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Lists of earthquakes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Earthquakes (6.0+ Mw) between 1900 and 2017

Earthquakes are caused by movements within the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle. They range from weak events detectable only by seismometers, to sudden and violent events lasting many minutes which have caused some of the greatest disasters in human history. Below, earthquakes are listed by period, region or country, year, magnitude, cost, fatalities and number of scientific studies.

Lists by time period[edit]

By century[edit]

By decade[edit]

By year[edit]

Lists by location[edit]

By country[edit]

By region[edit]

Deadliest earthquakes by year[edit]

Date Magnitude Location Depth (km) MMI Deaths
July 31, 1937 6.9  China, Shandong Province 25.0 IX 3,252
April 19, 1938 6.6  Turkey, Kırşehir Province 10.0 IX 224
December 27, 1939 7.8  Turkey, Erzincan Province 20.0 XII 32,700–32,968
November 10, 1940 7.7  Romania, Vrancea County 133.0 X 1,000
January 11, 1941 5.8–6.5  Yemen, Razih District 35.0 VIII 1,200
December 20, 1942 7.0  Turkey, Erbaa 10.0 IX 3,000
November 27, 1943 7.5–7.7  Turkey, Çankırı 20.0 XI 2,824–5,000
January 15, 1944 7.0  Argentina, San Juan 15.0 IX 10,000
November 28, 1945 8.1  British India, Makran Coast 15.0 X 300–4,000
August 4, 1946 7.8  Dominican Republic, Samaná 15.0 IX 2,550
August 4, 1947 7.7  Peru, Junín Province 20.0 IX 233–2,233
October 6, 1948 7.3  Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic 15.0 X 10,000–110,000
July 10, 1949 7.5  Soviet Union, Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic 18.0 IX 7,200
August 15, 1950 8.6  India, Assam 15.0 XI 4,800
May 6, 1951 5.9–6.2  El Salvador, Usulután 85.0 400–1,100
November 5, 1952 9.0  Soviet Union, Russian Soviet Socialist Republic 21.6 XI 2,336
March 18, 1953 7.5  Turkey, Balıkesir Province 10.0 IX 1,070
September 9, 1954 6.7  France, Chlef Province, Algeria 15.0 XI 1,243–1,409
March 31, 1955 7.4  Philippines, Western Mindanao 35.0 VIII 465
October 31, 1956 6.4  Iran, Hormozgan 15.0 VII 347
December 13, 1957 6.5  Iran, Hamadan 15.0 VII 1,130
August 16, 1958 6.7  Iran, Lorestan 15.0 VII 132
August 18, 1959 7.3  United States, Montana 5.0 X 28
February 29, 1960 5.8  Morocco, Souss-Massa 15.0 X 12,000–15,000
June 11, 1961 6.4  Iran, Fars province 15.0 VIII 60
September 1, 1962 7.1  Iran, Qazvin province 10.0 IX 12,225
July 26, 1963 6.1  Yugoslavia, Macedonia 15.0 X 1,070
March 27, 1964 9.2  United States, Alaska 25.0 XI 131
March 28, 1965 7.4–7.6  Chile, Valparaíso Region 70.0 IX 400–500
March 22, 1966 6.8  China, Hebei 20.0 IX 8,064
July 29, 1967 6.6  Venezuela, Vargas 25.0 VIII 225–300
August 31, 1968 7.1  Iran, South Khorasan Province 10.0 X 15,900
July 25, 1969 6.4  China, Guangdong 20.0 VIII 3,000
May 31, 1970 7.9  Peru, Ancash 45.0 VIII 66,794–70,000
May 22, 1971 6.6  Turkey, Bingöl 10.0 VIII 875[1]
April 10, 1972 6.7  Iran, Fars 10.0 IX 5,374
February 6, 1973 7.6  China, Sichuan 11.0 X 2,175–2,204
May 10, 1974 7.1  China, Yunnan 14.0 IX 1,641–20,000
September 6, 1975 6.7  Turkey, Diyarbakır 26.0 IX 2,311
July 28, 1976 7.6  China, Hebei 12.2 XI 242,719–655,000
March 4, 1977 7.5  Romania, Vrancea 85.3 IX 1,700
September 16, 1978 7.4  Iran, Yazd 33.0 IX 15,000–25,000
December 12, 1979 8.2  Colombia, Nariño 33.0 IX 300–600
October 10, 1980 7.1  Algeria, Chlef 10.0 X 2,633–5,000
June 11 and July 28, 1981 6.6 & 7.1  Iran, Kerman 33.0 VIII & IX 3,000
December 13, 1982 6.2  North Yemen, Dhamar 10.0 VIII 2,800
October 30, 1983 6.6  Turkey, Erzurum 15.0 IX 1,340
September 13, 1984 6.3  Japan, Nagano 2.0 VIII 14
September 19, 1985 8.0  Mexico, Michoacán 20.0 IX 5,000–45,000
October 10, 1986 5.7  El Salvador, San Salvador 10.0 IX 1,000–1,500
March 6, 1987 7.1  Ecuador, Sucumbíos 10.0 IX 1,000
December 7, 1988 6.8  Soviet Union, Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic 5.0 X 25,000–50,000
January 23, 1989 5.3  Soviet Union, Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic 33.0 VII 274
June 21, 1990 7.4  Iran, Gilan 18.5 X 35,000–40,000
October 20, 1991 6.8  India, Uttar Pradesh 11.6 IX 768–2,000[2]
December 12, 1992 7.8  Indonesia, Flores Sea offshore 27.7 VIII 2,500[3]
September 29, 1993 6.2  India, Maharashtra 10.0 VIII 9,748
June 6, 1994 6.8  Colombia, Cauca 12.1 IX 1,100
January 17, 1995 6.9  Japan, Kobe 21.9 XI 5,502–6,434
February 3, 1996 6.6  China, Yunnan 10.0 X 309–322
May 10, 1997 7.3  Iran, Khorasan 10.0 X 1,567
May 30, 1998 6.5  Afghanistan, Takhar 33.0 VII 4,000–4,500
August 17, 1999 7.6  Turkey, İzmit 17.0 X 17,127–18,373
June 4, 2000 7.9  Indonesia, Enggano Island offshore 44.0 VI 103[4]
January 26, 2001 7.6  India, Bhuj 16.0 X 13,805–20,023
March 25, 2002 6.1  Afghanistan, Baghlan Province 8.0 VII 1,200
December 26, 2003 6.6  Iran, Bam 15.0 IX 34,000
December 26, 2004 9.1–9.3  Indonesia, Sumatra offshore 30.0 IX 227,898
October 8, 2005 7.6  Pakistan, Balakot 15.0 XI 86,000–87,351
May 27, 2006 6.4  Indonesia, Yogyakarta 10.0 IX 5,749[5]
August 15, 2007 8.0  Peru, Ica offshore 39.0 IX 595
May 12, 2008 7.9  China, Sichuan 19.0 XI 87,587
September 30, 2009 7.6  Indonesia, Padang offshore 90.0 VII[6] 1,115
January 12, 2010 7.0  Haiti, Léogâne 13.0 X 100,000–316,000
March 11, 2011 9.1  Japan, Sendai offshore 29.0 IX 19,759
August 11, 2012 6.4  Iran, East Azerbaijan 9.0 VIII 306
September 24, 2013 7.7  Pakistan, Balochistan 15.0 IX 825
August 3, 2014 6.1  China, Yunnan 10.0 IX 617
April 25, 2015 7.8    Nepal, Gorkha District 8.2 X 8,962
April 16, 2016 7.8  Ecuador, Esmeraldas 20.6 VIII[7] 676
November 12, 2017 7.3 IranIraq IranIraq border Region 19.0 IX 630
September 28, 2018 7.5  Indonesia, Palu 20.0 X 4,340
November 26, 2019 6.4  Albania, Durrës 10.0 VIII 51
October 30, 2020 7.0  Greece
 Turkey
Aegean Sea
21.0 VIII 119
August 14, 2021 7.2  Haiti, Nippes 10.0 IX 2,248
June 21, 2022 6.0  Afghanistan, Khost 10.0 VIII 1,052–1,163
February 6, 2023 7.8 & 7.7  Turkey, Southeastern Anatolia
 Syria, Aleppo and Idlib Governorates
10.0 & 7.4 XII 59,488–62,013
January 1, 2024 7.5  Japan, Ishikawa 10.0 X 260


