Neil Ieremia's company Black Grace has also received international acclaim with tours to Europe and New York. Hip hop has had a significant impact on Samoan culture. According to Katerina Martina Teaiwa, PhD from the University of Hawaii at Manoa, "Hip hop culture in particular is popular amongst Samoan youth." As in many other countries, hip hop music is popular. In addition, the integration of hip hop elements into Samoan tradition also "testifies to the transferability of the dance forms themselves," and to the "circuits through which people and all their embodied knowledge travel." Dance both in its traditional form and its more modern forms has remained a central cultural currency to Samoans, especially youths.
Director Sima Urale is an award-winning filmmaker. Urale's short film O Tamaiti won the prestigious Best Short Film at the Venice Film Festival in 1996. Her first feature film Apron Strings opened the 2008 NZ International Film Festival. The feature film Siones Wedding, co-written by Oscar Kightley, was financially successful following premieres in Auckland and Apia. The 2011 film The Orator was the first ever fully Samoan film, shot in Samoa in the Samoan language with a Samoan cast telling a uniquely Samoan story. Written and directed by Tusi Tamasese, it received much critical acclaim and attention at film festivals throughout the world.
Rugby union is the national sport in Samoa and the national team, nicknamed the Manu Samoa, is consistently competitive against teams from vastly more populous nations. Samoa has competed at every Rugby World Cup since 1991, and made the quarter finals in 1991, 1995 and the second round of the 1999 World Cup. At the 2003 world cup, Manu Samoa came close to beating eventual world champions, England. Samoa also played in the Pacific Nations Cup and the Pacific Tri-Nations. The sport is governed by the Samoa Rugby Football Union, who are members of the Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance, and thus, also contribute to the international Pacific Islanders rugby union team.
At club level, there is the National Provincial Championship and Pacific Rugby Cup. They also took home the cup at Wellington and the Hong Kong Rugby Sevens in 2007—for which the Prime Minister of Samoa, also Chairman of the national rugby union, Tuila’epa Sa’ilele Malielegaoi, declared a national holiday. They were also the IRB World Sevens Series Champions in 2010 capping a year of achievement for the Samoans, following wins in the US, Australia, Hong Kong and Scotland Sevens tournaments.
Rugby league is mostly played by Samoans living in New Zealand and Australia. Samoa reached the quarter finals of the 2013 Rugby League World Cup, the team comprising players from the NRL and Super League plus domestic players. Many Samoans and New Zealanders or Australians of Samoan descent play in the Super League and National Leagues in Britain, including Francis Meli, Ta'ane Lavulavu of Workington Town, Maurie Fa'asavalu of St Helens and David Fatialofa of Whitehaven and Setima Sa who signed with London Irish rugby club. Other noteworthy players from NZ and Australia have represented the Samoan National team. The 2011 domestic Samoan rugby league competition contained 10 teams with plans to expand to 12 in 2012.
American football is occasionally played in Samoa, reflecting its wide popularity in American Samoa, where the sport is played under high school sanction. About 30 ethnic Samoans, many from American Samoa, currently play in the National Football League. A 2002 article from ESPN estimated that a Samoan male (either an American Samoan or a Samoan living in the mainland United States) is 40 times more likely to play in the NFL than a non-Samoan American.
- "Samoa". CIA – The World Factbook.
- Wyeth, Grant (16 June 2017). "Samoa Officially Becomes a Christian State". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "Population & Demography Indicator Summary". Samoa Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- "Samoa". International Monetary Fund.
- "2015 Human Development Report Statistical Annex" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. p. 13. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
- Staff/Agencies (31 December 2011). "Samoa skips Friday in time zone change". ABC Australia. Archived from the original on 3 January 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Chang, Richard S. (8 September 2009). "In Samoa, Drivers Switch to Left Side of the Road". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "List of Member States: S". United Nations. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
- "The Navigator Islands". The Argus. 2 January 1882.
- "Samoa – The Heart of Polynesia". Polynesian Culture Center. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011.
- "Samoa country profile". BBC News. 23 January 2018.
