|• Type||Commissioner system|
|• Total||17 km2 (7 sq mi)|
|Elevationfrom mean sea level||147 m (482 ft)|
|• Estimate (2014)||416,261|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
Larkana (Urdu: لاڑکانہ Sindhi: لاڙڪاڻو [laːɽkaːnoː] is a city in the north-west of the Sindh province of Pakistan, where the historic Indus River flows in south of the city. It is the 17th largest city of Pakistan. As of 2014, the city's population stands at 1,563,040. Larkana has 6 seats at Provincial Assembly of Sindh. Home to world's most ancient archeological site of Indus Valley Civilization called "Mohenjo-daro (larger in size and area than Babylonia and Assyria.
The city is located within Larkana District. Formerly known as 'Chandka', Larkana is located on the south bank of "Ghar canal", about 40 miles (64 km) south of the town Shikarpur, and 36 miles (58 km) north east of Mehar.
Larkana is situated at Latitude 24 56' 00' and Longitude 67 11' 00'. It is situated in North-western Sindh and it has own division. It is also included in upper Sindh.
Larkana is Monsoon climatic region. Summer is extremely hot as temperature reaches at 53 °C and winter is a little cool as temperature drops to -2 °C. On May 26, 2010 the mercury hit at record 53.4 °C becoming the hottest city in the country's history. On May 31, 1998 the mercury hit the at 52.7 °C. On May 18, 2013 the temperature in the city remained at 50 degrees Celsius in Larkana. This hot weather sometime cost human lives. In June 2007 couple of people died as a result of hot summer. Hot weather keeps many in the city to remain at home, several cases of fainting are occasionally reported. Hot days continue from May till September, followed by Monsoon Rains, sometime bringing floods in the nearby areas. Monsoon season starts from July and continues till September and brings Torrential Rains. Pre-Monsoon also occurs occasionally in the month of June while post-Monsoon occurs rarely. On July 8, 2003 Larkana experienced a Cloudburst of 209 mm in just 12 hours due to a well marked low Pressure which came from Bay of Bengal. Thunderstorms are very common, they often develop in all months. Most dangerous Thunderstorm was occurred on April 21, 2012, it was a supercell Thunderstorm which came from west side with heavy Downpour due to strong Western Disturbance which was developed in Gulf of Oman. Duststorms are also very common in summer and Monsoon especially in from March to September. On March 27, 2013 a Duststorm came with the damaging winds of 90 km/h due to a severe Thunderstorm and it brought some Rainfall also. Hailstorms are unusual and occur mainly from February to April. Larkana experienced a powerful Hailstorm in April 2006 and again on 14th March 2015 followed by heavy Downpour. In 2012 Larkana received heavy Downpours of 236 mm from 5–10 September which flooded the whole city. Same as in August 2011 also, the city received intermittent heavy Rains from 25–31 August and again in September 2011 with time to time. In Monsoon of 1994 the city received 510 mm of rainfall as most powerful Low pressures hit Sindh which is the highest Rainfall recorded in past 25 years.