Largest earthquakes by year[edit]

Year Magnitude Location Depth (km) MMI Deaths Injuries
January 7, 1937[8] 7.8  China, Qinghai 15.0 VIII 0 0
February 1, 1938 8.5–8.6  Dutch East Indies, Maluku offshore 60.0 VII 0 0
December 21, 1939[9] 8.1  Dutch East Indies, Central Sulawesi offshore 150.0 VII 0 0
May 24, 1940 8.2  Peru, Lima 45.0 VIII 179–300 3,500
November 18, 1941 8.0  Japan, Miyazaki offshore 35.0 VII 2 0
August 24, 1942 8.2  Peru, Ica 35.0 IX 30 25
April 6, 1943 7.9–8.2  Chile, Coquimbo 35.0 VIII 11 0
December 7, 1944 8.1  Japan, Wakayama offshore 30.0 VIII 1,223 2,135
November 27, 1945 8.1  India, Balochistan offshore 15.0 X 4,000 0
April 1, 1946 8.6  United States, Alaska offshore 15.0 VI 173 0
May 27, 1947[10] & November 1, 1947 7.6  Dutch East Indies, Papua offshore 15.0 VI 0 0
 Peru, Junin 20.0 IX 233 0
January 24, 1948 7.8  Philippines, Panay 15.0 X 50 0
August 22, 1949 8.0  Canada, Haida Gwaii 10.0 VIII 0 0
August 15, 1950 8.6 IndiaChina India–China, AssamTibet border region 15.0 XI 4,800 0
November 24, 1951 7.8  Taiwan, East Rift Valley 30.0 VII 85 1,200
November 4, 1952 9.0  Soviet Union, Kamchatka 21.6 XI 2,336 0
November 25, 1953[11] 7.9  Japan, Yokohama 25.0 V 1 0
March 29, 1954[12] 7.8  Spain, Andalusia 626.2 IV 0 0
February 27, 1955[13] 7.5  New Zealand, Kermadec Islands 15.0 I 0 0
July 9, 1956 7.7  Greece, Dodecanese Islands 20.0 IX 56 0
March 9, 1957 8.6–9.1  United States, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 25.0 VIII 2 0
November 6, 1958 8.3  Soviet Union, Kuril Islands 35.0 X 0 51
May 4, 1959 7.9  Soviet Union, Kamchatka 55.0 VIII 1 13
May 22, 1960 9.5  Chile, Valdivia 25.0 XII 6,000 11,000
August 19, 1961[14] 7.6  Peru, Madre de Dios Region 612.2 IV 0 0
May 21, 1962[15] 7.5  Fiji offshore 390.0 I 0 0
October 13, 1963 8.5  Soviet Union, Kuril Islands 35.0 IX 0 0
March 27, 1964 9.1–9.2 United States Alaska, Prince William Sound 25.0 XI 131 0
February 3, 1965 8.7 United States Alaska, Aleutian Islands 30.3 VI 0 0
October 17, 1966 8.1  Peru, Arequipa 38.0 IX 125 3,000
July 22, 1967 7.4  Turkey, Sakarya Province 30.0 X 86 0
May 16, 1968 8.3  Japan, Hokkaidō 26.0 VIII 52 330
August 11, 1969[16] 8.2  Soviet Union, Kuril Islands 30.0 VIII 0 0
July 31, 1970 8.0  Colombia, Amazonas Department 644.8 IV 1 4
July 26, 1971 8.1  Papua New Guinea, Kokopo 37.0 IX 3 5
1972[17] 8.0  Philippines, Mindanao 60.0 VII 0 0
June 17, 1973 7.8  Japan, Hokkaidō 43.3 VIII 0 27
October 3, 1974 8.1  Peru, Lima 13.0 IX 78 2,400
May 26, 1975 7.9 north Atlantic Ocean 33.0 VI 0 0
August 17, 1976 8.0  Philippines, Moro Gulf 33.0 VIII 8,000 10,000
August 19, 1977 8.3  Indonesia, Bima 25.0 VI 189 1,100
June 12, 1978 7.7  Japan, Miyagi 44.0 VIII 28 1,325
December 12, 1979 8.2  Colombia, Nariño offshore
 Ecuador, Esmeraldas offshore
24.0 IX 600 0
July 17, 1980[18] 7.7  Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz Islands 33.0 VI 0 0
September 1, 1981[19] 7.6  New Zealand, offshore 25.0 IV 0 0
June 19, 1982 7.3  El Salvador, offshore 73.0 VII 43 0
March 18[20] & May 26, 1983 7.7  Papua New Guinea, New Ireland 70.0 VII 0 0
 Japan, off the coast of Honshu 15.1 VIII 104 324
February 7, 1984[21] 7.6  Solomon Islands, Honiara 18.1 VIII 0 0
September 19, 1985 8.0  Mexico, Mexico City 27.9 IX 10,000 30,000
May 7, 1986[22] 8.0  United States, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 19.0 VII 0 0
November 30, 1987[23] 7.9  United States, Gulf of Alaska 10.0 VI 0 0
March 6, 1988[24] 7.7 United States, Gulf of Alaska 15.0 V 0 0
May 23, 1989[25] 8.0  Australia, Macquarie Island 10.0 V 0 0
July 16, 1990 7.7  Philippines, Luzon 24.4 IX 1,621 3,000
April 22, 1991 7.6  Costa Rica, Limón 10.0 IX 127 759
December 12, 1992 7.8  Indonesia, Sunda Islands 23.5 VIII 2,500 0
August 8, 1993 7.8  Guam, Offshore 59.3 IX 0 71
October 5, 1994 8.3  Russia, Kuril Islands 3.0 IX 12 1,742
July 30, 1995 8.0  Chile, Antofagasta 30.5 VII 3 59
February 17, 1996 8.2  Indonesia, Biak 11.5 VIII 166 423
December 5, 1997[26] 7.8  Russia, Kamchatka Peninsula 23.5 VIII 0 0
March 25, 1998 8.1  Antarctica, Balleny Islands 10.0 0 0
September 21, 1999 7.7  Taiwan, Nantou County 15.5 IX 2,444 11,305
November 16, 2000 8.0  Papua New Guinea, New Ireland 13.0 VII 2 0
June 23, 2001 8.4  Peru, Arequipa 33.0 VIII 145 2,713
November 3, 2002 7.9  United States, Alaska 4.2 IX 0 1
September 26, 2003 8.3  Japan, Hokkaidō 23.5 IX 0 849
December 26, 2004 9.2–9.3  Indonesia, Sumatra 10.0 IX 227,898 125,000
March 28, 2005 8.6  Indonesia, Simeulue 21.0 IX 1313 300
November 15, 2006 8.3  Russia, Kuril Islands 10.0 VI 0 1
September 12, 2007 8.4  Indonesia, Sumatra 34.0 VIII 23 0
May 12, 2008 7.9  China, Sichuan 19.0 XI 87,587 374,177
September 29, 2009 8.1  Samoa, Offshore 18.0 VII 189 7
February 27, 2010 8.8  Chile, Concepción 22.9 IX 550 12,000
March 11, 2011 9.0–9.1  Japan, Honshu 29.0 IX 19,747 6,000
April 11, 2012 8.6  Indonesia, Indian Ocean 20.0 VII 10 12
May 24, 2013 8.3  Russia, Sea of Okhotsk 598.1 VI 0 0
April 1, 2014 8.2  Chile, Iquique 25.0 VIII 6 9
September 16, 2015 8.3  Chile, Coquimbo 22.4 IX 21 34
December 17, 2016 7.9  Papua New Guinea, New Ireland 94.5 VII 0 0
September 7, 2017 8.2  Mexico, Chiapas 47.4 IX 98 250
August 19, 2018 8.2  Fiji, offshore 600.0 V 0 0
May 26, 2019 8.0  Peru, Loreto 122.6 VIII 2 0
July 22, 2020 7.8  United States, Alaska Peninsula offshore 28.0 VII 0 0
July 28, 2021 8.2  United States, Alaska Peninsula offshore 32.2 VII 0 0
September 11 & September 19, 2022 7.6  Papua New Guinea, Morobe 61.4 VIII 21 42
 Mexico, Michoacán 25.5 VIII 2 35
February 6, 2023 7.8  Turkey, Southeastern Anatolia 17.9 XII 59,488–62,013 121,704
January 1, 2024 7.5  Japan, Ishikawa 10.0 X 260 1,311

