View of Lanzhou
Location of Lanzhou City (yellow) in Gansu and the PRC
|• Party Secretary||Yu Haiyan|
|• Mayor||Yuan Zhanting (袁占亭)|
|• Prefecture-level city||13,300 km2 (5,100 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,088 km2 (420 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,616,163|
|• Density||270/km2 (700/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|License plate prefixes||甘A|
|GDP (2015)||CNY 200 billion|
|- per capita||CNY 57,191|
|Literal meaning||"[Gao] Lan prefecture"|
Lanzhou (Chinese: 兰州; [lǎnʈʂóu̯]) is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China. The prefecture-level city, located on the banks of the Yellow River, is a key regional transportation hub, connecting areas further west by rail to the eastern half of the country. Historically, it has been a major link on the Northern Silk Road. The city is also a center for heavy industry and petrochemical industry. Lanzhou ranks as one of the cities with the worst air quality in the world, due to industrial pollution and its situation in a narrow river valley.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Sport
- 4 Administrative divisions
- 5 Tourism
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Media
- 9 Culture
- 10 Colleges and universities
- 11 Healthcare
- 12 Sister cities
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
In 81 BC, under the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), it was taken from the Huns' Huandi Chanyu and made the seat of Jincheng commandery (jùn), and later of the Jincheng county (xiàn), later renamed Yunwu. The city used to be called the Golden City, and since at least the first millennium BC it was a major link on the ancient Northern Silk Road, and also an important historic Yellow River crossing site. To protect the city, the Great Wall of China was extended as far as Yumen.
After the fall of the Han dynasty, Lanzhou became the capital of a succession of tribal states. In the 4th century it was briefly the capital of the independent state of Liang. The Northern Wei dynasty (386–534) reestablished Jincheng commandery, renaming the county Zicheng. Mixed with different cultural heritages, the area at present-day Gansu province, from the 5th to the 11th century, became a center for Buddhist study. Under the Sui Dynasty (581–618) the city became the seat of Lanzhou prefecture for the first time, retaining this name under the Tang dynasty (618–907). In 763 the area was overrun by the Tibetan Empire and in 843 was conquered by the Tang. Later it fell into the hands of the Western Xia dynasty (which flourished in Qinghai from the 11th to 13th century) and was subsequently absorbed by the Song dynasty (960–1126) in 1041. The name Lanzhou was reestablished, and the county renamed Lanzhuan.
In 1739 the seat of Lintao was transferred to Lanzhou, which was later made a superior prefecture called Lanzhou.
Lanzhou was badly damaged during the Dungan revolt in 1864–1875. In the 1920s and 1930s it became a center of Soviet influence in northwestern China. During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) Lanzhou, linked with Xi'an by highway in 1935, became the terminus of the 3,200 km (2,000 mi) Chinese–Soviet highway, used as a route for Soviet supplies destined for the Xi'an area. This highway remained the primary traffic route of northwestern China until the completion of the railway from Lanzhou to Urumqi, Xinjiang. During the war Lanzhou was heavily bombed by the Japanese.
During the 1937 Japanese invasion of China, the Guominjun Muslim Generals Ma Hongkui and Ma Bufang protected Lanzhou with their cavalry troops, putting up such resistance that the Japanese never captured Lanzhou.
- Area: 13,300 km2 (5,100 sq mi)
- Elevation: 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) above sea level
- China's northwest geographical center
- More than 20 square kilometres (7.7 sq mi) of urbanisation along the southern banks of the Yellow River.
- Zonary basin
- Mountains are located on the south and north sides of the city:
- The Yellow River flows through from west to east.
Lanzhou is situated on the upper reaches of the Yellow River where it emerges from the mountains and has been a center since early times, being at the southern end of the route leading via the Hexi Corridor across Central Asia. It commands the approaches to the ancient capital area of Chang'an (modern Xi'an) in Shaanxi province from both the west and the northwest, as well as the area of Qinghai Lake via the upper waters of the Yellow River and its tributaries.