- Green, Roger C.; Leach, Helen M. (1989). "New Information for the Ferry Berth Site, Mulifanua, Western Samoa". Journal of the Polynesian Society. 98 (3): 319–330. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- The Political Economy of Ancient Samoa: Basalt Adze Production and Linkages to Social Status” (Winterhoff 2007)
- Rhys Richards, Samoa’s forgotten whaling heritage; American whaling in Samoan waters 1824-1878, (1992) Wellington, Lithographic Services, pp.18-20.
- Watson, R.M. (1919). History of Samoa: THE ADVENT OF THE MISSIONARY. (1830.1839). Chapter III.
- West, Barbara A. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 704. ISBN 0-8160-7109-8
- Stevenson, Robert Louis (1892). A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa at Gutenberg. ISBN 978-1847187598
- Stevenson, Robert Louis (1892). A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-1-4264-0754-3.
- Mains, P. John; McCarty, Louis Philippe (1906). The Statistician and Economist: Volume 23. p. 249
- Ryden, George Herbert. The Foreign Policy of the United States in Relation to Samoa. New York: Octagon Books, 1975. (Reprint by special arrangement with Yale University Press. Originally published at New Haven: Yale University Press, 1928), p. 574
- Ryden, p. 571
- World History at KMLA, zum.de
- Lewthwaite, Gordon R. “Life, Land and Agriculture to Mid-Century,” in Western Samoa. Edited by James W. Fox and Kenneth Brailey Cumberland. Christchurch, New Zealand: Whitcomb & Tombs Ltd. 1962, p. 148
- "New Zealand goes to war: The Capture of German Samoa". nzhistory.net.nz.
- "Imperialism as a Vocation: Class C Mandates". Retrieved 27 November 2007.
- "The 1918 flu pandemic". NZHistory.net.nz. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- "External Affairs Bill", in New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, Vol. 185 (3 October–5 November 1919), p.337.
- Templeton, Malcolm (1993). An Eye, An Ear, and a Voice: 50 Years in New Zealand's External Relations, 1943–1993. Wellington: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. p. 1.
- Albert Wendt. "Guardians and Wards: (A study of the origins, causes, and the first two years of the Mau in Western Samoa.)".
- "Wartime administration – capture of German Samoa". NZHistory.net.nz. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
- Hiery, Hermann (1992). "West Samoans between Germany and New Zealand 1914–1921". War and Society. 10 (1): 53–80. doi:10.1179/072924792791198986.
- Laracy, Hugh. "Nelson, Olaf Frederick 1883 – 1944". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- "The Mau Movement" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
- Field, Michael (2006). Black Saturday: New Zealand's tragic blunders in Samoa. Auckland, N.Z.: Reed Publishing (NZ). ISBN 978-0-7900-1103-5.
- "History and migration: Who are the Samoans?". Ministry for Culture and Heritage / Te Manatū Taonga. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
- Western Samoa Act 1961 (24 November 1961; 1961 No 68). Resolution 1626 (XVI) of 18 October 1961 of the United Nations General Assembly.
- Chapter XII. International Trusteeship System. Charter of the United Nations. legal.un.org
- "Celebration of Samoa’s Independence Day", Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Independence Day", United Nations. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- Theroux, Paul (1992). The Happy Isles of Oceania: Paddling the Pacific. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons (NZ). ISBN 978-0-618-65898-5.
- "New Zealand's apology to Samoa". The New Zealand Herald. 4 June 2002.
- Prime Minister Helen Clark's Historic Apology
- Constitution Amendment Act (No 2) 1997. Paclii.org. Retrieved on 9 November 2016.
- "Samoan History". U.S. Embassy in Samoa. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "Samoa switches to driving on left". BBC News. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- "Samoa to jump forward in time by one day". BBC News. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Mydans, Seth (29 December 2011). "Samoa Sacrifices a Day for Its Future". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- Wyeth, Grant (16 June 2017). "Samoa Officially Becomes a Christian State". The Diplomat. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Feagaimaali’i-Luamanu, Joyetter (8 June 2017). "Constitutional Amendment Passes; Samoa Officially Becomes 'Christian State'". Pacific Islands Report. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "Background Note: Samoa". U.S. State Department. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- "Samoa profile". BBC News. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "New head of state for Samoa". The New Zealand Herald. Auckland. 16 June 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2007.