Largest earthquakes by magnitude[edit]

A pie chart comparing the seismic moment release of the three largest earthquakes for the hundred-year period from 1906 to 2005 with that for all earthquakes of magnitudes <6, 6 to 7, 7 to 8 and >8 for the same period. The 2011 Japan quake would be roughly similar to Sumatra.
Earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 and greater from 1900 to 2018. The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their respective fatalities.[27] The colour indicates the continent, and the legend counts the number of quakes for each. Notice the absence of Africa.

For those which occurred before the development and deployment of seismographs – starting around 1900 – magnitudes are estimated from historical reports of the extent and severity of damage.[28]

Rank Date Location Event Magnitude
1 May 22, 1960 Chile Valdivia, Chile 1960 Valdivia earthquake 9.4–9.6
2 March 27, 1964 United States Prince William Sound, Alaska, United States 1964 Alaska earthquake 9.2–9.3[29]
3 December 26, 2004 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 9.2–9.3[30][31]
4 March 11, 2011 Japan Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan 2011 Tōhoku earthquake 9.0–9.1[32][33]
5 November 4, 1952 Soviet Union Kamchatka, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union 1952 Severo-Kurilsk earthquake 9.0
6 January 31, 1906 EcuadorColombia Ecuador – Colombia 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake 8.8
7 February 27, 2010 Chile Maule, Chile 2010 Chile earthquake 8.8
8 February 3, 1965 United States Rat Islands, Alaska, United States 1965 Rat Islands earthquake 8.7
9 August 15, 1950 IndiaChina Assam, India – Tibet, China 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake 8.6–8.7[34]
10 April 1, 1946 United States Aleutian Islands, Alaska, United States 1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake 8.6
11 March 28, 2005 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake 8.6
12 March 9, 1957 United States Andreanof Islands, Alaska, United States 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake 8.6
13 April 11, 2012 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes 8.6
14 November 10, 1922 Chile Atacama, Chile 1922 Vallenar earthquake 8.5–8.6
15 February 1, 1938 Dutch East Indies Banda Sea, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1938 Banda Sea earthquake 8.5–8.6
16 October 13, 1963 Soviet Union Kuril Islands, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union 1963 Kuril Islands earthquake 8.5

Pre-instrumental earthquakes[edit]

Date Location Event Magnitude
July 8, 1730 Spanish Empire Valparaiso, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1730 Valparaíso earthquake 9.1–9.3 (est.)[35]
October 17, 1737 Russian Empire Kamchatka Peninsula, Russian Empire 1737 Kamchatka earthquake 9.0–9.3 (est.)
November 17, 1837 Chile Valdivia, Chile 1837 Valdivia earthquake 8.8–9.5 (est.)[36]
December 16, 1575 Spanish Empire Valdivia, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1575 Valdivia earthquake 9.0 (est.)
November 24, 1604 Spanish Empire Arica, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1604 Arica earthquake 9.0 (est.)
October 28, 1707 Pacific Ocean, Shikoku region, Japan 1707 Hōei earthquake 8.7–9.3 (est.) [37]
November 25, 1833 Dutch East Indies Sumatra, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1833 Sumatra earthquake 8.8–9.2 (est.)
May 17, 1841 Russian Empire Kamchatka, Russian Empire 1841 Kamchatka earthquake 9.0 (est.)
January 26, 1700 Spanish Empire Pacific Ocean, US and Canada (then claimed by the Spanish Empire and the British Empire) 1700 Cascadia earthquake 8.7–9.2 (est.)
August 13, 1868 Peru Arica, Chile (then Peru) 1868 Arica earthquake 8.5–9.3 (est.)
July 13, 869 Japan Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan 869 Jōgan earthquake 8.6–9.0 (est.)
November 26, 1852 Dutch East Indies Banda Islands, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1852 Banda Sea earthquake 8.8 (est.)[38]
May 9, 1877 Peru Iquique, Chile (then Peru) 1877 Iquique earthquake 8.7–8.9 (est.)
November 1, 1755 Kingdom of Portugal Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1755 Lisbon earthquake 8.5–9.0 (est.)
October 20, 1687 Spanish Empire Lima, Peru (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1687 Peru earthquake 8.7 (est.)
October 28, 1746 1746 Lima–Callao earthquake 8.6–8.8 (est.)
April 2, 1762 Chittagong, Bangladesh (then Kingdom of Mrauk U) 1762 Arakan earthquake 8.5–8.8 (est.)
September 20, 1498 Japan Pacific Ocean, Chūbu region, Japan 1498 Meiō earthquake 8.6 (est.)
March 28, 1787 Spanish Empire Oaxaca, Mexico (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1787 New Spain earthquake 8.6 (est.)
February 2, 1816 Kingdom of Portugal Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1816 North Atlantic earthquake 8.6 (est.)
July 21, 365 Greece Mediterranean Sea, Crete, Greece 365 Crete earthquake 8.5+ (est.)
August 24, 1356 Kingdom of Portugal Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1356 Lisbon earthquake [pt] 8.5 (est.)
June 6, 1505 Nepal Himalayas, northern Nepal 1505 Lo Mustang earthquake 8.2–8.8 (est.)
May 13, 1647 Spanish Empire Santiago, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1647 Santiago earthquake 8.5 (est.)
July 25, 1668 Qing dynasty Shandong, China 1668 Shandong earthquake 8.5 (est.)[39]
May 24, 1751 Spanish Empire Concepción, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1751 Concepción earthquake 8.5 (est.)
March 31, 1761 Kingdom of Portugal Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1761 Lisbon earthquake 8.5 (est.)[40]
April 4, 1819 Chile Copiapó, Chile 1819 Copiapó earthquake 8.5 (est.)[36]
November 19, 1822 Chile Valparaíso, Chile 1822 Valparaíso earthquake 8.5 (est.)
February 20, 1835 Chile Concepción, Chile 1835 Concepción earthquake 8.5 (est.)
February 8, 1843 Guadeloupe Guadeloupe region, Lesser Antilles 1843 Guadeloupe earthquake 8.5 (est.)[41]
February 16, 1861 Dutch East Indies Sumatra, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1861 Sumatra earthquake 8.5 (est.)
June 15, 1896 Empire of Japan Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Empire of Japan 1896 Sanriku earthquake 8.5 (est.)