Climate and environment
Lanzhou is situated in the temperate zone and enjoys a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with hot summers and cold and very dry winters. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −5.3 °C (22.5 °F) in January to 22.4 °C (72.3 °F) in July. The mean annual temperature is 9.75 °C (49.5 °F), while annual rainfall is 315 millimetres (12.4 in), almost all of which falls from May to October. The winters are so dry that snow is extremely rare. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 50 percent in December to 59 percent in February, sunshine is generous but not abundant, as the city receives 2,424 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Lanzhou (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.1
|Average high °C (°F)||1.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−10.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||1.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.9||2.4||4.5||5.3||7.5||9.4||11.4||11.2||9.9||6.3||1.7||1.0||72.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||54||49||48||45||48||54||59||63||66||66||60||58||55.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||155.7||179.3||195.4||224.5||245.9||234.7||244.8||241.1||191.5||186.0||174.0||151.2||2,424.1|
|Percent possible sunshine||51||59||53||57||57||54||55||58||52||53||57||50||54.7|
|Source #1: China Meteorological Administration|
|Source #2: Weather China|
The city is located in a narrow and curved river valley with surrounding mountains causing it to be hemmed in blocking a free flow of air. Lanzhou repeatedly has had the worst air quality of any of 84 Chinese cities surveyed. According to the Blacksmith Institute, Lanzhou is one of the 30 most polluted cities in the world, with its TSP (total suspended particle) rating 247 percent above that of the Gansu State recommendation. Air quality is so poor that at times one cannot see Lanshan, the mountain rising up along the south side of the city. At one point, a controversial suggestion was put forward to bulldoze a mountain adjacent to the city, in order to let fresh air into the bowl where Lanzhou is situated. Lanzhou is also the home of many factories, including some involved in petroleum processing, and suffers from large dust storms kicked up from the Gobi Desert, especially in the winter and spring. In 2011, using Chinese statistics, the World Health Organization reported that Lanzhou has the worst air quality (annual mean PM10 ug/m3 of 150) among eleven western Chinese cities, and is even worse than Beijing with its reading of 121.
According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua University and The Asian Development Bank in January 2013, Lanzhou is among one of ten most air polluted cities in the world. Also according to this report, 7 of 10 most air polluted cities are in China, including Taiyuan, Beijing, Urumqi, Lanzhou, Chongqing, Jinan and Shijiazhuang. Since then, the air quality has improved significantly however.
The reach of the Yellow River at Lanzhou carries a high load of silt, giving the river its characteristic muddy appearance; however water quality in this reach is better than the "fetid outflow that barely passes for water two hours downstream".
On April 11, 2014 Lanzhou officials advised residents not to drink tap water, because benzene levels were 20 times the national limit of 10 micrograms per liter. The city water supply suspected industrial chemical production to be the culprit, similar to what happened in 2005 Jilin chemical plant explosions.
Lanzhou experiences earthquakes regularly, although usually at low intensities. In 1920 a large earthquake was experienced killing more than 100,000 people in Eastern Gansu province, although only 42 were killed in Lanzhou itself, the low number being attributed to the strong yet flexible nature of the wooden buildings in the city.
The 14,000-capacity Northwest University for Nationalities Stadium is one of the main sports venues in the city. It is mostly used for football games. A new sports center complex, including a stadium with a capacity of 60,000 spectators and a swimming hall, is under development.
Lanzhou previously had a professional soccer team named Gansu Tianma F.C. from 1999 to 2003. The team played in Chinese Football Association Yi League from 1999 to 2001 and bought a position in the Jia League from Tianjin Lifei. The team relocated to Ningbo, Zhejiang and changed their name to Ningbo Yaoma (Simplified Chinese: 宁波耀马) in 2003. The team later relegated to the Yi League in 2004 and sold to Dongguan Dongcheng, who moved the club to the Hong Kong First Division League.
Former England international Paul Gascoigne played four games in both a playing and coaching role for Gansu in 2003, scoring two goals, before returning to England after falling out with the club, as his mental state meant that he had to return to America for treatment against drink and depression.
|Name||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population
|Chengguan District||城关区||Chéngguān Qū||1,278,745||220||5,812.47|
|Qilihe District||七里河区||Qīlǐhé Qū||561,020||397||1,413.14|
|Xigu District||西固区||Xīgù Qū||364,050||385||945.58|
|Anning District||安宁区||Ānníng Qū||288,510||86||3,354.76|
|Honggu District||红古区||Hónggǔ Qū||136,101||575||236.69|
|Yongdeng County||永登县||Yǒngdēng Xiàn||418,789||6,090||68.76|
|Gaolan County||皋兰县||Gāolán Xiàn||131,785||2,556||51.55|
|Yuzhong County||榆中县||Yúzhōng Xiàn||437,163||3,362||130.03|
Lanzhou New Area
On 20 August 2012, Lanzhou New Area was approved by the State Council of China's Central Government as the fifth state-level new special economic development zone (followed by Pudong of Shanghai, Binhai of Tianjin, Liangjiang of Chongqing, Zhoushan of Zhejiang), which is also the first state-level new area in the northwest of China.
