List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available and also arguably more meaningful.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data, and while most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalents, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Foreign exchange reserves[edit]

Rank Country or region Foreign exchange
reserves
(millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[1] 3,092,431 September 2019 [2]
2  Japan 1,322,279 June 2019 [3]
 Europe (ECB - Eurosystem) 857,965 28 February 2018[4][5]
3   Switzerland 804,323 May 2019[6]
4  Russia 532,700 06 Sep 2019[7]
5  Saudi Arabia 512,547 June 2019[8]
6  Taiwan[9] 467,230 July 2019[10]
7  India[11] 437,833 4 Oct 2019[12]
8  Hong Kong 432,800 August 2019 [13]
9  South Korea 403,100 June 2019[14]
10  Brazil 388,090 June 2019[15]
11  Singapore 273,943 June 2019[16]
12  Thailand 220,505 June 2019 [17]
13  Germany 187,401 June 2019[18]
14  Mexico 186,209 June 2019[19]
15  France 181,929 June 2019[20]
16  United Kingdom 168,206 June 2019[21]
17  Italy 164,992 June 2019[22]
18  Czech Republic 144,937 July 2019[23]
19  Iran[24] 132,600 31 December 2017[25]
20  United States 128,338 30 June 2019[26]
21  Indonesia 123,823 July 2019[27]
22  Israel 118,208 March 2019[28]
23  Poland 117,801 June 2019[29]
24  United Arab Emirates 115,000 31 May 2019[25]
25  Malaysia 103,489 31 Aug 2019[30]
26  Canada 86,300 June 2019[31][32]
27  Philippines 86,030 Aug 2019[33]
 Europe (ECB) 80,292 28 February 2018[34][35]
28  Algeria 79,870 December 2018[36]
29  Turkey 74,363 Aug 2019[37]
30  Libya 70,990 31 December 2015[25]
31  Denmark 68,120 June 2019[38]
32  Vietnam 68,000 June 2019[39]
33  Peru 66,714 June 2019
34  Argentina 66,399 07 August 2019
35  Norway 60,230 March 2019[40]
36  Australia 58,676 31 March 2018[41]
37  Spain 54,155 March 2016[42]
38  Iraq 54,060 31 December 2015[25]
39  Qatar 52,408 April 2019[25]
40  Colombia 51,975 31 May 2019
41  South Africa 51,641 December 2018[43]
42  Sweden 50,520 April 2019[44]
43  Nigeria 44,940 June 2019
44  Egypt 44,352 June 2019
45  Azerbaijan 44,000 March 2018[45][46][47]
46  Lebanon 43,000 31 November 2017[25]
47  Netherlands 41,817 July 2019[48]
48  Romania 41,110 May 2019[49]
49  Chile 40,233 July 2019[50]
50  Kuwait 33,130 31 December 2017[25]
51  Bangladesh 32,549 June 2019[51]
52  Hungary 31,367 March 2016[52]
53  Kazakhstan 30,993 February 2018[53]
54  Belgium 24,861 March 2016[54]
55  Austria 24,758 March 2016[55]
56  Bulgaria 24,318 March 2016[25][56]
57  Angola 24,080 31 December 2015[25]
58  Morocco 23,631 Sep 2018[25][57][58]
59  New Zealand 22,183 31 March 2018[59]
60  Ukraine 22,015 September 2019[60]
61  Portugal 21,328 March 2016[61]
62  Macau, China 19,200 Sep 2018[62]
63  Uruguay 17,779 June 2019[63]
64  Oman 16,863 28 February 2019[25]
65  Jordan 15,360 August 2017[64]
66  Uzbekistan 15,000 31 December 2015[25]
67  Croatia 14,307 February 2016[25][65]
68  Guatemala 14,279 June 2019[66]
69  Turkmenistan 13,620 31 December 2015[25]
70  Cambodia 12,300 May 2018[67]
