Large-scale brain network

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Large scale brain networks)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Large-scale brain networks (also known as intrinsic brain networks) are collections of widespread brain regions showing functional connectivity by statistical analysis of the fMRI BOLD signal[1] or other recording methods such as EEG,[2] PET[3] and MEG.[4] An emerging paradigm in neuroscience is that cognitive tasks are performed not by individual brain regions working in isolation but by networks consisting of several discrete brain regions that are said to be "functionally connected". Functional connectivity networks may be found using algorithms such as cluster analysis, spatial independent component analysis (ICA), seed based, and others.[5] Synchronized brain regions may also be identified using long-range synchronization of the EEG, MEG, or other dynamic brain signals.[6]

The set of identified brain areas that are linked together in a large-scale network varies with cognitive function.[7] When the cognitive state is not explicit (i.e., the subject is at "rest"), the large-scale brain network is a resting state network (RSN). As a physical system with graph-like properties,[6] a large-scale brain network has both nodes and edges and cannot be identified simply by the co-activation of brain areas. In recent decades, the analysis of brain networks was made feasible by advances in imaging techniques as well as new tools from graph theory and dynamical systems.

Large-scale brain networks are identified by their function and provide a coherent framework for understanding cognition by offering a neural model of how different cognitive functions emerge when different sets of brain regions join together as self-organized coalitions. The number and composition of the coalitions will vary with the algorithm and parameters used to identify them.[8][9] In one model, there is only the default mode network and the task-positive network, but most current analyses show several networks, from a small handful to 17.[8] The most common and stable networks are enumerated below. The regions participating in a functional network may be dynamically reconfigured.[5][10]

Disruptions in activity in various networks have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD[11] and bipolar disorder.[12]

Core networks[edit]

An example that identified 10 large-scale brain networks from resting state fMRI activity through independent component analysis.[13]

Because brain networks can be identified at various different resolutions and with various different neurobiological properties, there is no such thing as a universal atlas of brain networks that fits all circumstances.[14] While acknowledging this problem, Uddin, Yeo, and Spreng proposed in 2019[15] that the following six networks should be defined as core networks based on converging evidences from multiple studies[16][8][17] to facilitate communication between researchers.

Default Mode (Medial frontoparietal)[edit]

  • The default mode network is active when an individual is awake and at rest. It preferentially activates when individuals focus on internally-oriented tasks such as daydreaming, envisioning the future, retrieving memories, and theory of mind. It is negatively correlated with brain systems that focus on external visual signals. It is the most widely researched network.[6][10][18][1][19][20][13][8][21][22]

Salience (Midcingulo-Insular)[edit]

  • The salience network consists of several structures, including the anterior (bilateral) insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and three subcortical structures which are the ventral striatum, substantia nigra/ventral tegmental region.[23][24] It plays the key role of monitoring the salience of external inputs and internal brain events.[1][6][10][19][13][8][21] Specifically, it aids in directing attention by identifying important biological and cognitive events.[24][22]
  • This network includes the ventral attention network, which primarily includes the temporoparietal junction and the ventral frontal cortex of the right hemisphere.[15][25] These areas respond when behaviorally relevant stimuli occur unexpectedly.[25] The ventral attention network is inhibited during focused attention in which top-down processing is being used, such as when visually searching for something. This response may prevent goal-driven attention from being distracted by non-relevant stimuli. It becomes active again when the target or relevant information about the target is found.[25][26]

Attention (Dorsal frontoparietal)[edit]

  • This network is involved in the voluntary, top-down deployment of attention.[1][19][20][8][21][25][27] Within the dorsal attention network, the intraparietal sulcus and frontal eye fields influence the visual areas of the brain. These influencing factors allow for the orientation of attention.[28][25][22]

Control (Lateral frontoparietal)[edit]

  • This network initiates and modulates cognitive control and comprises 18 sub-regions of the brain.[29] There is a strong correlation between fluid intelligence and the involvement of the fronto-parietal network with other networks.[30]
  • Versions of this network have also been called the central executive (or executive control) network and the cognitive control network.[15]

Sensorimotor or Somatomotor (Pericentral)[edit]

Visual (Occipital)[edit]

  • This network handles visual information processing.[31]

Other networks[edit]