- The Five Spring Mountain Park（五泉山公园）was built at the northern side of Gaolan Mountain, is famous for its five springs and several Buddhist temples.
- The Zhongshan Bridge (中山桥) was the first permanent bridge over the Yellow River.
- Baita Mountain Park(白塔山公园) was built close to the mountains at an elevation of 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) and opened in 1958 across Zhongshan Bridge.
- Lanzhou is home to the Gansu Provincial Museum (甘肃省博物馆), where archeological and fossil finds from Gansu are displayed as well as exhibitions on Gansu's history.
- The Lanzhou Botanical Garden (兰州植物园), located in the Anning District, has a large variety of trees, flowers and other plants.
- Xiguan Mosque (西关清真寺), is one of the larger mosques in China.
- On Wuquan Mountain (五泉山), many ancient architectural sites are located.
- Xinglong Mountain
- Lutusi ancient government (鲁土司衙门旧址), a large complex of ancient governmental buildings.
Since 1949 Lanzhou has been transformed from the capital of a poverty-stricken province into the center of a major industrial area.
The GDP per capita of Lanzhou was 25,566 (RMB) (US$3,681) in 2008, ranking it at number 134 among 659 Chinese cities. In 2015, the GDP per capita had grown to 57,191 RMB (US$9182.28) and the city ranked at place 100 for total GDP of Chinese cities.
The International Solar Energy Center (UNIDO-ISEC) is located in Lanzhou's Chengguan district.
There is a thermal generating plant supplied with coal from fields in Qinghai. In addition, there is a hydroelectric station at Zhulama Gorge in Gansu, and a large multipurpose dam has been built in the Liujia Gorge on the Yellow River above Lanzhou.
Gansu has one of the largest oil refineries in the country and Lanzhou itself is the center of the province's petrochemical industry. Lanzhou has a large refinery linked to the fields at Yumen by pipeline. It also manufactures equipment for the oil industry.
Lanzhou has a large textile industry, particularly noted for the production of woolen and leather goods. In addition, Lanzhou produces locomotives and rolling stock for the northwestern railways, as well as machine tools and mining equipment. aluminum products, industrial chemicals, and fertilizers are produced on a large scale, and there is a large rubber industry. Copper is mined in nearby Gaolan.
Lanzhou has been one of the centers of China's national nuclear power industry since the 1960s.
- Lanzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Lanzhou High-tech Industrial Development Zone
- Lanzhou Airport serves as the main airport and is located 70 km (43 mi) north of Lanzhou. The airport opened for public service in 1970, and a new terminal was opened for travellers in February 2015. Flights from more than 20 cities depart and arrive at the airport. The airport has flights to several domestic major cities as well as international destinations including Hong Kong and St. Petersburg.
Lanzhou was the second city in northwest China to construct a subway line, in August 2012. The urban railway network, Lanzhou Metro, is planned to consist of six subway lines running 207 km (129 mi). The first line will be completely underground with a completion deadline of 2016.
Three of the subway lines, coded Line 1, Line 2 and Line 3, will extend 90 km (56 mi) in the city proper, while the three outer lines, coded Line 4, Line 5 and Line 6, will run 117 km (73 mi), connecting the city centre with Lanzhou Zhongchuan Airport, Yuzhong county and Gaolan county, respectively. The first two lines will cost about 23 billion yuan ($3.6 billion) and be completed by 2020.
Lanzhou Railway Station is a major railway hub of western China. Every day over 100 passenger trains originate or pass via this station. It is a vital focal point connecting the western Chinese provinces with the east. Lanzhou Railway Station is located on Huochezhan Dong Lu, in Chengguan district. Lanzhou West Railway Station is he city's second major railway station, offering connection to high-speed rail services.
Lanzhou Railway Station has the following railway connections:
- Longhai Railway to the east (Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Lianyungang), with connection to the main railway of Eastern China supporting direct trains to Beijing, Shanghai, etc. Finished in 1953, it was the first railway to reach Lanzhou.
- Lanxin Railway to the west and northwest (with direct trains to western Gansu and Ürümqi, and further connections to other points in Xinjiang and to Kazakhstan)
- Lanqing Railway to the west and southwest, with direct service to Xining and Lhasa
- A line to the north and northeast, with direct service to Yinchuan and Baotou
- Lanzhou–Zhongchuan Airport Intercity Railway between the city's airport and Lanzhou Railway Station.