Larkana's history is attached with the historical archeological site of 'Indus Civilization' located about 28 km away from the city. These sites have shown signs of democratic and pro-people, who lived more than 5,000 years ago. Chandka is the old name of Larkana. Larkana was renowned for its production of cloth in those days. Its product of cloth was shifted from Mohen-Jo-Daro to the rest of countries via water ways, in the mean time the same cloth was used for mummification in Egypt. Thus credit for unparalleled technological advancement of Mohen-Jo-Daro goes to its trade of cloth. Aryans had come to Sindh in 2234 B.C. and settled in different part of Sindh, and while crossing Larkana, reached Bhanbhoor. Jhokar-jo-Daro is proof of Aryan visit. Different people came in Sindh but non could eliminate the tradition of Aryans till teachings of Gotam Bodh spread in 480's B.C whose proof is found in Moen-jo-Daro that was a center of worship for Buddhism. Sikandar (i-e Alexander) attacked Sindh in 330 B.C. His forces had crossed little known village as Mahota. It was named by his forces as Maota in Greek. After Greeks Sindh was ruled by Gupta dynasty from 320 CE to 525 CE. Thus, Chandias were rewarded heavily for their contribution. It was in this period that Larkana was named as Chandka. However, after demise of Jam Nizamuddin, Shah Beg Argon started ruling over Sindh. Larkano city is purely result of Construction of Canal “Ghaar Wah”. In late 16th century, Kalhora started their rule. In their rule, Shah Baharo was a ruler of Larkano in Kalhora period Sindhi language rose to its peak, especially in the period of Mian Sarfaraz Ahmed Khan Kalhoro Sahb. After end of Kalhora rule, period of Talpur came and Nawab Wali Mohammad Khan was made Governor of Larkano
In 1843 the English occupied Sindh and divided Sindh in three parts namely Karachi, Hyderabad and Shikarpur. Larkana was the part of Shikarpur and Dadu was part of Larkana. In 1930 Dadu was made a separate district and Larkana got its present shape during Historic movement for Pakistan. Larkanians took active role in movement of Khilafat and Higrat so on the whole Larkana is always been the centre of political activity in Sindh.
Larkana is first mentioned in the "Tuhfatulakram", a book written in Kalhora period. Even in this book, nothing is told about the origin of the city. Larkana is discussed in later histories like "Tareekh Taza Navai Muarka", "Lab-Tareekh-e-Sindh", and in travelogues of foreign travellers. In histories of pre-Kalhora period, such as "Chach Nama", "Aeen-e-Akbari", "Tareekh-e-Masoomi", and "Tareekh-e-Mazhar Shah Jahani", nothing is found about this city. This reveals that Larkana exerted its political, cultural, and economic importance during the period of Kalhoras. This city possibly did not exist before this period or, if existed, was a small village of no importance.
(Translated from "Larkana Tareekh je Aaeene men" by Dr Memon Abdul Majeed Sindhi) link Commercial and Official Website
British Times (1843 to 1947)
British after conquering Sindh started irrigation canals and Larkana got a lot of importance. British made Larkana the headquarters of Larkana District and Larkana Taluka. For some time Larkana and rest of Sindh was part of the Bombay Presidency of British India. The city lay on the route of the North-Western Railway, and the population according to the 1901 census of India was 14,543.
The Imperial Gazetteer of India reads
The country surrounding Lārkāna is fertile and populous, and perhaps the finest tract in the whole of the province: The spacious walks, well laid-out gardens, and luxuriant foliage, have gained for Lārkāna the title of the 'Eden of Sind.' It is one of the most important grain marts of Sind, and is famous for a variety of rice called sugdāsi. There is a large local traffic in metals, cloth, and leather. The principal manufactures are cloth of mixed silk and cotton, coarse cotton cloth, metal vessels, and leathern goods. The town contains a dispensary, an Anglo-vernacular school attended by 80 pupils, and a vernacular school with three branches, attended altogether by 379 pupils.
Role of the city
Larkana is the most important settlement in the Western Upper Sindh. Being the hometown of many political Larkana, it exercises a country-wide influence. Being divisional headquarters, Larkana is also a major administrative center. Recently the city has been elevated to the status of division headquarters. On this basis it is expected that its importance will further increase.
Regarding Services, Larkana is characterised as a major center rendering a variety of services to a rich agriculture hinterland. Information collected by PEPAC in 1985 indicated a ratio of about 33 inhabitants per shop in Larkana, a figure which if compared to the national standards infers that a considerable percentage of the customers come from outside the city. The catchment population of Larkana for commercial services is estimated today at some 0.75 million people. In spite of its importance as an administrative and service center, Larkana never managed to become up to now a center of 'export oriented ' industrial activities. According to the 1981 census population figures, Larkana (with 123,000 inhabitants at that time), ranked 5th in the Sindh Province and 23rd in Pakistan.