Largest earthquakes by country/territory[edit]

  • This list is a work in progress. Information is likely to be changed.
  • The list refers to current country boundaries rather than those at the date of the earthquake.
  • Please note, multiple countries could have the same earthquake listed, such as the 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake being listed for both Ecuador and Colombia.
  • Unless otherwise noted, magnitudes are reported on the Moment magnitude scale (Mw).
Country/Territory Magnitude Date More information
 Afghanistan 7.8 November 15, 1921 [42]
 Albania 6.7 Mw November 30, 1967 [43]
 Algeria 7.1 October 10, 1980 1980 El Asnam earthquake
 American Samoa 6.4 October 11, 1944 [44]
 Andorra 6.7 Me February 2, 1428 1428 Catalonia earthquake
 Angola 6.0 May 24, 1914 [45]
 Anguilla 6.3 February 16, 1906 [46]
Antarctica 8.1 March 25, 1998 1998 Balleny Islands earthquake
 Antigua and Barbuda 8.0 Ms April 16, 1690 [47]
 Argentina 7.5 Mw November 23, 1977 1977 San Juan earthquake
 Armenia 6.8 Ms December 7, 1988 1988 Armenian earthquake
 Australia 6.6 January 22, 1988 1988 Tennant Creek earthquakes
 Austria 5.6–6.5 September 15, 1590 1590 Neulengbach earthquake
 Azerbaijan 7.0–7.3 September 30, 1139 1139 Ganja earthquake
 Bangladesh 8.5–8.8 April 2, 1762 1762 Arakan earthquake
 Barbados 6.5 February 18, 2014 & July 16, 2015 [48][49]
 Belgium 6.0–6.5 Ms September 18, 1692 1692 Northwestern Europe earthquake
 Belize 4.7 mb June 28, 1985 [50]
 Benin 4.4 mb September 11, 2009 [51]
 Bhutan 7.6–8.6 May 4, 1714 1714 Bhutan earthquake
 Bolivia 8.2 June 9, 1994 1994 Bolivia earthquake
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.1 October 27, 1969 1969 Banja Luka earthquake
 Botswana 6.7 ML October 11, 1952 [52]
 Brazil 7.6 November 9, 1963 [53]
 British Indian Ocean Territory 7.3 November 30, 1983 1983 Chagos Archipelago earthquake
 Brunei 5.2 mb February 22, 1992 [54]
 Bulgaria 7.2 March 31, 1901 & April 4, 1904 1901 Black Sea earthquake & 1904 Kresna earthquakes
 Burundi 5.4 October 30, 1966 [55]
 Cameroon 5.9 September 12, 1945 [56]
 Canada 8.7–9.2 January 26, 1700 1700 Cascadia earthquake
 Cape Verde 6.5 August 15, 1941 [57]
 Caribbean Netherlands 5.2 March 10, 2017 [58]
 Cayman Islands 7.7 January 28, 2020 2020 Caribbean earthquake
 Central African Republic 4.9 mb February 6, 1994 [59]
 Chile 9.4–9.6 May 22, 1960 1960 Valdivia earthquake
 China 8.6 August 15, 1950 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake
 Cocos Islands 7.9 June 18, 2000 [60]
 Colombia 8.8 January 31, 1906 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake
 Comoros 6.2 August 23, 1918 [61]
 Congo 5.2 April 26, 1998 [62]
 Costa Rica 7.7 April 22, 1991 1991 Limon earthquake
 Croatia 6.7 July 2, 1898 1898 Trilj earthquake
 Cuba 7.1 February 20, 1917 [63]
 Cyprus 7.0–7.5 May 11, 1222 1222 Cyprus earthquake
 Czech Republic 4.8 ML December 23, 1985 [64]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.9 December 13, 1910 [65]
 Denmark 4.4 mb February 19, 2010 [66]
 Djibouti 6.5 August 20, 1989 [67]
 Dominica 6.4 January 8, 1959 [68]
 Dominican Republic 7.8 August 4, 1946 1946 Dominican Republic earthquake
 East Timor 7.2 September 29, 1905 [69]
 Ecuador 8.8 January 31, 1906 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake
 Egypt 7.3 November 22, 1995 1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake
 El Salvador 8.0 MI December 19, 1862 [70]
 Equatorial Guinea 4.9 mb March 28, 1999 [71]
 Eritrea 6.6 December 28, 1977 [72]
 Estonia 4.5–4.7 mb October 25, 1976 Osmussaar earthquake
 Eswatini 4.4 mb August 4, 1987 [73]
 Ethiopia 6.5 August 25, 1906 [74]
 Fiji 8.2 August 19, 2018 2018 Fiji earthquakes
 Finland 4.7 Muk November 4, 1898 [75]
 France 6.4–6.5 Muk January 25, 1799 1799 Vendée earthquake
 French Guiana 6.9 August 4, 1885 [76]
 French Polynesia 5.6 March 6, 1965 [77]
 Gabon 6.0 September 23, 1974 [78]
 Georgia 7.0 April 29, 1991 1991 Racha earthquake
 Germany 6.4 ML February 18, 1756 1756 Düren earthquake
 Ghana 6.4 June 22, 1939 [79]
 Greece 8.5+ July 21, 365 365 Crete earthquake
 Greenland 7.4 November 20, 1933 1933 Baffin Bay earthquake
 Grenada 7.0 Ms December 3, 1831 [80]
 Guadeloupe 8.5 Muk February 8, 1843 1843 Guadeloupe earthquake
 Guam 7.8 August 8, 1993 1993 Guam earthquake
 Guatemala 7.7 August 6, 1942 1942 Guatemala earthquake
 Guinea 6.3 December 22, 1983 1983 Guinea earthquake
 Guyana 5.5 January 31, 2021 [81]
 Haiti 8.1 Ms May 7, 1842 1842 Cap-Haïtien earthquake
 Honduras 7.5 January 10, 2018 2018 Swan Islands earthquake
 Hong Kong 3.8 ML January 5, 2020 [82]
 Hungary 6.2–6.5 June 28, 1763 1763 Komárom earthquake
 Iceland 7.0 January 22, 1910 [83]
 India 8.6 August 15, 1950 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake
 Indonesia 9.2–9.3 December 26, 2004 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
 Iran 7.9 Ms December 22, 856 856 Damghan earthquake
 Iraq 7.0 September 22, 1666 [84]
 Ireland 4.0 ML June 6, 2012 [85]
 Israel 7.3 December 5, 1033 1033 Jordan Rift Valley earthquake
 Italy 7.4 January 11, 1693 1693 Sicily earthquake
 Jamaica 7.7 January 28, 2020 2020 Caribbean earthquake
 Japan 9.0–9.1 March 11, 2011 2011 Tōhoku earthquake
 Jersey 5.4 July 30, 1926 [86]
 Jordan 7.3 December 5, 1033 1033 Jordan Rift Valley earthquake
 Kazakhstan 8.0 July 11, 1889 & January 3, 1911 1889 Chilik earthquake & 1911 Kebin earthquake
 Kenya 6.7 January 6, 1928 [87]
 Kiribati 5.9 mb May 23, 1982 [88]