High speed rail
Construction of new high-speed passenger-only railway lines is carried out both toward the east (the Xulan Passenger Dedicated Line) and the west (the Lanxin High-Speed Railway). These services will only stop at Lanzhou West Railway Station.
- Linked to neighboring provinces
- China National Highway 212
- China National Highway 213
- China National Highway 312
Other services connect to local and provincial areas.
Bike sharing system
An in 2014 inaugurated bike sharing system covers mostly the Chengguan District with 377 stations. The system had a successful start and the number of stations is being expanded. However, vandalism proved to be an issue, with 600 (out of a total of 6,500) bikes a year not being returned to the stations. As bikes are not rented out anymore late at night, people reportedly outed their frustration on the bikes in the case they were too late to rent one.
- Gansu People's Press, in Lanzhou, publishes Duzhe, the most widely circulated magazine in the China.
- Lanzhou Radio serves the Lhasa and Lanzhou province regions with news and music.
- Chinese opera: Qinqiang Drama
- Cuisine: Lanzhou beef lamian noodles, the root of the lily, and many different kinds of mutton all feature into Lanzhou's distinct food culture. Lanzhou Beef noodles are well known throughout China. The city of Lanzhou is home to over 1,000 beef noodle restaurants.
- Islam in China: Xiguan Mosque, the mosque was constructed in the Ming dynasty and later rebuilt in 1990, and occupies an area of 467 square meters, and is one of the most influential mosques in China. The architecture of the mosque predominantly reflects that of Arab architecture.
Colleges and universities
The city is the seat of Lanzhou University, founded in 1909. The National Minorities Institute at Lanzhou and a number of scientific institutes are also located there. In particular, Northwest Normal University has been the key university at the provincial level, which has prepared over 100,000 teachers in schools across the province Gansu.
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor's degree programs are not listed.
- Lanzhou University, founded 1909
Other public institutions
- Eastern Gansu University
- Gansu Agricultural University （甘肃农业大学）, founded 1958
- Gansu College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (甘肃中医学院)
- College of Politics and Law, Gansu (甘肃政法学院)
- Gansu United University (甘肃联合大学)
- College of Technology, Lanzhou (兰州工业学院)
- Lanzhou City College (兰州城市学院), founded 1958
- Lanzhou Commercial College (兰州商学院) (Lanzhou Business Institute)
- Lanzhou Transportation University (兰州交通大学), founded 1958
- Lanzhou Medical College (兰州医学院) (Lanzhou Medical Institute) cooperated into Lanzhou University
- Lanzhou Niuroumian (Noodle with beef soup) Cultural Research Institute (兰州牛肉面文化研究所)
- Lanzhou University of Technology, （兰州理工大学）,founded 1919 (formerly Gansu University of Technology)
- Northwest University for Nationalities (西北民族大学)
- Northwest Normal University (西北师范大学）, founded 1902
- Tianshui Normal College (天水师范学院)
- Lanzhou Heavy Ion Cancer Treatment Center, joint venture by Sheng De Group, the city government and Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institution of Modern Physics
According to the provincial health bureau, about 42,000 people die of cancer every year in Gansu, accounting for 25 percent of the province's overall deaths. More than 1 billion yuan (146 million U.S. dollars) is spent annually on treating cancer in the province.
- Albuquerque, United States
- Akita, Japan (friendship city)
- Ashkhabad, Turkmenistan
- Chorley, United Kingdom
- Penza, Russia
- Nouakchott, Mauritania
- Young Shire, Australia
- "2015中国城市GDP排名出炉! 第一无悬念". 21 January 2016. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016.