Different methods and data have identified several other brain networks, many of which greatly overlap or are subsets of more well-characterized core networks.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Riedl, Valentin; Utz, Lukas; Castrillón, Gabriel; Grimmer, Timo; Rauschecker, Josef P.; Ploner, Markus; Friston, Karl J.; Drzezga, Alexander; Sorg, Christian (January 12, 2016). "Metabolic connectivity mapping reveals effective connectivity in the resting human brain". PNAS. 113 (2): 428–433. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113..428R. doi:10.1073/pnas.1513752113. PMC 4720331. PMID 26712010.
  2. ^ Foster, Brett L.; Parvizi, Josef (2012-03-01). "Resting oscillations and cross-frequency coupling in the human posteromedial cortex". NeuroImage. 60 (1): 384–391. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.12.019. ISSN 1053-8119. PMC 3596417. PMID 22227048.
  3. ^ Buckner, Randy L.; Andrews‐Hanna, Jessica R.; Schacter, Daniel L. (2008). "The Brain's Default Network". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1124 (1): 1–38. Bibcode:2008NYASA1124....1B. doi:10.1196/annals.1440.011. ISSN 1749-6632. PMID 18400922. S2CID 3167595.
  4. ^ Morris, Peter G.; Smith, Stephen M.; Barnes, Gareth R.; Stephenson, Mary C.; Hale, Joanne R.; Price, Darren; Luckhoo, Henry; Woolrich, Mark; Brookes, Matthew J. (2011-10-04). "Investigating the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks using magnetoencephalography". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (40): 16783–16788. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10816783B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1112685108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3189080. PMID 21930901.
  5. ^ a b Petersen, Steven; Sporns, Olaf (October 2015). "Brain Networks and Cognitive Architectures". Neuron. 88 (1): 207–219. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.09.027. PMC 4598639. PMID 26447582.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Bressler, Steven L.; Menon, Vinod (June 2010). "Large scale brain networks in cognition: emerging methods and principles". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 14 (6): 233–290. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2010.04.004. PMID 20493761. S2CID 5967761. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  7. ^ Bressler, Steven L. (2008). "Neurocognitive networks". Scholarpedia. 3 (2): 1567. Bibcode:2008SchpJ...3.1567B. doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.1567.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Yeo, B. T. Thomas; Krienen, Fenna M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Lashkari, Danial; Hollinshead, Marisa; Roffman, Joshua L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Zöllei, Lilla; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Fischl, Bruce; Liu, Hesheng; Buckner, Randy L. (2011-09-01). "The organization of the human cerebral cortex estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity". Journal of Neurophysiology. 106 (3): 1125–1165. Bibcode:2011NatSD...2E0031H. doi:10.1152/jn.00338.2011. PMC 3174820. PMID 21653723.
  9. ^ Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Littow, Harri; Remes, Jukka; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Nissilä, Juuso; Timonen, Markku; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi1, Vesa (2011-06-03). "Group-ICA Model Order Highlights Patterns of Functional Brain Connectivity". Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 5: 37. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2011.00037. PMC 3109774. PMID 21687724.
  10. ^ a b c d e Bassett, Daniella; Bertolero, Max (July 2019). "How Matter Becomes Mind". Scientific American. 321 (1): 32. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  11. ^ Griffiths, Kristi R.; Braund, Taylor A.; Kohn, Michael R.; Clarke, Simon; Williams, Leanne M.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S. (2 March 2021). "Structural brain network topology underpinning ADHD and response to methylphenidate treatment". Translational Psychiatry. 11 (1): 150. doi:10.1038/s41398-021-01278-x. PMC 7925571. PMID 33654073.
  12. ^ Menon, Vinod (2011-09-09). "Large-scale brain networks and psychopathology: A unifying triple network model". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 15 (10): 483–506. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2011.08.003. PMID 21908230. S2CID 26653572.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Heine, Lizette; Soddu, Andrea; Gomez, Francisco; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Tshibanda, Luaba; Thonnard, Marie; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Kirsch, Murielle; Laureys, Steven; Demertzi, Athena (2012). "Resting state networks and consciousness. Alterations of multiple resting state network connectivity in physiological, pharmacological and pathological consciousness states". Frontiers in Psychology. 3: 295. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00295. PMC 3427917. PMID 22969735.
  14. ^ Eickhoff, SB; Yeo, BTT; Genon, S (November 2018). "Imaging-based parcellations of the human brain" (PDF). Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 19 (11): 672–686. doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0071-7. PMID 30305712. S2CID 52954265.
  15. ^ a b c d e Uddin, LQ; Yeo, BTT; Spreng, RN (November 2019). "Towards a Universal Taxonomy of Macro-scale Functional Human Brain Networks". Brain Topography. 32 (6): 926–942. doi:10.1007/s10548-019-00744-6. PMC 7325607. PMID 31707621.
