Castle in the Sky

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Castle in the Sky
Castle in the Sky (1986).png
Japanese theatrical release poster
Japanese 天空の城ラピュタ
Hepburn Tenkū no Shiro Rapyuta
Directed by Hayao Miyazaki
Produced by Isao Takahata
Written by Hayao Miyazaki
Starring Mayumi Tanaka
Keiko Yokozawa
Kotoe Hatsui
Minori Terada
Music by Joe Hisaishi
Cinematography Hirokata Takahashi
Edited by Takeshi Seyama
Yoshihiro Kasahara
Production
company
Distributed by Toei Company
Release date
  • 2 August 1986 (1986-08-02)
Running time
126 minutes
Country Japan
Language Japanese
Box office $14,812,500

Castle in the Sky (Japanese: 天空の城ラピュタ, Hepburn: Tenkū no Shiro Rapyuta) (known as Laputa: Castle in the Sky in Europe and Australia) is a 1986 Japanese animated adventure film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki. It was the very first film animated by Studio Ghibli and was animated for Tokuma Shoten. It follows the adventures of a young boy and girl attempting to keep a magic crystal from a group of military agents, while searching for a legendary floating castle. The film was distributed by Toei Kabushiki Kaisha.[1] Laputa: Castle in the Sky won the Animage Anime Grand Prix in 1986.

Plot[edit]

An airship carrying Sheeta, a girl who has been abducted by government agent Muska, is attacked by Captain Dola and her air pirate sons who are in search of Sheeta's crystal amulet. In the resulting struggle, Sheeta falls from the airship but her descent is slowed by a mysterious power within the amulet. She safely lands in a small mining town where she is discovered by a boy named Pazu, who takes her into his home to recover. Pazu tells her of a mysterious floating island named Laputa which is visible in a picture taken by his father. Later, they are pursued by Dola's pirates, and then by Muska's soldiers. Eventually, the two fall into an abandoned mine, where they encounter the local eccentric Uncle Pomme, who informs them that Sheeta's amulet is made of 'volucite' crystal ('Aetherium' in the American release), a material used to keep Laputa and the other flying cities aloft.[2]

Upon leaving the mines, Sheeta tells Pazu that her full name is 'Lucita Toel Ul Laputa'. They are then captured by Muska and taken to the fortress of Tedis, where Pazu is imprisoned in a dungeon tower while Sheeta is imprisoned in a more lavish room. Muska shows Sheeta a dormant Laputan robot and reveals his knowledge of her secret name, which he interprets to be that of the Laputan royal line. Muska then threatens Pazu's life to obtain Sheeta's cooperation. For his own safety, Sheeta orders Pazu to leave and Muska offers him money to leave and forget about Laputa.

A distraught Pazu returns home, where he is ambushed by Dola's sons. After hearing Pazu out, Dola and her sons prepare to intercept and capture the crystal, allowing Pazu to join them. As preparations proceed, Sheeta recites an apotropaic verse and unexpectedly activates the amulet and the robot, which follows Sheeta, destroying the fortress along the way until it is overcome by the military's airship Goliath. Pazu arrives and rescues Sheeta, but Muska obtains the amulet. The pirates, accompanied by Pazu and Sheeta, return to their airship, Tiger Moth. They pursue the Goliath, which is following directions indicated by Sheeta's amulet to locate Laputa. Both airships arrive at Laputa on the following day, with the Tiger Moth having been shot down by Goliath. The two children, separated from Dola's pirates, discover the city to be ruined and overgrown.

Dola's pirates are captured and Muska's soldiers plunder the city's treasures. Upon gaining entrance to the city's central sphere, a vast repository for all of Laputa's scientific knowledge, Muska captures Sheeta and his agents open fire upon Pazu, who escapes and frees Dola's pirates. In the center of Laputa, which contains the immense 'volucite' crystal keeping the city aloft, Muska identifies himself as "Romuska Palo Ul Laputa", another member of Laputa's royal line, and uses Sheeta's crystal to access the advanced Laputan technology. He betrays his own soldiers and destroys the Goliath by unleashing Laputa's weapon of mass destruction. During the mayhem, the horrified Sheeta retrieves the crystal amulet and flees, but Muska pursues her. Encountering Pazu, Sheeta gives the amulet to him through a gap in the wall and is cornered by Muska in Laputa's throne room.

