Languages of Taiwan
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The language with the most native speakers in Taiwan is Taiwanese Hokkien spoken by about 70% of the population. Hokkien is a topolect of the varieties of Chinese originating in southern Fujian and is spoken by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia. Recently there has been a growing use of Taiwanese Hokkien in the broadcast media.
Members of the Hakka Chinese subgroup, who are concentrated in several counties throughout Taiwan, often speak Hakka Chinese. The Formosan languages are the ethnic languages of the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan, comprising about 2% of the island's population. It's common for young and middle-aged Hakka and aboriginal people to speak Mandarin and Hokkien better than, or to the exclusion of, their ethnic languages.
Persons who emigrated from mainland China after 1949 (12% of the population) mostly speak Mandarin Chinese. Standard Chinese is the official language and is almost universally spoken and understood. It has been the only officially sanctioned medium of instruction in schools in Taiwan since the late 1940s, following the handover of Taiwan to the government of the Republic of China in 1945.
- 1 National language
- 2 Other languages
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
In 1945, following the end of World War II, Standard Chinese ("Mandarin") was introduced as the official language and made compulsory in schools. (Before 1945, Japanese was the official language and taught in schools.) Since then, Mandarin has been established as a lingua franca among the various groups in Taiwan: the majority Taiwanese-speaking Hoklo (Hokkien), the Hakka who have their own spoken language, Mainlanders whose native tongue may be any Chinese variant in mainland China, and the aboriginals who speak aboriginal languages.
Taiwanese Mandarin (as with Singlish and many other situations of a creole speech community) is spoken at different levels according to the social class and situation of the speakers. Formal occasions call for the acrolectal level of Standard Chinese (Guoyu), which differs little from the Standard Chinese (Putonghua) of the People's Republic of China. Less formal situations may result in the basilect form, which has more uniquely Taiwanese features. Bilingual Taiwanese speakers may code-switch between Mandarin and Taiwanese, sometimes in the same sentence.
Mandarin is spoken fluently by almost the entire Taiwanese population, except for some elderly people who were educated under Japanese rule. In Taipei, where there is a high concentration of Mainlanders whose native language is not Taiwanese, Mandarin is used in greater frequency than in southern Taiwan and more rural areas where there are fewer Mainlanders. Many Taiwanese, particularly under the age of 45, speak Mandarin better than Hakka or Hokkien.
Taiwan uses Traditional Chinese characters. In mainland China these characters have been replaced by Simplified Chinese characters. Although Traditional Chinese characters are also used in Hong Kong, a small number of characters are written differently in Taiwan; the Standard Form of National Characters is the orthography standard used in Taiwan and administered by the ROC Ministry of Education, and has minor variances compared with the standardised character forms used in Hong Kong. Such differences relate to orthodox and vulgar variants of Chinese characters.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the standard of written Chinese used in official documents, general literature and most aspects of everyday life, and has grammar based on Modern Standard Mandarin. Vernacular Chinese is the modern written variant of Chinese that supplanted the use of Classical Chinese in literature following the New Culture Movement of the early 20th Century, which is based on the grammar of Chinese spoken in ancient times. In recent times, following the Taiwan localization movement and an increasing presence of Taiwanese literature, Written Hokkien based on the vocabulary and grammar of Taiwanese Hokkien is occasionally used in literature and informal communications.
Zhuyin Fuhao, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo after its first four letters, is the national phonetic system of the Republic of China for teaching the pronunciation of Chinese characters, especially in Mandarin. The system uses 37 special symbols to represent the Mandarin sounds: 21 consonants and 16 rimes, though it also has extensions for Hakka and Taiwanese.
These phonetic symbols sometimes appear as ruby characters printed next to the Chinese characters in young children's books, and in editions of classical texts (which frequently use characters that appear at very low frequency rates in newspapers and other such daily fare). In advertisements, these phonetic symbols are sometimes used to write certain particles (e.g., ㄉ instead of 的); other than this, one seldom sees these symbols used in mass media adult publications except as a pronunciation guide (or index system) in dictionary entries. Bopomofo symbols are also mapped to the ordinary Roman character keyboard (1 = bo, q = po, a = mo, and so forth) used in one method for inputting Chinese text when using the computer.
The sole purpose for Zhuyin in elementary education is to teach standard Mandarin pronunciation to children. Grade one textbooks of all subjects (including Mandarin) are entirely in zhuyin. After that year, Chinese character texts are given in annotated form. Around grade four, presence of Zhuyin annotation is greatly reduced, remaining only in the new character section. School children learn the symbols so that they can decode pronunciations given in a Chinese dictionary, and also so that they can find how to write words for which they know only the sounds.
Romanization of Chinese in Taiwan tends to be highly inconsistent. Unlike mainland China using the Hanyu Pinyin instead of the Zhuyin system in teaching Mandarin pronunciation after 1958, Taiwan still uses the Zhuyin system and does not use the Latin alphabet as the language phonetic symbol. There have been efforts by the educational system to move toward a Roman-based system, but these have been slow mainly due to the huge cost in teacher retraining. The central government adopted Tongyong Pinyin as the official romanization in 2002 but local governments are permitted to override the standard as some have adopted Hanyu Pinyin and retained old romanizations that are commonly used. However, in August 2008 the central government announced that Hanyu Pinyin will be the only system of romanization in Taiwan as of January 2009.