Larkana is performing high order functions in the health and education sectors. The beneficiaries of these services originate not only from within the district but from the entire Sindh province. Likewise in health, specialised services are available with the Chandka Medical College and Sheikh Zaid Hospitals where 50% of the patients in 1985 were from places outside the Larkana environs.
Chandka Medical College (CMC) now Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University
Chandka Medical College (CMC), was built by former Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto for the people of Larkana, it was inaugurated on 20 April 1973 as 4th medical college of the Sindh. Second Batch of 250 students was admitted in 1974. due to shortage of accommodation as a result of increasing number of admissions, one, four story, girls hostel & two boys hostels were constructed,. Now it has six boys hostels and two girls which can accommodates about 1100 students.
The Chandka Medical College, is recognized by Pakistan Medical & Dental Council (PMDC). The College of Physicians & Surgeons Pakistan (CPSP) has also established its regional center at CMC Larkana. CPSP, has started conducting FCPS-I, FCPS-II and MCPS Examination CMC, Larkana center since 1999. the results (Passing Percentage) of candidates appearing theory examinations is comparable with other centers of the country.
The Chandka Medical College is upgraded to a medical university, Shaheed Mohtrama Benazir Bhutto Medical University (SMBBMU) on 12 April 2008, due to the efforts taken by Professor Surgeon Dr. Sikandar Ali Shaikh, who was principal of CMC at that time and later became the first Vice Chancellor of the SMBBMU. Dr. Sikandar Ali Shaikh retired in 2011. As of Oct 2012, Dr Akbar Hyder Soomro is the VC of SMBBMU and Dr. Asadullah Mahar is the principal of the Medical College.
The majority of the population of both the city & the district of Larkana speak the native Sindhi language. Urdu and English and are also widely understood. Saraiki, Balochi, Punjabi and Brahui are also spoken in various pockets of the city.
Larkana is surrounded by fertile land, where many varieties of fruits and vegetables are cultivated. These include potatoes, melons, olives, oranges, peas, carrots, cucumber, mangoes and guava. Some 10 km from the city, sugarcane is cultivated and processed, since 1990, at a Sugar Mill near the town of Nau Dero. Guava is cultivated in Larkana more than any other city of Pakistan.There are about one-thousand rice mills in Larkana District.
Chandka Medical College (CMC) was established and inaugurated by the former Prime Minister of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto on 20 April 1973. It was the fourth public medical college to be established in the province of Sindh. Chandka Medical College is recognised by Pakistan Medical & Dental Council (PMDC). The College of Physicians & Surgeons Pakistan (CPSP) has also established its regional center at the campus of CMC Larkana. CMC is recently upgraded to Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University.
Larkana Railway Station is located in the center of Larkana. It connects Larkana to the rest of Sindh and Pakistan. It assists in the transport of agricultural products to the much larger cities such as Karachi.
Moenjodaro Airport is located near Mohen-jo-daro, 28 km away to the south of the city of Larkana, about 5 kilometres away from Dokri. The main users of the airport are Pakistan International Airlines, the country's national flag-carrier. The outdated infrastructure of the airport prevents the use of large, advanced aircraft, with the PIA largely using Fokker aeroplanes for flights.
There are many local, domestic and international games being played there. It has a very large stadium for the Larkanians. Football, Volleyball, badminton, table tennis, Cricket, Hockey, Snooker and many other local games like wanjh watti, deekee dakar, akhh boot, thappey are largely played by native. Larkana is home to the Twenty 20 cricket team Larkana Bulls.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2014)|
- Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto –Prime minister of State of Jhunagarah, prominent landowner, Politician, initiator & mover of Sukkur Barrage, father of Z. A Bhutto
- Nawab Nabi Bakhsh Khan Bhutto, Land Lord, Politician, Member Federal Legislative Assembly Dehli India in British Raj, companion of Qauid-e-Azam.
