Larimichthys polyactis

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Small yellow croaker
Larimichthys polyactis.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Sciaenidae
Genus: Larimichthys
Species:
L. polyactis
Binomial name
Larimichthys polyactis
(Bleeker, 1877)
Synonyms

Pseudosciaena polyactis Bleeker, 1877
Pseudosciaena manchurica Jordan and Thompson, 1911

Larimichthys polyactis, called the redlip croaker, small yellow croaker, little yellow croaker or yellow corvina,[1] is a species of croaker native to the western Pacific, generally in temperate waters such as the East China Sea and, the Yellow Sea. They are benthopelagic feeders that remain in shallow waters above 120 m but avoid brackish conditions. And the bottom of the water should be sand or mud. Individual males can reach 42 cm and common height is about 30 cm. Their body shape is almost rectangle. They have red lips, grey gold body, gold belly and light yellow fins. And inside of its mouth is white and a gill slit is black. In their head, there are the two hard pale white bones which keep balance when they swim, which is also used as a material of medicine. They can make a noise by moving their air bladder in order not to scatter. And they have a habit of leaping above the sea. In cold winter, they move to warm water, and they breed in February. The breeding season is from March to June. Usually they spawn 30,000 ~ 70,000 eggs. They usually eat shrimps, zooplankton, or sometimes small fishes.

Once an abundant commercial fish off China, Korea and Japan, its population collapsed in the 1970s due to overfishing.[2] Global catch has since rebounded, with 388,018 t landed in 2008.[3] Salted and dried, they are a food product known as gulbi (굴비) in Korean. Yeonggwang gulbi is a prized delicacy, selling for over $100 a bunch.[citation needed]

Stories About Gulbi[edit]

Origin of the name ‘Gulbi‘

During the reign of Yejong, who is the 16th king of the Goryeo dynasty/era, Lee Ja-kyum made his daughter, Sundeok, become Queen and let her child, and therefore his grandson, Injong, be enthroned.

Then, Lee Ja-kyum, thirsty for power, gave his two other daughters as wives to Injong, creating a complex relationship. He became strong through the marriage and rose to prominent importance.

At a later time, Lee Ja-kyum was exiled. Lee Ja-kyum first ate Yeonggwang gulbi while he was in exile. He found it so good that he sent some to the king as a present. Lee Ja-kyum labeled it and named it gulbi which means "resist", stating that he would not yield. (屈非:It means resist and is pronounced ‘gulbi’ in Korean).

From then on, Yeonggwang gulbi was served up on a royal table, became famous, and appeared in the spotlight.[4]

Yeonggwang dried yellow corvina is the most excellent choice in Beobseongpo, served on the table of kings from the past. Croakers, at their spawning period, go up to Yeonpyeong Island, and they are the plumpest and contain the greatest number of eggs when they pass the coastal waters of the Chilsan Sea. They are caught, seasoned with Yeonggwang Bay salt, and dried with the sea breeze, creating the best taste of its kind.[5]

Manufacture of Gulbi[edit]

The basic manufacture steps are sorting, salting, weaving, washing, drying and keeping. In sorting, the fish Larimichthys Polyactis is classified. Then, the fishes are salted and weaved with rope. Drying the fish must be done next. Lastly, keeping and preserving gulbi is an important step. But each step differs from each other types of gulbi. Also, the order of the steps differs too. Traditional manufacturing and modern manufacturing differs. Traditionally, people had to preserve the fish for a long time, so gulbi had no moisture. Nowadays, the technology of keeping food refrigerated has developed. So, gulbi doesn’t have to be dried extremely. Also, less salt is used, and the fishes are dried shorter.[6]

1. Barley Extraction Gulbi

The Gulbi is usually manufactured in November to March. 7.27℃~-3℃ is adequate for manufacturing. First, sorting is done. The yellow croakers are sorted by size, weight. Salting can be done in 2 ways. Salt can be directly dropped, or the croakers can be washed in salt ponds. After 8 hours, they are woven by 20 units or 10 units. Then washing is done in clean water. Lastly, weaved croakers are dried with barley for 3~6 hours.

2. Ocher Gulbi

First, a germicide, which is a combination of ocher, salt, organic acid and ethanol. Then the fishes are put in a salt pond. If the fishes are big enough, they are kept in the salt pond over one week. But usually, they are kept in the salt pond for 5 to 7 days. There are 2 ways to make salt ponds. The salt pond can be water when salt has melted. Otherwise, the salt pond can be just a stack of salt. Then 1st drying should be done. After the salt pond, the moisture of the gulbi is dripped because of the osmotic phenomenon of salt. Too much drying by dripping of the moisture can cause loose of weight and make the gulbi stiff. So, gulbi should be dried in the refrigerator. The germicide is effective while drying the gulbi, because the gulbi is exposed to harmful germs by air. Then the gulbi is washed in the water for 1 to 2 days again. Then the 2nd drying should be done. The 2nd drying is done in a shade with warm wind. When the gulbi has adequate moisture, they are grouped into 10 to 20 fishes and kept in the refrigerator. Then the ocher gulbi is finished.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Larval anisakids collected from the yellow corvina in Korea". Kisaengchunghak Chapchi. 24 (1): 1–11. June 1986. PMID 12886102.
  2. ^ Orleans (ed), Leo A. (1980). Science in Contemporary China. Stanford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-8047-1078-7.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  3. ^ "Larimichthys polyactis". Fisheries Global Information System. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
  4. ^ "Yeonggwang County Office".
  5. ^ "Yeonggwang County Office".
  6. ^ "제 55회 전국과학전람회 작품번호 1621- 겉보리굴비의 제조 방법 및 산패 억제 효과". 제 55회 전국과학전람회 작품번호 1621- 겉보리굴비의 제조 방법 및 산패 억제 효과.

External links[edit]