- "Samoa: Key Facts: Political". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
- "Samoa: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices in 2006". U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
- "About Samoa". Government of Samoa. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- "Homosexuality to remain illegal in Samoa, Solomon Islands and PNG", Radio Australia, 21 October 2011
- Wyeth, Grant (16 June 2017). "Samoa Officially Becomes a Christian State". The Diplomat. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2010.
- "Samoa an Overview". Salesian Bulletin. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007.
- Koppers, Anthony A.P. (June 2008). "Samoa reinstated as a primary hotspot trail". Geology. 36 (6): 435–438. doi:10.1130/G24630A.1.
- "GSA Press Release – GEOLOGY/GSA Today Media Highlights". Geosociety.org. 27 May 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
- Savai'i – An Introduction, Samoa Tourism Authority.
- "Samoa: Climate". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- World Weather Information Service – Apia, World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Samoan tropical moist forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Samoa graduates from the LDC category". United Nations Committee for Development Policy. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
- "Samoa". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
- "Introduction". Central Bank of Samoa website.
- "Yazaki Samoa employees work final shift after 25 years in business". Radio New Zealand website. 24 August 2017.
- "Samoa making progress on renewable energy goal". Radio New Zealand. 24 May 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- Nuanua o le Alofa, Home News (25 September 2017). "Historic training for Samoa Police on International Week of the Deaf". Staff Writers. Samoa Planet. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Samoa". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. U.S. Bureau of International Labor Affairs. Archived from the original on 5 November 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- "Education in Samoa". Nexus Commonwealth Network. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- UNESCO (2015). "Pacific Education for All 2015 Review" (PDF). UNESCO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2018.
- "Dance: Siva". Samoa.co.uk.
- "Worn With Pride – Tatau (Tatoo)". Oceanside Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- "NZ Feature Project: Flying Fox in a Freedom Tree – The New Zealand Film Archive". Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
- "NZ Feature Project: Sons For the Return Home – The New Zealand Film Archive". Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
- Home. Mau.co.nz. Retrieved on 9 November 2016.
- Dances of Life | American Samoa. piccom.org
- Henderson, April K. “Dancing Between Islands: Hip Hop and the Samoan Diaspora.” In The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture, ed. by Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle, 180–199. London; Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press, 2000
- "Home – Tautai Contemporary Pacific Arts Trust". Tautaipacific.com. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
- "Rugby in Samoa". ManuSamoa.net. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- "Samoa". rugbyleagueplanet.com.
- "American football, Samoan style". ESPN. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- Watson, R M, History of Samoa (Wellington, 1918)
- Meleisea, Malama. The Making of Modern Samoa: Traditional Authority and Colonial Administration in the Modern History of Western Samoa. (Suva, 1987) Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific.
- Schnee, Dr. Heinrich (former Deputy Governor of German Samoa and last Governor of German East Africa). 1926. German Colonization, Past and Future: The Truth about the German Colonies. London: George Allen & Unwin.
- Eustis, Nelson.  1980. Aggie Grey of Samoa. Adelaide, South Australia: Hobby Investments. ISBN 0-9595609-0-4.
- Stevenson, Robert Louis. A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-1-4264-0754-3.
- Mead, Margaret. 1928, Coming of Age in Samoa: A Study of Adolescence and Sex in Primitive Societies.
- Freeman, Derek. 1983. Margaret Mead in Samoa: the Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth.
- Urmenyhazi Attila. 2013 Samoan & Marquesan Life in Oceania: a probing travelogue. ISBN 9780646909127 – National Library of Australia, Bib ID: 6377055.
- Mallon, Sean. 2002. Samoan Art and Artists. O Measina a Samoa. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2675-2
- Gill, B.J. (1993). "The land reptiles of Western Samoa". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 23 (2): 79–89. doi:10.1080/03036758.1993.10721219.
- "Western Samoa Act, 1961". New Zealand Law online. 1961.
- General information
- "Samoa". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- University of Colorado from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Samoa at Curlie
- Samoa from the BBC News
- Wikimedia Atlas of Samoa
- Samoa Tourism Authority
- Key Development Forecasts for Samoa from International Futures
- Geographic data related to Samoa at OpenStreetMap