- "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- 兰州市第六次全国人口普查主要数据公布我市人口年龄结构尚处“红利期”. 兰州新闻网 (in Chinese). 兰州市人民政府. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- Xian Xiaowei, Zhang Linyuan, Ai Nanshan and Wihelm Wohlke, On the relation between the evolution of natural environment and human factors and the development of urban settlement—Take the Lanzhou Valley Basin as an examples, Springerlink vol.1,no.1 (1991)
- C.Michael Hogan, Silk Road, North China, the Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham
- Stéphane William Darrach Halsey, Bernard Johnston (M.A.) (1989). Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index, Volume 14. Macmillan Educational Co. p. 285. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Stéphane William Darrach Halsey, Bernard Johnston (M.A.) (1983). Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index, Volume 14. Macmillan Educational Co. p. 285. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Stéphane William Darrach Halsey, Bernard Johnston (M.A.) (1983). Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index, Volume 14. Macmillan Educational Co. p. 285. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- "Archdiocese of Lanzhou [Lanchow]". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Kan-Su at Catholic Encyclopedia
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年） (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- 兰州城市介绍以及气候背景分析. 中国天气网 (in Chinese). 中国气象局公共气象服务中心. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "Lanzhou's pollution is most bad in the cities yesterday". Lanzhou morning daily. Gansu Daily. 5 January 2005.
- WHO report OAP_database_8_2011.xls
- "WEATHER & EXTREME EVENTS 7 of 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities Are in China". JAN 16, 2013. Imaginechina/Corbis. http://news.discovery.com. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "China's far west poised to overtake Hebei in a "most polluted" list". China Dialogue. 15 June 2016.
- Rob Gifford (6 January 2008). "Yellow River Pollution Is Price of Economic Growth". NPR.
- 小荣, 李 (11 April 2014). 兰州自来水苯含量严重超标. 新华网甘肃频道 (in Chinese). Xinhua Agency. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Spegele, Brian (11 April 2014). "Water Scare Hits Chinese City of Lanzhou". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- "The Earthquake," E. J. Mann in Links with China and Other Lands, No. 31, April 1921, Lanzhou: China Inland Mission (quarterly) Bound volume in MS 380302, Papers of Ebenezer and Mabel Mann, SOAS, 331.
- Yi, Cai (15 September 2003). 甘肃天马改名宁波耀马 武汉队暗喜去宁波. 新浪网 (in Chinese). 体育周报. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "Gascoigne nets contract in China". ESPN. 27 January 2003. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Johnson, William (28 January 2003). "Gleeful Gascoigne nets job in China". The Telegraph. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Gazza scores in winning China debut". ESPN. 29 March 2003. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Gazza scores on China debut". BBC. 29 March 2003. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Simons, Raoul (5 August 2003). "Gazza: I'm feeling a lot better these days". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Scott, Matt (26 June 2003). "Gascoigne faces the threat of legal action". Guardian News. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "Chinese club hand Gazza ultimatum". ESPN. 21 June 2003. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "China approves new state-level SEZ in Gansu". The Global Times. Xinhua. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "鲁土司衙门旧址". 12 March 2012.
- "2015甘肃各市gdp排名 2015年甘肃各市GDP和人均GDP排名一览表". 19 May 2016. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016.
- "UNIDO-ISEC". Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- Liujiaxia Gorge and Bingling Temple
- 南如卓玛 (4 February 2015). "兰州中川国际机场T2航站楼启用服务春运" (in Chinese). 中国新闻网. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- HK Express begin service to Lanzhou from June 2015
- "China Southern Adds St. Petersburg Route from July 2015". airlineroute.net. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "兰州城市轨道交通工程开工奠基 刘伟平冯健身赵广发欧阳坚出席奠基仪式". gansudaily.com.cn. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "兰州城市轨道交通工程昨开工-今日兰州". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "N.W. China city to usher in subways". China Daily. Xinhua. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- (Chinese) "西起陇原东到海，回头已是百年身--陇海铁路传略" 2011-04-29
- 敦煌至格尔木和兰州至中川机场铁路开工建设 (Work started on the Dunhuang-Golmud Railway and on the railway from Lanzhou to Zhongchuan Airport), 2012-12-23
- Buenos Aires, Argentina Wins 2014 Sustainable Transport Award, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy
- Lanzhou BRT
- "Lanzhou, China's Bike Share Expands to BRT Corridor". 8 December 2014.
- "Bike Sharing: Lanzhou".
- "兰州公共自行车人为破坏严重一年丢失600多辆". 14 August 2015.
- "兰州公共自行车日骑行人数破6万人次". 9 April 2015.
- "Rolling on a river". 16 November 2012.
- Xiguan Mosque from Muslim2China
- Institute Of Technology official website
- Lanzhou City University official website
- "Albuquerque, New Mexico & Lanzhou, China". Sister Cities International.
- "Heart crosses over the ocean". Akita City , Akita , Japan. 22 September 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lanzhou.|
Largest cities or towns in China
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)
|10||Hong Kong||Hong Kong||7,055,071||20||Zhengzhou||Henan||3,677,000|