  16. ^ Doucet, GE; Lee, WH; Frangou, S (2019-10-15). "Evaluation of the spatial variability in the major resting-state networks across human brain functional atlases". Human Brain Mapping. 40 (15): 4577–4587. doi:10.1002/hbm.24722. PMC 6771873. PMID 31322303.
  17. ^ Smith, SM; Fox, PT; Miller, KL; Glahn, DC; Fox, PM; Mackay, CE; Filippini, N; Watkins, KE; Toro, R; Laird, AR; Beckmann, CF (2009-08-04). "Correspondence of the brain's functional architecture during activation and rest". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (31): 13040–5. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10613040S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905267106. PMC 2722273. PMID 19620724.
  18. ^ Buckner, Randy L. (2012-08-15). "The serendipitous discovery of the brain's default network". NeuroImage. 62 (2): 1137–1145. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.10.035. ISSN 1053-8119. PMID 22037421. S2CID 9880586.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Yuan, Rui; Di, Xin; Taylor, Paul A.; Gohel, Suril; Tsai, Yuan-Hsiung; Biswal, Bharat B. (30 April 2015). "Functional topography of the thalamocortical system in human". Brain Structure and Function. 221 (4): 1971–1984. doi:10.1007/s00429-015-1018-7. PMC 6363530. PMID 25924563.
  20. ^ a b c d Bell, Peter T.; Shine, James M. (2015-11-09). "Estimating Large-Scale Network Convergence in the Human Functional Connectome". Brain Connectivity. 5 (9): 565–74. doi:10.1089/brain.2015.0348. PMID 26005099.
  21. ^ a b c d e Shafiei, Golia; Zeighami, Yashar; Clark, Crystal A.; Coull, Jennifer T.; Nagano-Saito, Atsuko; Leyton, Marco; Dagher, Alain; Mišić, Bratislav (2018-10-01). "Dopamine Signaling Modulates the Stability and Integration of Intrinsic Brain Networks". Cerebral Cortex. 29 (1): 397–409. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhy264. PMC 6294404. PMID 30357316.
  22. ^ a b c d Bailey, Stephen K.; Aboud, Katherine S.; Nguyen, Tin Q.; Cutting, Laurie E. (13 December 2018). "Applying a network framework to the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia". Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. 10 (1): 37. doi:10.1186/s11689-018-9251-z. PMC 6291929. PMID 30541433.
  23. ^ Steimke, Rosa; Nomi, Jason S.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Stelzel, Christine; Paschke, Lena M.; Gaschler, Robert; Goschke, Thomas; Walter, Henrik; Uddin, Lucina Q. (2017-12-01). "Salience network dynamics underlying successful resistance of temptation". Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 12 (12): 1928–1939. doi:10.1093/scan/nsx123. ISSN 1749-5016. PMC 5716209. PMID 29048582.
  24. ^ a b Menon, V. (2015-01-01), "Salience Network", in Toga, Arthur W. (ed.), Brain Mapping, Academic Press, pp. 597–611, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-397025-1.00052-X, ISBN 978-0-12-397316-0, retrieved 2019-12-08
  25. ^ a b c d e Vossel, Simone; Geng, Joy J.; Fink, Gereon R. (2014). "Dorsal and Ventral Attention Systems: Distinct Neural Circuits but Collaborative Roles". The Neuroscientist. 20 (2): 150–159. doi:10.1177/1073858413494269. PMC 4107817. PMID 23835449.
  26. ^ Shulman, Gordon L.; McAvoy, Mark P.; Cowan, Melanie C.; Astafiev, Serguei V.; Tansy, Aaron P.; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Corbetta, Maurizio (2003-11-01). "Quantitative Analysis of Attention and Detection Signals During Visual Search". Journal of Neurophysiology. 90 (5): 3384–3397. doi:10.1152/jn.00343.2003. ISSN 0022-3077. PMID 12917383.
  27. ^ a b c Hutton, John S.; Dudley, Jonathan; Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; DeWitt, Tom; Holland, Scott K. (1 September 2019). "Functional Connectivity of Attention, Visual, and Language Networks During Audio, Illustrated, and Animated Stories in Preschool-Age Children". Brain Connectivity. 9 (7): 580–592. doi:10.1089/brain.2019.0679. PMC 6775495. PMID 31144523.
  28. ^ Fox, Michael D.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Vincent, Justin L.; Raichle, Marcus E. (2006-06-27). "Spontaneous neuronal activity distinguishes human dorsal and ventral attention systems". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (26): 10046–10051. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10310046F. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604187103. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1480402. PMID 16788060.
  29. ^ Scolari, Miranda; Seidl-Rathkopf, Katharina N; Kastner, Sabine (2015-02-01). "Functions of the human frontoparietal attention network: Evidence from neuroimaging". Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. Cognitive control. 1: 32–39. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2014.08.003. ISSN 2352-1546. PMC 4936532. PMID 27398396.
  30. ^ Marek, Scott; Dosenbach, Nico U. F. (June 2018). "The frontoparietal network: function, electrophysiology, and importance of individual precision mapping". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 20 (2): 133–140. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2018.20.2/smarek. ISSN 1294-8322. PMC 6136121. PMID 30250390.
  31. ^ Yang, Yan-li; Deng, Hong-xia; Xing, Gui-yang; Xia, Xiao-luan; Li, Hai-fang (2015). "Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state". Neural Regeneration Research. 10 (2): 298–307. doi:10.4103/1673-5374.152386. PMC 4392680. PMID 25883631.