71  Serbia 12,150 February 2018[68]
72  Cuba 12,100 31 December 2015[25]
73  Finland 10,552 March 2018[69]
74    Nepal 9,329 15 July 2018[70]
75  Kenya 8,864 June 2019[71]
76  Sri Lanka 8,590 31 Aug 2018 [72]
77  Venezuela 8,527 May 2019[73]
78  Belarus 8,513 June 2019[74]
79  Myanmar 8,463 31 December 2015[25]
80  Trinidad and Tobago 8,000 April 2018[75]
81  North Korea 8,000 November 2013[76]
82  Afghanistan 7,800 30 March 2019[77]
83  Costa Rica 7,762 30 July 2019[78]
84  Pakistan 7,757 10 Oct 2019[79]
85  Botswana 7,546 31 December 2015[25]
86  Dominican Republic 7,239 December 2018[80]
87  Mauritius 7,158 June 2019
88  Paraguay 6,864 June 2019
89  Iceland 6,830 June 2019[81]
90  Ghana 6,756 December 2018[25]
91  Tunisia 6,714 February 2016[82]
92  Greece 6,591 June 2019[83]
93  Bolivia 6,103 June 2019
94  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,370 December 2017[84]
95  Ireland 4,745 June 2019
96  Ivory Coast 4,716 31 December 2015[25]
97  Honduras 4,612 December 2018[85]
98  Ecuador 4,095 June 2019
99  Tanzania 4,073 31 December 2015[25]
100  Latvia 3,817 December 2018[57][86]
101  Georgia 3,500 June 2019[57][87][88]
102  Albania 3,400 October 2018[25][57][89]
103  Panama 3,378 31 December 2015[25]
104  Bahrain 3,373 30 June 2019[25]
105  Brunei 3,366 2015[90]
106  Uganda 3,338 30 June 2019[25]
107  El Salvador 3,172 March 2016[91]
108  Ethiopia 3,113 31 December 2015[25]
109  Zambia 2,968 31 December 2015[25]
110  Slovakia 2,879 January 2016[25][92]
111  Jamaica 2,740 February 2016[25][57][93]
112  Cameroon 2,714 31 December 2015[25]
113  Mozambique 2,582 31 December 2015[25]
114  Nicaragua 2,520 April 2016[25][57][94]
115  North Macedonia 2,480 February 2016[25][57][95]
116  Armenia 2,300 August 2019[96]
117  Republic of the Congo 2,244 31 December 2015[25]
118  Moldova 2,098 25 November 2016[97][98][99]
119  Senegal 2,012 31 December 2015[25]
120  Yemen 1,978 31 December 2015[25]
121  Kyrgyzstan 1,944 October 2016[25][57][100][101]
122  Haiti 1,919 31 December 2015[25]
123  Gabon 1,878 31 December 2015[25]
124  Curaçao 1,791 2015[90]
125  Papua New Guinea 1,738 31 December 2015[25]
126  Namibia 1,690 31 December 2015[25]
127  Lithuania 1,227 April 2016[57][102]
128  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,216 31 December 2015[25]
129  Equatorial Guinea 1,205 31 December 2015[25]
130  Bhutan 1,103 2015[90]
131  Luxembourg 1,077 March 2016[25][57][103]
132  Laos 1,058 31 December 2015[25][90]
133  Niger 1,039 2015[90]
134  Mongolia 1,039 October 2016[104]
135  Rwanda 1,030 31 December 2015[25]
136  Fiji 919 31 December 2015[25]
137  Lesotho 904 31 December 2015[25]
138  Bahamas 896 31 December 2015[25][90]
139  Kosovo 890 30 September 2015[25][90][105]
140  Cyprus 877 March 2016[25][57][106]
141  Mauritania 874 2017[90]
142  Slovenia 870 April 2016[57][107]
143  Madagascar 832 31 December 2015[25]
144  Aruba 816 2015[90]
145  Syria 773 31 December 2015[25]
146  Montenegro 734 2015[25][90]
147  Benin 732 31 December 2015[25][90]
148  Malawi 693 31 December 2015[25][90]
