Larkhill

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Larkhill
Larkhill Hangers.jpg
The BCAC hangars at Larkhill, the remains of the first military aerodrome in Britain
Larkhill is located in Wiltshire
Larkhill
Larkhill
Location within Wiltshire
Population2,358 (2011 census)[1]
OS grid referenceSU132443
Civil parish
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townSALISBURY
Postcode districtSP4
Dialling code01980
PoliceWiltshire
FireDorset and Wiltshire
AmbulanceSouth Western
List of places
UK
England
Wiltshire
51°11′53″N 1°48′47″W / 51.198°N 1.813°W / 51.198; -1.813Coordinates: 51°11′53″N 1°48′47″W / 51.198°N 1.813°W / 51.198; -1.813

Larkhill is a garrison town in the civil parish of Durrington, Wiltshire, England. It lies about 1 34 miles (2.8 km) west of the centre of Durrington village and 1 12 mi (2.4 km) north of the prehistoric monument of Stonehenge. It is about 10 mi (16 km) north of Salisbury.

The settlement has a long association with the British military and originally grew from military camps. It is now one of the main garrisons on Salisbury Plain, along with Tidworth Camp, Bulford Camp, and Waterloo Lines at Warminster. The Royal School of Artillery is at Larkhill and the Royal Artillery moved its main barracks there from Woolwich in 2008.[2]

Etymology[edit]

Before the military garrison was established the area was known as Lark Hill, part of Durrington Down, owing to it being the highest point in the parish.[3] After the first military buildings were established, it came to be known as Larkhill Camp.[4]

History[edit]

Much of Larkhill lies within the Stonehenge World Heritage Site, an area rich in Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments. Several long barrows and round barrow groups are located within the settlement. Robin Hood's Ball, the Stonehenge Cursus and the Lesser Cursus lie close to the garrison.[5]

The first modern settlement came in 1899, when a tented camp was established for units training on an area of Salisbury Plain that became known as Larkhill range. Units were accommodated in large official campsite areas whilst training throughout the summer.[6][7] As Larkhill range was designated for artillery practice, many of the units were artillery batteries. In 1914, the first permanent huts were built on the down.[7]

During the First World War, 34 battalion-sized hutted garrisons were built for use by all types of military forces. A light military railway line was built from the established Amesbury–Bulford line, to carry troops to Larkhill and on to an aerodrome at Stonehenge.[8] After the war, the garrison became an artillery domain and in 1919 the Royal School of Artillery was established there.[7] The light railway was lifted and Stonehenge Aerodrome was closed. However, several other new facilities were established in the interwar years, including a military hospital, married quarters at Strangways, a NAAFI service and military churches. The famed British Ordnance QF 25-pounder was developed by the school of artillery shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War.[7]

The Garrison Church of St Alban the Martyr, Larkhill, was built in 1937 and replaced an earlier wooden church.[9][10]

During the Second World War War, the garrison was extended again, although primarily for artillery units. The 21st Independent Parachute Company of the 1st Airborne Division was also formed there.[11]

After the Second World War, many of the hutted buildings were replaced with modern structures. The Royal School of Artillery's garrison was rebuilt and permanently established at the site. The Officers' Mess (built 1936–41, designed by William A Ross, Chief Architect to the War Office) is now a Grade II listed building.[12] A new event was started in 1962 to showcase the military's artillery technology – originally named Larkhill Day, it evolved into Royal Artillery Day in 1970.[13][14]

A primary school opened at Larkhill in 1962.[15]

Military flying[edit]

Memorial to Capt Loraine and Staff-Sgt Wilson, killed 1912, outside the Stonehenge Visitors' Centre (December 2013)

In 1909, Horatio Barber, a flying enthusiast, rented a small piece of land in Larkhill. He built a shed to house his new aeroplane, and was soon joined by more enthusiasts. Among these were George Bertram Cockburn,[16] a pioneer aviator, and Captain John Fulton who served with an artillery brigade, and it was partly as a result of their interest that the War Office quickly realised the importance of aircraft and founded the first army aerodrome in Larkhill in 1910.[17][18] Several more huts were built and a three-bay hangar was constructed by the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company, a forerunner of British Aerospace. In 1911, No. 2 Company of the Air Battalion Royal Engineers was established at Larkhill, the first flying unit of the armed forces to use aeroplanes as opposed to balloons. This evolved into No. 3 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps in May 1912, the first RFC squadron to use aeroplanes.[19]

July 1912 saw the first fatal air crash in the RFC. Captain Eustace Loraine and his observer, Staff-Sergeant R.H.V. Wilson, were killed when they crashed west of Stonehenge after flying from Larkhill aerodrome. A memorial was erected near the A303, and moved to a site near the Stonehenge visitors' centre in 2013.[20] The nearby junction of the A360 with the former A344 is known as Airman's Corner or Airman's Cross.[21]

