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Larrikin is an Australian English term meaning "a mischievous young person, an uncultivated, rowdy but good hearted person", or "a person who acts with apparent disregard for social or political conventions".[1] In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the term generally meant "a lout, a hoodlum"[2] or "a young urban rough, a hooligan",[1] meanings which became obsolescent.[2]


The term larrikin was reported in an English dialect dictionary in 1905, referring to "a mischievous or frolicsome youth".[3] The word lupikin, from Scottish Gaelic lubaiche, in the Cromarty Fisherfolk dialect, meaning scoundrel",[4] is unlikely to be cognate.

Evolution of larrikin culture[edit]

Commentators have noted the larrikin streak in Australian culture, and have theorised about its origins.[5] Some say that larrikinism arose as a reaction to corrupt, arbitrary authority during Australia's convict era, or as a reaction to norms of propriety imposed by officials from Britain on the young country. The term was used to describe members of the Rocks Push[6] – a criminal gang in The Rocks in Sydney during the late 19th and early 20th centuries – who were noted for their antisocial behaviour and gang-specific dress codes.[7][8] An October 1947 editorial in The Australian Women's Weekly equated larrikinism with vandalism including arson, "They are the people who leave their picnic fires smouldering, and start blazes that deal the final blow to green loveliness", and defacing monuments, "A similar larrikin streak sends louts into city parks to shy stones at monuments and chip noses off statuary".[9]

Affectionate colloquial usage[edit]

"The Queen must surely be proud of such herioc men as the Police and Irish soldiers as It takes eight or eleven of the biggest mud crushers in Melbourne to take one poor little half starved larrakin to a watch house."

Ned Kelly in the Jerilderie Letter, 1879.[10]

Australian vernacular speech commonly inverts a word-meaning ironically to a diametrical opposite, e.g, nicknaming a red-haired person as "Bluey".[11] In similar fashion highly derogatory terms such as "bastard" and "larrikin" are frequently deployed with affectionate, even respectful connotations. For example, in 1965 Australian swimmer, Dawn Fraser, was banned from competition by the Australian Swimming Union for various incidents at the previous year's Summer Olympics. Fraser was later described as having a "larrikin streak" as well as being an "iconic figure", and was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia in 1988.[12]

The evolution of larrikinism in Australia is summarised in the publisher's description of a 2012 book by Melissa Bellanta, Larrikins: A History:

"From the true-blue Crocodile Hunter to the blue humour of Stiffy and Mo, from the Beaconsfield miners to The Sentimental Bloke, Australia has often been said to possess a 'larrikin streak'. "Today, being a larrikin has positive connotations and we think of it as the key to unlocking the Australian identity: a bloke who refuses to stand on ceremony and is a bit of a scallywag. When it first emerged around 1870, however, 'larrikin' was a term of abuse, used to describe teenage working-class hell-raisers who populated dance halls and cheap theatres. Crucially, the early larrikins were female as well as male".[13]

It can be argued that the larrikin tradition of disdain for authority, propriety and the often conservative norms of bourgeois Australia (as evident, for example, in the country's history of censorship and the nation's receptiveness to paternalistic leaders) are two sides of a self-reinforcing dynamic; the social conservatism of the mainstream fuels the undercurrent of larrikinism and rebellion, which, in turn, is seen as demonstrating that a firm hand is needed. This is sometimes referred to as the "larrikin-wowser nexus", "wowser" being an Australian colloquial term for a person of puritanical mores.[14]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b Ludowyk, Frederick; Moore, Bruce (2000). Oxford Modern Australian Dictionary. 
  2. ^ a b Delbridge, Arthur (2009). Macquarie Dictionary (5th ed.). Sydney: Macquarie Library. p. 943. ISBN 9781876429669. 
  3. ^ Wright, J. Supplement, English Dialect Dictionary (1898–1905). Cited at p. 667 Volume VIII The Oxford English Dictionary. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England. 2000.
  4. ^ Cromarty Fisherfolk dialect (2 MB download)
  5. ^ Gorman, Clem (1990), The Larrikin streak : Australian writers look at the legend, South Melbourne, Victoria: Sun Books, ISBN 978-0-7251-0628-7 
  6. ^ "The Labour Bureau.". The Queanbeyan Age (National Library of Australia). 27 February 1892. p. 3. Retrieved 28 February 2013. Work went on satisfactorily for a time, but in the afternoon a horde of larrikins, known as the 'Rocks push', annoyed and interrupted the men by calling them blacklegs. The larrikins did not stop at using abusive epithets, but even resorted to violence, with the result that one man was so severely injured that he had to be conveyed to the Sydney Hospital .
  7. ^ "Celebrating the original larrikin"
  8. ^ Larrikin Convicts
  9. ^ "Editorial.". The Australian Women's Weekly (National Library of Australia). 18 October 1947. p. 18. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  10. ^ Kelly, ed. (1879). The Jerilderie Letter. Wikisource. 
  11. ^ Lambert, J. (ed): Macquarie Book of Slang, Macquarie University, 1996
  12. ^ Heywood, Anne; Henningham, Nikki (5 September 2012). "Fraser, Dawn (1937–)". The Australian Women's Register. The National Foundation for Australian Women (NFAW). University of Melbourne. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  13. ^ Bellanta, Melissa (2012), Larrikins: A History, St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press/Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-7022-3912-0 
  14. ^ Defined by Macquarie Book of Slang (Lambert, J. (ed) Macquarie University, 1996) p.266: n. 1. a killjoy or spoilsport. 2. a prude who constantly complains about the supposed deleterious effects of other people's behaviour on society. [? British dialect wow, to make a complaint; whine; popularly supposed to be an acronym of We Only Want Social Evils Remedied, a slogan invented by John Norton, Australian journalist and politician, 1862 (sic)-1916]

Further reading[edit]