 Kosovo 6.1 ML February 26, 1755 & August 10, 1921 [89]
 Kuwait 4.7 mb June 2, 1993 & November 11, 2020 [90][91]
 Kyrgyzstan 8.0 July 11, 1889 & January 3, 1911 1889 Chilik earthquake & 1911 Kebin earthquake
 Laos 6.7 December 22, 1925 [92]
 Lebanon 7.5 July 9, 551 551 Beirut earthquake
 Liberia 4.5 mb November 25, 1995 [93]
 Libya 6.8 April 19, 1935 [94]
 Liechtenstein 3.6 December 12, 2013 [95]
 Luxembourg 2.9 ML September 3, 1986 [96]
 Madagascar 6.2 July 4, 1919 [97]
 Malawi 6.3 March 10, 1989 1989 Malawi earthquake
 Malaysia 6.6 August 11, 1923 [98]
 Maldives 7.4 February 29, 1944 [99]
 Mali 4.2 mb January 11, 1999 [100]
 Malta 5.5 April 21, 2023 [101]
 Marshall Islands 5.7 March 22, 1982 [102]
 Martinique 7.5–8.0 January 11, 1839 1839 Martinique earthquake
 Mauritania 4.6 mb September 3, 1993 & March 1, 2012 [103][104]
 Mauritius 6.4 June 19, 1976 [105]
 Mayotte 5.9 May 15, 2018 [106]
 Mexico 8.6 March 28, 1787 1787 New Spain earthquake
 Micronesia 7.8 August 16, 1911 [107]
 Moldova 3.9 mb April 2, 1988 [108]
 Monaco 6.3 July 19, 1963 [109]
 Mongolia 8.3 July 23, 1905 1905 Bolnai earthquake
 Montenegro 6.9 April 15, 1979 1979 Montenegro earthquake
 Morocco 6.8 November 27, 1755 & September 8, 2023 1755 Meknes earthquake & 2023 Al Haouz earthquake
 Mozambique 7.0 February 22, 2006 2006 Mozambique earthquake
 Myanmar 8.5–8.8 April 2, 1762 1762 Arakan earthquake
 Namibia 5.4 April 4, 2021 [110]
   Nepal 8.2–8.8 June 6, 1505 1505 Lo Mustang earthquake
 Netherlands 5.3 April 13, 1992 1992 Roermond earthquake
 New Caledonia 7.9 August 9, 1901 [111]
 New Zealand 8.2 January 23, 1855 & May 1, 1917 1855 Wairarapa earthquake[112]
 Nicaragua 7.7 September 2, 1992 1992 Nicaragua earthquake
 Niger 4.6 mb January 18, 2017 [113]
 Nigeria 4.5 mb March 7, 2000 [114]
 North Korea 7.7 September 29, 1973 [115]
 North Macedonia 6.7 March 8, 1931 [116]
 Northern Mariana Islands 7.7 December 28, 1940 & July 29, 2016 [117][118]
 Norway 6.8 August 30, 2012 [119]
 Oman 5.7 March 30, 1966 [120]
 Pakistan 8.1 November 28, 1945 1945 Balochistan earthquake
 Palau 6.5 May 31, 1982 [121]
 Palestine 7.3 December 5, 1033 1033 Jordan Rift Valley earthquake
 Panama 7.9–8.3 Ms September 7, 1882 1882 Panama earthquake
 Papua New Guinea 8.2 May 6, 1919 [122]
 Paraguay 6.5 February 28, 1989 [123]
 Peru (now part of present-day Chile) 8.5–9.3 August 13, 1868 1868 Arica earthquake
 Philippines 8.3 August 15, 1918 1918 Celebes Sea earthquake
 Poland 5.6 December 3, 1786 [124]
 Portugal 8.5–9.0 November 1, 1755 1755 Lisbon earthquake
 Puerto Rico 8.0 May 2, 1787 1787 Boricua earthquake
 Romania 7.9 October 26, 1802 1802 Vrancea earthquake
 Russia 9.0–9.3 October 16, 1737 1737 Kamchatka earthquake
 Rwanda 5.9 February 3, 2008 2008 Lake Kivu earthquake
 Saint Barthélemy 5.4 November 18, 1990 [125]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 6.5 March 16, 1985 [126]
 Saint Lucia 7.3 March 19, 1953 [127]
 Saint Martin 5.0 July 4, 2012 [128]
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 7.2 November 18, 1929 1929 Grand Banks earthquake
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6.1 July 6, 1940 [129]
 Samoa 8.3–8.5 June 25, 1917 1917 Samoa earthquake
 São Tomé and Príncipe 5.5 December 19, 2019 [130]
 Saudi Arabia 7.3 November 22, 1995 1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake
 Senegal 5.5 May 21, 1986 [131]
 Serbia 6.0 May 15, 1927 [132]
 Seychelles 5.2 mb April 28, 1995 [133]
 Slovakia 6.2–6.5 June 28, 1763 1763 Komárom earthquake
 Slovenia 6.1 ML April 14, 1895 1895 Ljubljana earthquake
 Solomon Islands 8.1 April 1, 2007 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake
 Somalia 6.0 January 22, 1929 [134]
 South Africa 6.8 December 31, 1932 [135]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 8.1–8.3 August 12, 2021 2021 South Sandwich Islands earthquakes
 South Korea 7.5 June 26, 1681 1681 Yangyang earthquake [ko]
 South Sudan 7.2 May 20, 1990 1990 South Sudan earthquakes
 Spain 7.8 March 29, 1954 [136]
 Sri Lanka 5.7 August 30, 1973 [137]
 Sudan 6.0 May 12, 1938 [138]
  Switzerland 6.0–7.1 October 18, 1356 1356 Basel earthquake
 Syria 7.6 Ms May 20, 1202 1202 Syria earthquake
 Taiwan 8.2 June 5, 1920 1920 Hualien earthquake
 Tajikistan 7.5 July 10, 1949 1949 Khait earthquake
 Tanzania 7.0 July 8, 1919 [139]
 Thailand 6.1 May 5, 2014 2014 Mae Lao earthquake
 Tonga 8.3–8.5 June 25, 1917 1917 Samoa earthquake
 Trinidad and Tobago 7.5 Mfa January 10, 1888 [140]
 Tunisia 7.2 October 9, 859 [141]
 Turkey 7.8–8.0 Ms August 17, 1668 1668 North Anatolia earthquake
 Turkmenistan 8.2 Ms July 7, 1895 [142]
 Tuvalu 5.4 Mw February 5, 1983 [143]
 Uganda 6.5 June 30, 1952 [144]
 Ukraine 6.7 September 11, 1927 1927 Crimean earthquakes
 United Arab Emirates 5.0 March 11, 2002 [145]
 United Kingdom 6.1 ML June 7, 1931 1931 Dogger Bank earthquake
 United States 9.25 June 11, 1585 1585 Aleutian Islands earthquake
 U.S. Virgin Islands 7.2 November 18, 1867 1867 Virgin Islands earthquake and tsunami
 Uruguay 5.5 Ms June 5, 1888 1888 Río de la Plata earthquake
 Uzbekistan 7.4 Ms October 21, 1907 1907 Qaratog earthquake
 Vanuatu 8.1 September 20, 1920 [146]
 Venezuela 7.6–7.7 Mw April 29, 1894 & October 29, 1900 1900 San Narciso earthquake & 1894 Venezuelan earthquake[147]
 Vietnam 6.8 November 1, 1935 [148]
 Wallis and Futuna 7.6 May 23, 1956 [149]
 Yemen 6.7 December 18, 1908 [150]
 Zambia 6.5 May 1, 1919 [151]
 Zimbabwe 5.5 September 25, 1963 [152]