- Zulfikar Ali Bhutto – former Prime Minister of Pakistan
- Benazir Bhutto – former Prime Minister of Pakistan
- Muhammad Ayub Khuhro – former Chief Minister of Sindh& former Defense Minister of Pakistan
- Murtaza Bhutto – founder of the PPP Shaheed Bhutto, son of Z. A Bhutto
- Bashir Ahmed Qureshi- Chairman of the Jeay Sindh Qaumi Mahaz (JSQM)
- Fatima Bhutto – novelist, journalist
- Ehsan Sehgal- poet, writer, journalist.
- Abida Parveen – Sufi singer
- Sobho Gianchandani – Eminent lawyer and scholar
- Mumtaz Ali Bhutto – former Governor, Chief Minister of Sindh & Federal Minister
- Qazi Fazlullah Ubaidullah – former Chief Minister of Sindh & Federal Minister
- Rana Bhagwandas – Ex-Chief Justice of Supreme Court of Pakistan and Chairman of FPS
- Justice Ghulam Rasool Shaikh- First Chief Justice from Larkana of AJ&K Supreme Court
- Justice Rehmat Hussain Jafri, Judge, Supreme Court of Pakistan
- Justice Deedar Hussain Shah, Judge, Supreme Court of Pakistan & Chairman NAB, Pakistan
- Akhtar Ali Qazi, Chief Minister of Sindh.
- Comrade Haider Bakhsh Jatoi, great leader of Farmers, Chairman Sindh Hari Committee, Poet, Reformer, Bureaucrat, creator of Jeay Sindh Slogan
- Rauf Lala - comedian
- Jan Mohammad Abbasi - Vice President of Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan
- Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri – Ex Minister of Revenue and Culture & Layer, Politician, Writer.
- Abdul-Majid Bhurgri - Hero of Sindhi Computing.
- Begum Doctor Ashraf Abbasi, Deputy Speaker, National Assembly, Pakistan.
- Shahid Hussain Bhutto, Federal Minister, Pakistan.
- Nawab Amir Ali Lahori, Ex-Chairman, Municipal Committee, Larkana (During British Raj)
- Nisar Ahmed Khuro, Speaker Sindh Assembly & Senior Provincial Minister Sindh.
- Dr. Safdar Ali Abbasi, Ex-Political Secretary of Shaheed Benazir Bhutto, Ex-Sentor & Chairman Pakistan Peoples Party (Workers)
- Ghulam Shabir Tunio, Instructor, Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, Peshawar. He is scholar, Researcher and Educationist has written several books on different fields. He is a first Tunio even first person of Larkana as well as from Sindh who is continuously working at Peshawar for last 32 years which is a unique record of a person who belong to Tunio tribe.
- Indus Valley Civilization* List of Indus Valley Civilization sites
- List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization
- Hydraulic engineering of the Indus Valley Civilization
- Rivers, Bridge. "Infrastructures". Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Population, Larkana. "Population statistics". TheNews. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Indus, Valley. "Archeology". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Lārkāna Town – Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 144.
- Geography, Larkana. http://www.tageo.com/index-e-pk-v-05-d-m3841727.htm. Retrieved 14 October 2014. Missing or empty
- Weather, Casualty. http://www.dawn.com/news/251255/sibbi-and-larkana-sizzle-at-over-51-c. Retrieved 15 October 2014. Missing or empty
- Cases, Fainting. http://www.dawn.com/news/105094/hottest-day-in-larkana. Retrieved 15 October 2014. Missing or empty
- Weather, Climate. Dawn http://www.dawn.com/news/1012162/larkana-remains-hottest-place-in-country. Retrieved 15 October 2014. Missing or empty
- History, Larkana. http://www.dawn.com/news/244720/larkana-scholars-urged-to-find-missing-links-in-history. Retrieved 15 October 2014. Missing or empty
- Chandka, University. "SMBB". CMC. CMC. Retrieved 15 October 2014.