During her confrontation with Muska, Sheeta explains that the people of Laputa left the castle because they realized that man was meant to live on earth and not in the sky. Muska refuses her arguments, shoots off her braids and threatens to kill her unless the crystal amulet is given to him. Pazu requests to be allowed to talk with Sheeta; Muska grants them three minutes. Sheeta and Pazu recite a "Spell of Destruction", destroying much of the city, which breaks apart and crushes Muska to death. After surviving the collapse, Pazu and Sheeta reunite with Dola and her pirates and leave Laputa behind. When they part with the pirates, Pazu flies Sheeta home as he had promised her, to start a new life together.

During the end credits, the remnants of Laputa float in orbit, maintained by the volucite crystal embedded in the roots of the central tree.

Cast[edit]

Character name Original cast English voice actor
(Magnum/Tokuma/Streamline, 1989)
English voice actor
(Disney, 2003)
Pazu Mayumi Tanaka Barbara Goodson (Bertha Greene) James Van Der Beek
Princess Sheeta
(Lusheeta Toel Ur Laputa)
Keiko Yokozawa Lara Cody (Louise Chambell) Anna Paquin
Debi Derryberry (young)
Captain Dola Kotoe Hatsui Rachel Vanowen Cloris Leachman
Colonel Muska
(Romuska Palo Ur Laputa)
Minori Terada Jeff Winkless (Jack Witte) Mark Hamill
General Muoro Ichirō Nagai Mike Reynolds (Mark Richards) Jim Cummings
Uncle Pom Fujio Tokita Edward Mannix (Cyn Branch) Richard Dysart
Charles (Shalulu) Takuzō Kamiyama Barry Stigler (Bob Stuart) Mike McShane
Louis (Lui) Yoshito Yasuhara Dave Mallow (Colin Phillips) Mandy Patinkin
Henri (Anli) Sukekiyo Kamiyama Eddie Frierson (Ernest Fessler) Andy Dick
Mr. Duffi (Boss) Hiroshi Ito Clifton Wells (Charles Wilson) John Hostetter
Old Engineer Ryūji Saikachi Eddie Frierson (Ernest Fessler) Matt K. Miller
Okami Machiko Washio Lara Cody (Louise Chambell) Tress MacNeille
Madge Tarako Barbara Goodson (Bertha Greene) Debi Derryberry

Soundtrack[edit]

Castle in the Sky
Laputa.jpg
Soundtrack album by Joe Hisaishi
Released 25 August 1986
Label Tokuma

All compositions by Joe Hisaishi.

  1. "The Girl Who Fell from the Sky" – 2:27
  2. "Morning in the Slag Ravine" – 3:04
  3. "A Fun Brawl (Pursuit)" – 4:27
  4. "Memories of Gondoa" – 2:46
  5. "Discouraged Pazu" – 1:46
  6. "Robot Soldier (Resurrection/Rescue)" – 2:34
  7. "Carrying You" – 2:02 (Chorus: Suginami Children's Choir)
  8. "Sheeta's Decision" – 2:05
  9. "On the Tiger Moth" – 2:32
  10. "An Omen to Ruin" – 2:18
  11. "The Sea of Cloud Under the Moonlight" – 2:33
  12. "Laputa: Castle in the Sky" – 4:36
  13. "The Collapse of Laputa" – 2:00 (Chorus: Suginami Children's Choir)
  14. "Carrying You" – 4:07 (sung by Azumi Inoue)

Development[edit]

Miyazaki's earlier anime series Future Boy Conan (1978) featured a number of elements that he later adapted for Castle in the Sky. Conan and Lana, for example, were precedents for Pazu and Sheeta, and it had similarities to Sheeta's rescue by Pazu.[3] Some of the characters and themes in Future Boy Conan set the blueprint for Castle in the Sky.[4]

The name 'Laputa' is derived from Jonathan Swift's novel Gulliver's Travels, wherein Swift's Laputa is also a flying island controlled by its citizens. Anthony Lioi feels that Miyazaki's Laputa: Castle in the Sky is similar to Swift's Laputa, where the technological superiority of the castle in the sky is used for political ends.[5]

Laputa is credited by Colonel Muska with having informed Biblical and Hindu legends — thus tying the world of Laputa to our Earth (and to western European civilization) — as do the medieval castle architecture on the ground; the Gothic and half-timbered buildings in the village near the fort; the Welsh mining-town architecture, clothing, and ground vehicles of Pazu's homeland; and the Victorian ambiance of the pirate ship. The anime also features the use of cuneiform script on Laputa's interactive panels and tombstones; and makes references to the Hindu epic Ramayana, including "Indra's arrow", while the name Sheeta may be a related to Sita, the female lead in the Ramayana.[6]

Some of the architecture seen in the film was inspired by a Welsh mining town. Miyazaki first visited Wales in 1984 and witnessed the miners' strike firsthand. He returned to the country in 1986 to prepare for Laputa, which he said reflected his Welsh experience: "I was in Wales just after the miners' strike. I really admired the way the miners' unions fought to the very end for their jobs and communities, and I wanted to reflect the strength of those communities in my film."[7] Miyazaki told The Guardian, "I admired those men, I admired the way they battled to save their way of life, just as the coal miners in Japan did. Many people of my generation see the miners as a symbol; a dying breed of fighting men. Now they are gone."[8]

Except for the technology of Laputa itself, the technologies (especially the flying machines) are an example of the retrofuturistic genre of steampunk.