149  Malta 671 March 2016[25][57][108]
150  Barbados 658 31 December 2015[25]
151  Mali 624 2015[90]
152  Sierra Leone 621 2015[90]
153  Guyana 601 31 December 2015[25]
154  Maldives 576 2015[25][90]
155  Togo 574 31 December 2015[25][90]
156  Seychelles 555 March 2016[25][57][109]
157  Eswatini 548 31 December 2015[25][90]
158  Liberia 523 2015[90]
159  Solomon Islands 520 2015[90]
160  Cape Verde 495 31 December 2015[25][90]
161  Estonia 494 March 2016[25][57][110]
162  Tajikistan 494 31 December 2015[25]
164  Palestine 464 March 2016[57][111]
165  Timor-Leste 438 2015[90]
166  Belize 437 31 December 2015[25][90]
167  San Marino 392 2014[90]
168  Chad 383 31 December 2015[25]
169  Djibouti 365 2015[90]
170  Antigua and Barbuda 356 2015[90]
171  Zimbabwe 339 31 December 2015[25][90]
172  Burkina Faso 333 31 December 2016[25]
173  Guinea-Bissau 332 2015[90]
174  Suriname 330 31 December 2015[25][90]
175  Saint Lucia 318 2015[90]
176  Saint Kitts and Nevis 288 2015[90]
177  Vanuatu 251 31 December 2016[25][90]
178  Guinea 244 31 December 2016[25][90]
179  South Sudan 230 2015[90]
180  Central African Republic 214 2015[90]
181  Eritrea 213 31 December 2016[25]
180  Comoros 201 2015[90]
181  Grenada 198 2015[90]
182  Tonga 181 31 December 2016[25][90]
183  Sudan 167 31 December 2016[25][90]
184  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 165 31 December 2016[25][90]
185  Samoa 139 31 December 2015[25][90]
186  Federated States of Micronesia 135 2015[90]
187  Burundi 100 31 December 2016[25]
188  Dominica 100 31 December 2016[25]
189  Gambia 92 31 December 2016[25]
190  São Tomé and Príncipe 68 31 December 2016[25]
191  Montserrat 51 31 December 2015[25]
192  Somalia 2 2014[25]

Currency composition of foreign exchange reserves[edit]

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB).[112]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)
(US Dollars, billions)[112]
No. Currency Q4 2016 Q1 2017 Q2 2017 Q3 2017 Q4 2017 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4 2018
1 United StatesUSD 5,501.98 5,713.35 5,909.13 6,124.73 6,280.61 6,530.87 6,560.78 6,632.15 6,617.84
2 European UnionEUR 1,610.87 1,703.13 1,847.19 1,933.68 2,019.25 2,117.57 2,129.41 2,192.43 2,219.34
3 JapanJPY 332.93 399.85 427.79 435.67 491.01 477.28 511.52 532.94 558.36
4 United KingdomGBP 365.85 377.89 409.48 434.08 454.12 486.13 469.86 481.10 475.45
5 CanadaCAD 163.14 167.49 178.77 192.85 202.80 193.29 200.22 208.74 197.76
6 AustraliaAUD 142.30 156.28 162.31 171.22 180.01 176.96 178.61 180.91 174.21
7 ChinaRMB 90.78 95.42 100.00 108.37 123.47 145.67 192.75 192.38 202.79
8 SwitzerlandCHF 13.69 14.45 15.60 16.31 18.09 17.93 17.18 17.18 15.86
Other currencies 199.51 208.28 209.55 228.81 244.69 256.46 254.62 269.60 266.07
Unallocated Reserves 2,293.61 2,063.28 1,859.04 1,650.32 1,430.36 1,201.40 951.69 692.22 690.55
Total 10,714.68 10,899.42 11,118.86 11,296.05 11,444.41 11,603.57 11,466.63 11,399.66 11,418.24

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External links[edit]