Costliest earthquakes[edit]

This is the top ten major earthquakes by the dollar value of property (public and private) losses directly attributable to the earthquake.

Rank Event Location Magnitude Property damage
1 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami Japan Japan 9.1 $360 billion[153][154]
2 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake Japan Japan 6.9 $200 billion[155]
3 2023 Turkey–Syria earthquakes Turkey Syria Turkey
Syria
7.8 $163.6 billion[156][157]
4 2008 Sichuan earthquake China China 7.9 $150 billion[158]
5 2011 Christchurch earthquake New Zealand New Zealand 6.3 $40 billion[159]
6 2004 Chūetsu earthquake Japan Japan 6.6 $28 billion[160][161]
7 2011 Sikkim earthquake India India 6.9 $22.3 billion[162]
8 1999 İzmit earthquake Turkey Turkey 7.6 $20 billion[160]
9 2009 L'Aquila earthquake Italy Italy 6.3 $16 billion[163]
10 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes Italy Italy 6.1 $15.8 billion[164]

Deadliest earthquakes[edit]

The following is a summary list of earthquakes with over approximately 100,000 deaths. The 893 Ardabil earthquake probably relate to the 893 Dvin earthquake, due to misreading of the Arabic word for Dvin, 'Dabil' as 'Ardabil'.[165] This is regarded as a 'fake earthquake'.[166]

Deadliest earthquakes[167]
Rank Event Date Location Fatalities Magn­itude Notes
1 1976 Tangshan earthquake July 28, 1976 China Hebei, China 242,769–700,000+ 7.6 Official casualty figure is 242,769 deaths. Estimated death toll as high as 655,000. 799,000 injured.[168][169]
2 1920 Haiyuan earthquake December 16, 1920 Beiyang government NingxiaGansu, China 273,400 7.8 Previously cited death toll was 230,000 and this fugure was revised in 2010.[170][171]
3 526 Antioch earthquake May 21, 526 Byzantine Empire Antioch, Byzantine Empire (modern-day Turkey) 250,000[172] 7.0[173] Procopius (II.14.6), sources based on John of Ephesus.
4 1139 Ganja earthquake September 30, 1139 Ganja, Seljuk Empire (modern-day Azerbaijan Azerbaijan) 230,000–300,000[174] 7.0 Mw Death toll may have been a historical conflation with earthquakes on November 1137 in the Jazira plain and the 1138 Aleppo earthquake.[175]
5 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami December 26, 2004 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia 227,898 9.1–9.3 Death toll includes those missing and presumed dead.[174]
6 1138 Aleppo earthquake October 11, 1138 Aleppo, Seljuk Empire (modern-day Syria Syria) 130,000–230,000[176] 7.1[176] The figure of 230,000 dead is based on a historical conflation of this earthquake with earthquakes in November 1137 on the Jazira plain and the 1139 Ganja earthquakein the Azerbaijani city of Ganja. The first mention of a 230,000 death toll was by Ibn Taghribirdi in the fifteenth century.[175]
7 2010 Haiti earthquake January 12, 2010 Haiti Haiti 100,000–316,000 7.0 Estimates vary from 316,000 (Haitian government) to 222,570 (UN OCHA estimate)[177] to 158,000 (Medicine, Conflict and Survival) to between 85,000 and 46,000 (report commissioned by USAID).[178][179]
8 1303 Hongdong earthquake July 25, 1303 Shanxi, Yuan dynasty (modern-day China China) 200,000[180] 8.0 Taiyuan and Pingyang were leveled.
9 856 Damghan earthquake December 22, 856 Damghan, Abbasid Caliphate (modern-day Iran Iran) 200,000 7.9 Ms
10 533 Aleppo earthquake November 29, 533 Byzantine Empire Aleppo, Byzantine Empire (modern-day Syria) 130,000[181] Unknown
11 1948 Ashgabat earthquake October 6, 1948 Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Ashgabat, Turkmen SSR (modern-day Turkmenistan) 110,000 7.3 Ms Previously cited death toll was 10,000 until a news release on December 9, 1988 advised that the correct death toll was 110,000.[174]
12 1923 Great Kantō earthquake September 1, 1923 Empire of Japan Kantō region, Japan 105,385[182] 7.9 This earthquake with an epicenter beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay, shook the Kantō plain on the Japanese island of Honshū at 11:58 am. Shaking duration reported between 4 and 10 minutes, devastating Tokyo, Yokohama, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka.[183] Shaking slid the 93-ton Great Buddha statue at Kamakura almost 2 feet (0.61 m) forward. Casualty estimates range from 100,000 to 142,800, the latter figure including ≈40,000 missing later presumed dead.
13 1556 Shaanxi earthquake January 23, 1556 Shaanxi, China 100,000+ 8.0 Direct deaths thought to be just over 100,000 while about 730,000 people died from famines or migrated elsewhere.[184][185][186][187]
14 1290 Zhili earthquake September 27, 1290 Ningcheng, Yuan dynasty (modern-day China China) 100,000 6.8 Ms Estimates also suggests lower values of at least 7,000.[188]

Most studied earthquakes[edit]

The 50 most studied earthquakes according to the International Seismological Centre (ISC), based on a count of scientific papers (mostly in English) that discuss that earthquake. The "Event #" is linked to the ISC Event Bibliography for that event.