Release and distribution[edit]

In the late 1980s, an English dubbed version, produced by Magnum Video Tape and Dubbing[9] for international Japan Airlines flights at the request of Tokuma Shoten, was briefly screened in the United States by Streamline Pictures. Carl Macek, the head of Streamline, was disappointed with this dub, deeming it "adequate, but clumsy".[10] Following this, Tokuma allowed Streamline to dub their future acquisitions My Neighbor Totoro and Kiki's Delivery Service. The original dub of Castle in the Sky is also seen on the 1996 Ghibli ga Ippai Laserdisc set, and on the first Japanese DVD release. The initial Japanese DVD release is now out of print and the subsequent rerelease in 2014 replaces it with the Disney dubbed version.

The Disney-produced English dub was recorded in 1998 and planned for release on video in 1999, but the release was cancelled after Princess Mononoke (1997) did not fare as well in the US as Japan, and so Laputa's release date was pushed back yet again; on occasion the completed dub was screened at select children's festivals. The film was finally released on DVD and video in the US on April 15, 2003 alongside a re-release of Kiki's Delivery Service and Spirited Away.[11] As with Mononoke and Kiki, critical opinion was mixed about the new dub, but Cloris Leachman and Mark Hamill's performances as Dola and Muska drew praise.[12] Laputa was reissued on American home video in March 2010 as a tribute accompanying the home video release of Ponyo. The film was released on Blu-ray in North America on May 22, 2012, alongside Whisper of the Heart and The Secret World of Arrietty. GKIDS re-issued the film on Blu-ray & DVD on October 31, 2017.[13]

The film received a re-screening on May 22, 2011 in Aberystwyth as part of a charity fund for Japan. The print shown was the original theatrical Japanese print with English subtitles.

Box office[edit]

At the Japanese box office, the film grossed ¥1.16 billion[14] (US$8.1 million).[15] In Hong Kong, the film's 1987 release grossed HK$13.1 million[16] (US$1,679,853).[17] In the United Kingdom, the film's 2012 release grossed $327,559 in its first week.[18] In other territories, the film's 2003 release grossed $4,705,088.[19] This adds up to a combined worldwide box office gross of $14,812,500.

Home media[edit]

In Japan, the film earned ¥583 million[16] ($3,781,295)[20] from film rentals.[16] By 2006, Laputa: Castle in the Sky sold 1.612 million home video units in Japan.[21][22] At an average retail price of ¥4,600 (¥4,700 on DVD and ¥4,500 on VHS),[23] this is equivalent to approximately ¥7,415 million ($93 million) in Japanese sales revenue as of 2012. In the United States, the 2010 DVD release grossed $6.7 million in sales revenue.[18]

Reception[edit]

The film currently holds a 95% "Fresh" rating at Rotten Tomatoes.[24] In an audience poll (with 80,402 voters) of 100 best animations of all time, conducted by Japan's Agency for Cultural Affairs in 2007, Castle in the Sky was the second highest-ranked animated film, and third highest-ranked animation overall on the list.[25]

Awards[edit]

  • Ōfuji Noburō Award; Mainichi Film Award
  • First Place; Pia Ten (Best Films of the Year)
  • First Place; Japanese Movies; City Road
  • First Place; Japanese Movies; Eiga Geijutsu (Movie Art)
  • First Place; Japanese Films Best 10; Osaka Film Festival
  • Eighth Place; Japanese Films; Kinema Junpo Best 10
  • Second Place; Readers' Choice; Kinema Junpo Best 10
  • Best Anime; 9th Anime Grand Prix
  • Special Recommendation; The Central Committee for Children's Welfare
  • Special Award (to Miyazaki & Takahata); Revival of Japanese Movies
  • Best Design Award; Anime

Popular culture[edit]