Taiwanese Hokkien, commonly known as "Taiwanese", is a variant of Hokkien spoken in Taiwan and is part of a group of Southern Min Chinese dialects. Taiwanese is officially seen as a Chinese dialect within a larger Chinese language, though there are issues of mutual intelligibility with other Chinese varieties.
There are both colloquial and literary registers of Taiwanese. Colloquial Taiwanese has roots in Old Chinese. Literary Taiwanese, which was originally developed in the 10th century in Fujian and based on Middle Chinese, was used at one time for formal writing, but is now largely extinct. A great part of Taiwanese Hokkien is generally understood by other dialects of Hokkien as spoken in mainland China and South-east Asia but has a degree of intelligibility with other varieties of Min Nan languages such as Teochew. It is, however, mutually unintelligible with Mandarin or other Chinese languages.
Recent work by scholars such as Ekki Lu, Sakai Toru[dead link], and Lí Khîn-hoāⁿ (also known as Tavokan Khîn-hoāⁿ or Chin-An Li), based on former research by scholars such as Ông Io̍k-tek, has gone so far as to associate part of the basic vocabulary of the colloquial language with the Austronesian and Tai language families; however, such claims are not without controversy.
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The most common of the five Hakka dialects on Taiwan are Sixian and Hailu.
The Formosan languages are the languages of the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan. Taiwanese aborigines currently comprise about 2% of the island's population. However, far fewer can still speak their ancestral language, after centuries of language shift. Of the approximately 26 languages of the Taiwanese aborigines, at least ten are extinct, another five are moribund, and several others are to some degree endangered.
All Formosan languages are slowly being replaced by the culturally dominant Mandarin Chinese. In recent decades the government started an aboriginal reappreciation program that included the reintroduction of Formosan mother tongue education in Taiwanese schools. However, the results of this initiative have been disappointing.
Amis is the most widely spoken aboriginal language. ROC government estimates put the number of Amis people at a little over 200,000, but number of people who speak Amis as their first language like lower than 10,000. Amis has appeared in some mainstream popular music.
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The Japanese language was compulsorily taught while Taiwan was under Japanese rule (1895 to 1945). Although fluency is now largely limited to the elderly, some of Taiwan's youth who look to Japan as the trend-setter of the region's youth pop culture now might know a bit of Japanese through the media, their grandparents, or classes taken from private "cram schools".
English is a common foreign language, with some large private schools providing English instruction. English is compulsory in students' curriculum once they enter elementary school. English as a school subject is also featured on Taiwan's education exams.
Javanese is also spoken by Indonesians in Taiwan.
There are somewhere around 200,000 to 400,000 Vietnamese in Taiwan, many of whom speak Vietnamese. There has been some effort, particularly beginning in 2011, to teach Vietnamese as a heritage language to children of Vietnamese immigrants.
- Austronesian Taiwanese
- Han Taiwanese
- Taiwanese Hakka
- Taiwanese Mandarin
- Taiwanese Minnan
- Min Dong language - A dialect of Min Dong language is spoken on the Matsu Islands.
- Puxian language - A dialect of Puxian language is spoken on Wuchiu.
- Taiwanese Talent Turns to Southeast Asia. Language Magazine. Retrieved 2016-01-24.
- Learning Vietnamese gaining popularity in Taiwan. Channel News Asia. Retrieved 2016-01-24.
- Cheng, Robert L. (1994). "Chapter 13: Language Unification in Taiwan: Present and Future". In Rubinstein, Murray. The Other Taiwan: 1945 to the Present. M.E. Sharpe. p. 362. ISBN 9781563241932.
- Klöter, Henning (2004). "Language Policy in the KMT and DPP eras". China Perspectives. 56. ISSN 1996-4617.
- Liao, Silvie (2008). "A Perceptual Dialect Study of Taiwan Mandarin: Language Attitudes in the Era of Political Battle" (PDF). Proceedings of the 20th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-20). Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University. 1: 393. ISBN 9780982471500. OCLC 895153060.
- "Chapter 2: People and Language". The Republic of China Yearbook 2012. Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan). 2012. p. 24. ISBN 9789860345902. Archived from the original on 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
- Noble (2005), p. 16.
- "Chapter 2: People and Language" (PDF). The Republic of China Yearbook 2010. Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan). p. 42. ISBN 9789860252781. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-05.
- Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan "Statistics of Indigenous Population in Taiwan and Fukien Areas".
- Zeitoun, Elizabeth & Ching-Hua Yu "The Formosan Language Archive: Linguistic Analysis and Language Processing". Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing. Volume 10, No. 2, June 2005, pp. 167-200
- Lee, Hui-chi (2004). A Survey of Language Ability, Language Use and Language Attitudes of Young Aborigines in Taiwan. In Hoffmann, Charlotte & Jehannes Ytsma (Eds.) Trilingualism in Family, School, and Community pp.101-117. Clevedon, Buffalo: Multilingual Matters. ISBN 1-85359-693-0
- Huteson, Greg. (2003). Sociolinguistic survey report for the Tona and Maga dialects of the Rukai Language. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2003-012, Dallas, TX: SIL International.
- Noble, Gregory W. (2005). "What Can Taiwan (and the United States) Expect from Japan?". Journal of East Asian Studies. 5: 1–34. JSTOR 23417886.