Rank Event origin time ISC Event # Papers ISC code Event
1 2011-03-11 05:46:23 16461282 1992 TOHOKU2011 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
2 2008-05-12 06:28:00 13228121 1641 WENCHUAN2008 2008 Sichuan earthquake
3 2004-12-26 00:58:52 7453151 948 SUMATRA2004 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
4 1999-09-20 17:47:16 1718616 753 CHI-CHI1999 1999 Jiji earthquake
5 1995-01-16 20:46:51 124708 536 SHYOGO1995 Great Hanshin earthquake
6 1994-01-17 12:30:54 189275 530 NORTHRIDGE1994 1994 Northridge earthquake
7 2010-02-27 06:34:13 14340585 515 MAULE2010 2010 Chile earthquake
8 2009-04-06 01:32:42 13438018 511 LAQUILA2009 2009 L'Aquila earthquake
9 1989-10-18 00:04:14 389808 508 LOMAPRIETA1989 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
10 2015-04-25 06:11:26 607208674 488 GORKHA2015 April 2015 Nepal earthquake
11 1992-06-28 11:57:35 289086 429 LANDERS1992 1992 Landers earthquake
12 1999-08-17 00:01:38 1655218 415 IZMIT1999 1999 İzmit earthquake
13 2016-04-15 16:25:06 610289055 339 KUMAMOTO2016 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes
14 1964-03-28 03:36:13 869809 327 ALASKA1964 1964 Alaska earthquake
15 2013-04-20 00:02:47 607304721 307 LUSHAN2013 2013 Lushan earthquake
16 1960-05-22 19:11:20 879136 280 VALDIVIA1960 1960 Valdivia earthquake
17 2010-09-03 16:35:46 15155483 251 DARFIELD2010 2010 Canterbury earthquake
18 2001-01-26 03:16:40 1763683 251 BHUJ2001 2001 Gujarat earthquake
19 1985-09-19 13:17:50 516095 249 MEXICOCITY1985 1985 Mexico City earthquake
20 2016-08-24 01:36:33 611462212 248 AMATRICE2016 August 2016 Central Italy earthquake
21 1971-02-09 14:00:40 787038 241 SANFERNANDO1971 1971 San Fernando earthquake
22 1976-07-27 19:42:53 711732 232 TANGSHAN1976 1976 Tangshan earthquake
23 2016-11-13 11:02:59 615035032 228 KAIKOURA2016 2016 Kaikōura earthquake
24 2003-09-25 19:50:07 7134409 221 TOKACHI-OKI2003 2003 Tokachi earthquake
25 1980-11-23 18:34:52 635924 210 IRPINIA1980 1980 Irpinia earthquake
26 2004-10-23 08:55:58 7421058 203 MID-NIIGATA2004 2004 Chūetsu earthquake
27 1976-05-06 20:00:12 713583 198 FRIULI1976 1976 Friuli earthquake
28 2012-05-20 02:03:53 601025379 197 EMILIA2012A 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes
29 2011-02-21 23:51:42 16168897 197 CHRISTCHURCH2011A 2011 Christchurch earthquake
30 2019-07-06 03:19:55 616203758 194 RIDGECREST2019B 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes
31 2005-03-28 16:09:35 7486110 192 NIAS2005 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake
32 2004-09-28 17:15:24 7406045 191 PARKFIELD2004 Parkfield earthquake
33 2016-10-30 06:40:19 609624987 183 NORCIA2016 October 2016 Central Italy earthquakes
34 1999-10-16 09:46:45 1643776 179 HECTOR-MINE1999 1999 Hector Mine earthquake
35 2005-10-08 03:50:37 7703077 171 KASHMIR2005 2005 Kashmir earthquake
36 2001-11-14 09:26:12 2331800 170 KUNLUN2001 2001 Kunlun earthquake
37 1923-09-01 02:58:35 911526 170 KANTO1923 1923 Great Kantō earthquake
38 2022-01-15 04:14:45 621831271 169 HUNGATONGAHUNGAAPAI2022 2022 Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai eruption and tsunami
39 1979-10-15 23:16:57 657282 163 IMPERIAL1979 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake
40 2015-09-16 22:54:30 611531714 161 ILLAPEL2015 2015 Illapel earthquake
41 2002-11-03 22:12:41 6123395 160 DENALI2002 2002 Denali earthquake
42 1999-11-12 16:57:19 1650092 159 DUZCE1999 1999 Düzce earthquake
43 2014-04-01 23:46:47 610102185 154 IQUIQUE2014 2014 Iquique earthquake
44 2010-01-12 21:53:10 14226221 153 HAITI2010 2010 Haiti earthquake
45 2017-08-08 13:19:49 610874246 151 JUIZHAIGOU2017 2017 Jinghe earthquake
46 1988-12-07 07:41:24 417441 151 ARMENIA1988 1988 Armenian earthquake
47 2019-07-04 17:33:50 616217956 150 RIDGECREST2019A 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes
48 2003-12-26 01:56:53 7217667 145 BAM2003 2003 Bam earthquake
49 2010-04-04 22:40:43 600257057 145 EL-MAYOR-CUCAPAH2010 2010 Baja California earthquake
50 2012-05-29 07:00:04 605482196 144 EMILIA2012B 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes

modified from figure 2, "The most studied events", at the ISC's Overview of the ISC Event Bibliography.