Castle in the Sky has had a strong influence on Japanese popular culture, with the "Laputa Effect" comparable to "a modern day monomyth for Japanese genre films and media."[4][26] It has influenced various anime, such as the series Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water (1990)[27] and No Game No Life (2014), which references the film in episode 5. Game designer Hironobu Sakaguchi cited Laputa as an inspiration behind his Final Fantasy video game series, particularly citing it as an influence on the series' airships.[28] Castle in the Sky also inspired a number of other Japanese video games, including the Mega Man Legends series, Zack & Wiki, and particularly Japanese role-playing video games such as the Lunar series, Valkyrie Profile (1999), Skies of Arcadia (2000) and Steambot Chronicles (2005).[26][4]

Overseas, Castle in the Sky influenced a number of animated films from Disney and Pixar. For example, Disney films such as Atlantis: The Lost Empire (2001),[27] and Pixar films such as WALL-E (2008)[29] and Up (2009).[30] Manga author Katsura Hoshino was fascinated by the film to the point she decided to seek a work as an animator when growing up but instead ended writing manga.[31]

The most tweeted moment in the history of Twitter was during the airing of Castle in the Sky on August 2, 2013 when fans tweeted the word "balse" at the exact time that it played in the movie. There was a global peak of 143,199 tweets in one second.[32]

Title[edit]

Although meaningless in Japanese, the name "Laputa" comes from Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels. English language dubs of Laputa have been released under three different titles by three separate distributors, which is largely because it is identical to the Spanish rude term "la puta" (lit. "the whore").

In 2003, the film's title was shortened to Castle in the Sky in several countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, Mexico, and Spain. In Spain the castle was named Lapuntu in the first dub in 2003, although in the second one made in 2010 retains the original name Laputa.

The film's full title was later restored in Britain, in February 2006, when Optimum Asia – a division of London-based Optimum Releasing (StudioCanal UK since 2011) – acquired the UK distribution rights to the Studio Ghibli collection from Buena Vista Home Entertainment.

Additionally, during the late 1980s and early 1990s, the pre-Disney dub was screened in the UK as an art house film, under the alternative title Laputa: The Flying Island. It also aired at least twice on British television, but with some scenes cut.[33]

Differences between versions[edit]

Although the plot and much of the script was left intact, Disney's English dub of Castle in the Sky contains some changes.

  • A significant amount of background chatter as well as one-liners were added (even more so than in Disney's dub of Kiki's Delivery Service), filling in moments of silence and increasing the frenetic effect of certain scenes.
  • Composer Joe Hisaishi was commissioned to rework and extend his original 60-minute electronic-orchestral score into a 90-minute symphonic orchestral score, to make the film more palatable to American audiences. The sound mix received a vast overhaul as well.
  • Pazu and Sheeta, voiced by James Van Der Beek and Anna Paquin, respectively, are made to sound several years older, placing them in their mid-teens rather than their pre-teens.
  • Several modifications were made to the Dola gang's dialogue regarding Sheeta, including a declaration of love by one of the pirates. In the original Japanese version, the dialogue presented Sheeta as a potential mother figure to the pirates, rather than a potential romantic interest.
  • References to Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island and Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels were removed, the latter of which had also been removed from the original dub.[34]

Although all these alterations were approved by Studio Ghibli and Miyazaki, some critics have called them into question. Regarding the soundtrack, Miyazaki himself is said to have approved of Hisaishi's reworking;[35] his compliments were echoed by several reviewers.[36][37][38]

The 2010 DVD re-release reverts some of these changes. The updated score and sound mix are replaced by the originals in the subs, retaining the updates in the dub. Some of the added dialogue is removed in the dub, restoring silence where it is in the original Japanese version. However, the English subtitles are not updated to reflect the trimmed dialogue, which sometimes results in text being displayed when no characters are speaking.

These changes are also seen in the 2012 US Blu-ray release. However, for the Japanese, Australian, and British Blu-rays, the updated score is used, and the subtitles are properly timed, literal translations from the original Japanese, rather than the improperly timed dubtitles.

