Languages of Zambia

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Languages of Zambia
2010 signs Lusaka Zambia 4652340999.jpg
Signs in English, Lusaka
RecognisedBemba, Kaonde, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga
VernacularZambian English
MinorityBwile, Chokwe, Ila, Kuhane, Kunda, Kwangwa, Lala-Bisa, Lamba, Lenje, Luyana, Mambwe-Lungu, Mbamba Bay, Mbowe, Mbukushu, Mbunda, Mwanga, Nkangala, Nkoya, Nsenga, Shanjo, Shona, Soli, Tabwa, Tumbuka, Wanda, Yao
SignedZambian Sign Language
Keyboard layout
Street view in Lusaka with signs in English.

Zambia has several major indigenous languages,[1] all members of the Bantu family, as well as Khwedam, Zambian Sign Language, several immigrant languages and the pidgins Settla and Fanagalo. English is the official language and the major language of business and education.[1][2]

Indigenous Zambian languages[edit]

Zambia has 72 languages, some of which have a long history in Zambia, while others, such as Silozi, arose as a result of 18th- and 19th-century migrations. All of Zambia's major languages by native-speaker population are members of the Bantu family and are closely related to one another.[2]

Seven native languages are officially recognized as regional languages.[3][2] Together, these represent the major languages of each province: Bemba (Northern Province, Luapula, Muchinga and the Copperbelt), Nyanja (Lusaka and the Eastern Province), Lozi (Western Province), Tonga and Lozi (Southern Province), and Kaonde, Luvale and Lunda (Northwestern Province). These seven languages are used, together with English, in early primary schooling and in some government publications. A common orthography was approved by the Ministry of Education in 1977.[4][5]

According to the 2000 census, Zambia's most widely spoken languages are Bemba (spoken by 35% of the population as either a first or second language), Nyanja (37%), Tonga (25%) and Lozi (18%).[6]

In some languages, particularly Bemba and Nyanja, Zambians distinguish between a "deep" form of the language, associated with older and more traditional speakers in rural areas, and urban forms (sometimes called "town language" or Chitauni, such as Town Bemba and Town Nyanja) that incorporate a large number of borrowings from English and other innovations.[7]

An urban variety of Nyanja is the lingua franca of the capital Lusaka and is widely spoken as a second language throughout Zambia. Bemba, the country's largest indigenous language, also serves as a lingua franca in some areas.[7]

Significance of Zambian languages[edit]

Local Zambian languages play an important role in different sectors of society.[8] For instance, in the education sector, local languages allow pupils to express themselves freely.[citation needed]

Zambian English[edit]

English, the former colonial language, serves as a common language among educated Zambians. At independence in 1964, English was declared the national language. English is the first language of only 2% of Zambians but is the most commonly used second language.[9]

The English spoken in Zambia has some distinctive features, such as the omission of certain object pronouns that would be obligatory in Western English ("Did you reach?"), the simplification of some phrasal verbs ("throw" instead of "throw away"), subtle differences in the usage of auxiliary verbs such as "should", simplification of vowel sounds (some Zambians may regard "taste" and "test" as homophones), and the incorporation of particles derived from Zambia's indigenous languages (such as chi "big/bad" and ka "little"). Zambian English also incorporates South African words such as braai for "barbecue".[10]

Percentage distribution of major language groups[edit]

Language Group 1990 2000 2010
Bemba 39.9 38.5 31.0
Nyanja 20.1 20.6 25.3
Tonga 14.8 13.9 17.5
Kaonde 8.8 9.7 6.6
Barotse 7.5 6.9 9.3
Tumbuka 3.7 3.2 3.3
Mambwe 3.4 3.2 3.2
English 1.1 1.7 1.7
Other 0.8 4.3 0.3

Source: 2010 Census[11]

List of languages[edit]

The established languages of Zambia are:[12]


  1. ^ a b Safaris, Discover Africa. "Languages in Zambia | Everything to know | Discover Africa Safaris". Retrieved 2020-05-25.
  2. ^ a b c "Zambian Languages". Zambian Translators International. Retrieved 2020-05-25.
  3. ^ Chanda and Mkandawire (2013)
  4. ^ Chimuka (1977)
  5. ^ Kashoki (1981).
  6. ^ "Zambia - Census of Population and Housing 2000". Retrieved 2020-05-25.
  7. ^ a b Spitulnik, Debra (1998). "The Language of the City: Town Bemba as Urban Hybridity". Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. 8 (1): 30–59. doi:10.1525/jlin.1998.8.1.30. ISSN 1055-1360. JSTOR 43102583.
  8. ^ Mkandawire(2017a)
  9. ^ "One Zambia, One Nation, Many Languages". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-05-24.
  10. ^ "Now what is braaivleis all about?". George Herald. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  11. ^ Central Statistical Office, Government of Zambia. "2010 Census Population Summaries" (PDF). Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  12. ^ Ethnologue, ed. 25, 2022


External links[edit]