International Seismological Centre. Event Bibliography. Thatcham, United Kingdom. 2018.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  63. ^ ANSS. "M 7.1 – 84 km SW of Niquero, Cuba iscgem913414". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  64. ^ ANSS. "M 4.8 – 0 km NW of Skalná, Czechia usp0002p9f". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  65. ^ ANSS. "M 6.9 – 39 km WSW of Karema, Tanzania iscgem16958124". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  66. ^ ANSS. "M 4.4 – North Sea usp000h7fy". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  67. ^ ANSS. "usp0003ynm M 6.5 – Djibouti". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  68. ^ ANSS. "M 6.4 – 18 km SSE of Berekua, Dominica iscgem881160". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  69. ^ ANSS. "M 7.2 – 58 km ENE of Lospalos, Timor Leste iscgem16957874". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
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  71. ^ ANSS. "M 4.9 - Equatorial Guinea usp00095cr". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  72. ^ ANSS. "usp0000s8t M 6.6 – 144 km NE of Massawa, Eritrea". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  73. ^ ANSS. "M 4.4 – 16 km ENE of Sidvokodvo, Eswatini usp000378n". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  74. ^ ANSS. "M 6.5 – 8 km E of Goba, Ethiopia iscgem16957915". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
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  77. ^ ANSS. "M 5.6 – South Pacific Ocean iscgem858385". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  78. ^ ANSS. "usp000084t M 6.2 – Gabon". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  79. ^ ANSS. "M 6.4 – 8 km ENE of Swedru, Ghana iscgem902037". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  80. ^ "NCEI Significant Earthquake Information". ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  81. ^ ANSS. "M 5.5 – 82 km SSE of Lethem, Guyana us6000ddge". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  82. ^ ANSS. "M 3.8 – 14 km SW of Tai O, Hong Kong us70006v48". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  83. ^ ANSS. "M 7.0 – 79 km N of Norðurþing, Iceland iscgem16958067". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  84. ^ Onur, T.; Gok, R.; Abdulnaby, W.; Mahdi, H.; Numan, N.M.; Al-Shukri, H.; Shakir, A.; Chlaib, H.; Ameen, T.H.; Abd, N. (2016). "A Comprehensive Earthquake Catalogue for Iraq in Terms of Moment Magnitude". Seismological Research Letters. 88 (3): 798–811. doi:10.1785/0220160078. OSTI 1466119.
  85. ^ ANSS. "M 4.0 - 60 km W of Belmullet, Ireland usp000jmdw". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  86. ^ ANSS. "M 5.4 – 18 km E of Saint Helier, Jersey iscgemsup909960". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  87. ^ ANSS. "M 6.7 – 33 km WNW of Nyahururu, Kenya iscgem908452". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  88. ^ ANSS. "M 5.9 – Gilbert Islands, Kiribati region usp0001mg1". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  89. ^ "Të gjitha tërmetet që kanë ndodhur në territorin e Kosovës". September 24, 2019.
  90. ^ ANSS. "M 4.7 – 44 km S of Al Jahr?', Kuwait usp0005txp". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  91. ^ ANSS. "M 4.7 – 38 km NW of Al Wafrah, Kuwait us7000cdef". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  92. ^ ANSS. "M 6.7 – 41 km S of Luang Namtha, Laos iscgem910778". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  93. ^ ANSS. "M 4.5 – 16 km SW of Tubmanburg, Liberia usp00077es". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  94. ^ ANSS. "M 6.8 – near the coast of Libya iscgem904213". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  95. ^ ANSS. "usc000linq M 3.6 – 1 km SSW of Balzers, Liechtenstein". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  96. ^ ANSS. "usp0002xsf M 2.9 – 2 km E of Wilwerwiltz, Luxembourg". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  97. ^ ANSS. "M 6.2 – 283 km WSW of Anakao, Madagascar iscgemsup912832". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  98. ^ ANSS. "M 6.6 – 26 km NNW of Lahad Datu, Malaysia iscgem911497". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  99. ^ ANSS. "M 7.4 – 212 km E of Fuvahmulah, Maldives iscgem899313". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  100. ^ ANSS. "M 4.2 – 75 km NW of Kolokani, Mali usp00090ya". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  101. ^ ANSS. "M 5.5 – 109 km SE of Birżebbuġa, Malta us6000k67y". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  102. ^ ANSS. "M 5.6 – Marshall Islands region usp0001k93". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  103. ^ ANSS. "M 4.6 – Mauritania usp0005zpw". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  104. ^ ANSS. "M 4.6 – 76 km E of Zouerate, Mauritania usp000jfnn". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  105. ^ ANSS. "M 6.1 – 279 km NE of Port Mathurin, Mauritius usp0000gys". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  106. ^ ANSS. "M 5.9 – 32 km E of Pamandzi, Mayotte us1000e5k1". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  107. ^ ANSS. "M 7.8 – State of Yap, Federated States of Micronesia iscgem16958156". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  108. ^ ANSS. "M 3.9 – 12 km S of Ocni?a, Moldova usp0003ejy". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  109. ^ ANSS. "M 6.3 – Ligurian Sea iscgem872748". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  110. ^ ANSS. "M 5.4 – 68 km NNW of Khorixas, Namibia us6000dyuk". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
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  112. ^ ANSS. "M 8.2 – Kermadec Islands region iscgem913483". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  113. ^ ANSS. "M 4.6 – 259 km WNW of Bilma, Niger us10007u0v". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  114. ^ ANSS. "M 4.5 – 34 km S of Siluko, Nigeria usp0009pd8". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  115. ^ ANSS. "M 6.5 – 61 km SSE of Ungsang-nodongjagu, North Korea usp00003kr". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  116. ^ ANSS. "M 6.7 – 3 km SW of Kuklis, North Macedonia iscgem906655". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  117. ^ ANSS. "M 7.7 – Mariana Islands region iscgem901750". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  118. ^ ANSS. "M 7.7 – Pagan region, Northern Mariana Islands us100068jg". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  119. ^ ANSS. "M 6.8 – 89 km NW of Olonkinbyen, Svalbard and Jan Mayen usp000jr55". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  120. ^ ANSS. "M 5.7 – 291 km ESE of Sur, Oman iscgem849714". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  121. ^ ANSS. "M 6.4 – 121 km ESE of Kayangel, Palau usp0001mm3". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  122. ^ ANSS. "M 8.2 – 183 km ESE of Kokopo, Papua New Guinea iscgem912783". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  123. ^ ANSS. "M 6.5 – 86 km E of General Enrique Mosconi, Argentina usp0003sea". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
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  125. ^ ANSS. "M 5.4 – 26 km NE of Upper Hell's Gate, Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba usp0004h3a". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  126. ^ ANSS. "M 6.5 – 18 km SE of Market Shop, Saint Kitts and Nevis usp0002cy6". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  127. ^ ANSS. "M 7.3 – Windward Islands iscgem891566". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  128. ^ ANSS. "M 5.0 – 13 km ESE of Blowing Point Village, Anguilla usp000jnm9". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  129. ^ ANSS. "M 6.1 – 13 km W of Barrouallie, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines iscgem901464". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  130. ^ ANSS. "M 5.5 – 87km ENE of Santo Antonio, Sao Tome and Principe us70006nih". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  131. ^ ANSS. "M 5.5 – 289 km W of Mermoz Boabab, Senegal usp0002u8a". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  132. ^ ANSS. "M 6.0 – 8 km WNW of Kragujevac, Serbia iscgem909252". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  133. ^ ANSS. "1995 M 5.2 – South Indian Ocean". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  134. ^ ANSS. "M 6.0 – northwestern Somalia iscgem907872". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  135. ^ ANSS. "M 6.8 – 118 km ESE of Richards Bay, South Africa iscgem906542". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  136. ^ ANSS. "iscgem890481 M 7.8 – Strait of Gibraltar". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  137. ^ ANSS. "1973 M 5.9 – 275 km E of Kalmunai, Sri Lanka". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  138. ^ ANSS. "M 6.0 – 70 km SSW of Tok?r, Sudan 1938". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  139. ^ ANSS. "M 7.0 – 17 km SSW of Sumbawanga, Tanzania 1919". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
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  144. ^ ANSS. "M 6.5 – 53 km N of Rukungiri, Uganda 1952". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  145. ^ ANSS. "M 5.0 – 14 km NW of Reef Al Fujairah City, United Arab Emirates 2002". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  146. ^ ANSS. "M 8.1 – 97 km WSW of Isangel, Vanuatu 1920". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
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  148. ^ ANSS. "M 6.8 – 27 km SE of Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam 1935". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  149. ^ ANSS. "M 7.6 – Wallis and Futuna 1956". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  150. ^ ANSS. "M 6.7 – 170 km E of Hadibu, Yemen 1908". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  151. ^ ANSS. "M 6.5 – 12 km WNW of Chama, Zambia 1919". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
  152. ^ ANSS. "M 5.5 – 38 km SW of Siavonga, Zambia 1963". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
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  184. ^ 颤抖的地球—地震科学 Archived 13 November 2023 at the Wayback Machine (2005). Researched by China Earthquake Administration seismologists 冯万鹏,薑文亮,龚丽霞,公茂盛,胡进军; Revised by CEA seismologists 王文清,续春荣,张宝红; Edited by CEA chiefs 谢礼立,张景发. Tsinghua University Press. Pages XIII, 162. "1556年陕西华县8级大地震,死亡的83万人中, 据估计死于瘟疫者不下七八成" [Among the 830,000 died, it is estimated that no less than 70% or 80% died from plagues]
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