The 2017 Blu-ray re-release by GKids includes both the original track and the Disney dub with the redone soundtrack. For subtitles, the correctly translated from Japanese to English subtitles are added.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tenkû No Shiro Rapyuta". www.bcdb.com, 13 May 2012
  2. ^ "Tenkuu no Shiro Rapyuta – Synopsis". Nausicäa. The Hayao Miyazaki Web. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
  3. ^ McCarthy, Helen (1999). Hayao Miyazaki Master of Japanese Animation (2002 ed.). Berkeley, Ca: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 39, 223. ISBN 1880656418. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03.
  4. ^ a b c "Mega Man Legends". Hardcore Gaming 101. August 8, 2016.
  5. ^ Anthony Lioi. "The City Ascends: Laputa: Castle in the Sky as Critical Ecotopia". ufl.edu.
  6. ^ Ryoko Toyama, Laputa: The Castle in the Sky FAQ, Nausicaa.net
  7. ^ Gordon, David (May 2006). "Studio Ghibli: Animated Magic". Hackwriters.com. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  8. ^ Brooks, Xan (September 14, 2005). "A god among animators". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  9. ^ "Laputa: Castle in the Sky (movie)". crystalacids.com.
  10. ^ Macek, Carl. "ANN Cast Episode 23". Anime News Network. Event occurs at 48:49. Retrieved 11 January 2014. We didn't dub it. Streamline didn't dub it. And I told the people at Tokuma Shoten that I thought the dubbing was marginal on Laputa and I thought that it could be a better product if they had a better dubbing... To me, there's a certain element of class that you can bring to a project. Laputa is a very classy film, so it required a classy dub and the dub given to that particular film was adequate but clumsy. I didn't like it all... It's not something that I appreciated intellectually as well as aesthetically.
  11. ^ Conrad, Jeremy (14 March 2003). "Spirited Away". IGN. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  12. ^ Moure, Dani (April 4, 2006). "Laputa: Castle in the Sky". Mania. Santa Monica, California: Demand Media. Archived from the original on April 11, 2015. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  13. ^ Carolyn Giardina (July 17, 2017). "Gkids, Studio Ghibli Ink Home Entertainment Deal". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  14. ^ "6 Fascinating Trivia About 'Laputa: Castle in the Sky'". MANGA.TOKYO. February 12, 2017.
  15. ^ "Top 7 Studio Ghibli Films of All Time". Japan Info. July 14, 2015.
  16. ^ a b c "Laputa: Castle in the Sky (Credits & Figures)". Nausicaa.net. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  17. ^ "Pacific Exchange Rate Service (7.7983 HKD per USD)" (PDF). UBC Sauder School of Business. University of British Columbia. 1987. p. 3. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  18. ^ a b "Castle in the Sky (2010) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  19. ^ "Tenkû no shiro Rapyuta (Castle in the Sky)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  20. ^ "Pacific Exchange Rate Service (154.18 JPY per USD)". UBC Sauder School of Business. University of British Columbia. August 1986. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  21. ^ 検索結, 果 (2006). 宮崎駿全書. フィルムアート社. ISBN 9784845906871.
  22. ^ 均, 中村 (May 23, 2007). "110万冊無料配布。"ゲドを読む。"の狙いを読む 宮崎吾朗監督作品「ゲド戦記」DVDのユニークなプロモーション". Nikkei Business (in Japanese). Nikkei Business Publications.
  23. ^ "Video List: Tenkuu no Shiro Rapyuta". Nausicaa.net. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  24. ^ "Castle in the Sky". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2018-05-05.
  25. ^ "Top 100 Animations". Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2007. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved 2009-03-15. (translation: Google.com)
  26. ^ a b "Laputa Effect". GameSpite. April 28, 2008.
  27. ^ a b "Review: "Castle in the Sky"". Dark Horizons. April 1, 2005.
  28. ^ Rogers, Tim (27 March 2006). "In Defense of Final Fantasy XII". Edge. p. 2. Archived from the original on 31 August 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. Okay, so the Chocobos – big, yellow riding birds – were actually stolen from Hayao Miyazaki's movie Nausicaa and the Valley of the Wind, and Hironobu Sakaguchi freely admitted that way back when. He also admits that the airships were inspired by "Laputa," also directed by Miyazaki.
  29. ^ "30 Years of CASTLE IN THE SKY: The Robots of Laputa and Earth". YOMYOMF. August 4, 2016.
  30. ^ Ebert, Roger (2009). Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook 2010. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 567. ISBN 9780740792182.
  31. ^ "Mangaka Interview 01" (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on 2010-03-15. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
  32. ^ Oremus, Will (2013-08-19). "Balse Festival: Japan "Castle in the Sky" airing breaks Twitter record for tweets per second". Slate.com. Retrieved 2014-06-26.
  33. ^ "Tenkuu no Shiro Rapyuta FAQ". The Hayao Miyazaki Web. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  34. ^ Tei, Andrew (October 14, 2003). "Laputa: Castle in the Sky". Mania. Santa Monica, California: Demand Media. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
  35. ^ "Tenkuu no Shiro Rapyuta". The Hayao Miyazaki Web. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  36. ^ Pinsky, Michael (May 21, 2003). "Castle In The Sky". DVD Verdict. Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  37. ^ Franklin, Garth. "Review: "Castle in the Sky"". Dark Horizons. Archived from the original on 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  38. ^ Taylor, Dawn. "Castle in the Sky". DVD Journal Review. Retrieved 2008-12-30.

External links[edit]