|Great grey shrike|
Many, see text
Lanius, the typical shrikes, are a genus of passerine birds in the shrike family. The majority of the family's species are placed in this genus. The genus name, Lanius, is derived from the Latin word for "butcher", and some shrikes are also known as "butcher birds" because of their feeding habits. The common English name "shrike" is from Old English scríc, "shriek", referring to the shrill call.
Most Lanius species occur in Eurasia and Africa, but the great grey shrike has a circumpolar distribution, and the loggerhead shrike is confined to North America. There are no members of this genus or the shrike family in South America or Australia.
Lanius shrikes are birds of open habitats typically seen perched upright on a prominent perch like a treetop or a telegraph pole. They sally out for prey, taken in flight or the ground. These species primarily take large insects, but will also take small birds, reptiles and mammals. For large northern species such as the great grey, the majority of the prey will be vertebrates, especially in winter.
Despite their diet, these are not true birds of prey, and lack the strong talons of the raptors. Though they use their feet to hold smaller insects, larger prey items are impaled upon a sharp point, such as a thorn or the barbs of barbed wire. Thus secured they can be ripped open with the hooked bill.
Most Lanius shrikes are solitary, except when breeding and are highly territorial. Northern or temperate species such as the great grey and red-backed shrikes are migratory and winter well south of the breeding range.
The sexes of most species are distinguishable, the male invariably being the brighter bird where there is a difference.
There are some natural groupings within the genus, such as the seven African fiscals, the large grey species (ludovicianus, excubitor, meridionalis and sphenocercus) and the Eurasian brown-backed species (tigrinus, bucephalus, collurio, isabellinus, cristatus and gubernator). In the last group in particular, it has been difficult to define species’ boundaries, and in the past several of these shrikes have been lumped as conspecific.
The prehistoric shrike Lanius miocaenus has been described from Early Miocene fossils found at Langy, France, though its placement in this genus is not universally accepted due to its great age.
Taxonomy and systematics
The genus Lanius contains the following species:
- Tiger shrike (Lanius tigrinus)
- Souza's shrike (Lanius souzae)
- Bull-headed shrike (Lanius bucephalus)
- Brown shrike (Lanius cristatus)
- Red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio)
- Isabelline shrike (Lanius isabellinus)
- Red-tailed shrike (Lanius phoenicuroides)
- Burmese shrike (Lanius collurioides)
- Emin's shrike (Lanius gubernator)
- Bay-backed shrike (Lanius vittatus)
- Long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach)
- Grey-backed shrike (Lanius tephronotus)
- Mountain shrike (Lanius validirostris)
- Mackinnon's shrike (Lanius mackinnoni)
- Lesser grey shrike (Lanius minor)
- Loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)
- Great grey shrike (Lanius excubitor)
- Northern shrike (Lanius borealis)
- Iberian grey shrike (Lanius meridionalis)
- Steppe grey shrike (Lanius pallidirostris)
- Chinese grey shrike (Lanius sphenocercus)
- Grey-backed fiscal (Lanius excubitoroides)
- Long-tailed fiscal (Lanius cabanisi)
- Taita fiscal (Lanius dorsalis)
- Somali fiscal (Lanius somalicus)
- Northern fiscal (Lanius humeralis)
- Southern fiscal (Lanius collaris)
- Uhehe fiscal (Lanius collaris marwitzi)
- São Tomé fiscal (Lanius newtoni)
- Woodchat shrike (Lanius senator)
- Masked shrike (Lanius nubicus)
Formerly, some authorities also considered the following species (or subspecies) as species within the genus Lanius:
- Crested shriketit (as Lanius frontatus)
- Rufous whistler (as Lanius macularius)
- Northern variable pitohui (as Lanius kirhocephalus)
- Red-whiskered bulbul (as Lanius jocosus)
- Grey-cheeked bulbul (as Lanius Bres)
- Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
- "Shrike". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Lefranc, Norbert; Worfolk, Tim (1997). Shrikes. London, UK: Pica Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4081-3505-1.
- "Coracornis sanghirensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-29.
- Australia, Atlas of Living. "Pachycephala (Alisterornis) rufiventris rufiventris | Atlas of Living Australia". bie.ala.org.au. Retrieved 2017-02-06.
- "Pitohui kirhocephalus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
- "Pycnonotus jocosus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
- "Alophoixus bres - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-05-15.