In August 1912, the first Military Aeroplane Trials were held at Larkhill aerodrome.[22] Several aeroplanes including the Avro Type G and the Bristol Gordon England biplane were entered, and the competition was won by Samuel Franklin Cody in his Cody V aircraft.[23]

The aerodrome was closed in 1914 and hutted garrisons were built over the airstrip. The original BCAC hangar, the oldest surviving aerodrome building in the UK, is at the corner of Woods Road and Fargo Road. It was given Grade II* listed building status in 2005.[24][25]

Larkhill Garrison[edit]

Larkhill has been earmarked as part of a future 'super-garrison' to be established around Salisbury Plain which could see a substantially larger military presence in the area. This work began in late 2016 and will see major changes to the manpower and facilities at the site. As of 2019, the garrison is controlled by Headquarters South West based at Jellalabad Barracks, Tidworth.[26][27][28]

Currently, the following troops and organisations are part of Larkhill Garrison:[29][30][31][32]

In popular culture[edit]

The comic book V for Vendetta (and its film adaptation) featured a fictional detention centre at Larkhill, where minorities and enemies of the fascist state were eliminated. The writer, Alan Moore, said that he chose Larkhill because of the obvious military connections, but also because of a particularly unpleasant hitchhiking trip that he had around the area.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "South West England". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  2. ^ "Larkhill Overview". Aspire Defence. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  3. ^ Crowley 1995, p.175
  4. ^ Crowley 1995, p.184
  5. ^ Richards, Julian (1979). The Stonehenge Environs Project. English Heritage. pp. 72–92. ISBN 1-85074-269-3.
  6. ^ James 1987, p.123
  7. ^ a b c d Clarke-Smith 1969
  8. ^ James 1987, p.125
  9. ^ Historic England. "Church of St Alban the Martyr (1428757)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  10. ^ "Larkhill Garrison Church". Salisbury Plain Garrison Churches. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  11. ^ James 1987, p.140
  12. ^ Historic England. "Royal Artillery Officers' Mess and Quarters (1428799)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  13. ^ "The Royal Regiment of Artillery - Aide-Mémoire" (PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  14. ^ James 1987, p.139
  15. ^ "Larkhill Primary School". Wiltshire Community History. Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  16. ^ The Old Flying Days Turner ,Charles Cyril, (1972), page 200, Arno Press, ISBN 0-405-03783-X,
  17. ^ James 1987, p.163
  18. ^ "Aviation on Salisbury Plain". Archived from the original on 31 May 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
  19. ^ James 1987, p.165
  20. ^ Historic England. "Airmen's Cross near Stonehenge (1242829)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  21. ^ "Airman's Cross". The Times. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  22. ^ James 1987, p.166
  23. ^ "Cody's Kites and Flying Machines". Aldershot Military Museum. Hampshire County Council. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2008.
  24. ^ Prudames, David. "Historic First & Second World War Airfields granted listed status". 24 Hour Museum. Retrieved 25 October 2008.
  25. ^ Historic England. "Buildings 455 and 456 (Five Aircraft Hangars), Durrington Camp  (Grade II*) (1391475)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  26. ^ "HQ Organisations and functions". MoD. Archived from the original on 26 June 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2008.
  27. ^ Wynn, Peter. "MOD buys back ABRO site from the Agency". South West RDA. Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 25 October 2008.
  28. ^ "Army Basing Programme Update" (PDF). Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  29. ^ "Army Basing Programme, PAC Information Leaflet – Issue 16 October 2019". army.mod.uk. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  30. ^ "43 Brigade - Organisation & Functions and Future Garrisons". web.archive.org. 26 June 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  31. ^ "Army Basing Programme for Wiltshire" (PDF). cms.wiltshire.gov.uk. 18 January 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  32. ^ "Army Basing Programme, SPTA SFA Information Leaflet – Issue 10 July 2019". army.mod.uk. 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  33. ^ "1 Regiment RHA". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  34. ^ "19 Regiment Royal Artillery". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  35. ^ "26 Regiment Royal Artillery". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  36. ^ "32 Regiment Royal Artillery". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  37. ^ a b c "Location and Work Force Requirement of British Army Units, By Corps" (PDF). www.parliament.uk. 1 November 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  38. ^ "47 Regiment Royal Artillery". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  39. ^ a b "Defence CBRN Centre". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  40. ^ "Defence Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Centre (updated 19 June 2020)". GOV.UK. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  41. ^ "Larkhill". Aspire Defence Limited. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  42. ^ "Royal Artillery". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  43. ^ "Royal Artillery Centre for Personal Development (RACPD)". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  44. ^ "Summary of Army 2020 Reserve Structure and Basing Changes" (PDF). www.army.mod.uk. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  45. ^ "The Royal School of Artillery". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  46. ^ "14 Regiment Royal Artillery". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  47. ^ "5 Regiment Royal Artillery". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  48. ^ Moore, Alan; Lloyd, David (2005). V for Vendetta. London: Titan Books. p. 274. ISBN 1-84576-182-0.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]