Larry Davis (New York criminal)
Larry Davis (May 28, 1966 – February 20, 2008), who changed his name to Adam Abdul-Hakeem in 1989, was a New Yorker who shot six New York City Police Department officers on November 19, 1986, when they raided his sister's apartment in the Bronx. The police said that the raid was executed in order to question Davis about the killing of four suspected drug dealers.
At trial, Davis's defense attorneys claimed that the raid was staged to murder him because of his knowledge of the involvement of corrupt police in the drug business. With the help of family contacts and friends, he eluded capture for the next 17 days despite a massive manhunt. Once the search was narrowed to a single building, he took several hostages but surrendered to police when the presence of reporters convinced him he would not be harmed.
Davis was acquitted of attempted murder charges in the police shootout case and also acquitted of murder charges in the case involving the slain drug dealers. He was found guilty of weapons possession in the shootout case, acquitted in another murder case, and was found guilty in a later murder case, for which he was sentenced to 25 years to life in prison. In 2008, Davis was stabbed to death in a fight with another inmate.
The Davis case generated controversy. Many were outraged by his actions and acquittal, but others regarded him as a folk hero for his ability to elude capture in the massive manhunt, or as the embodiment of a community's frustration with the police, or as "a symbol of resistance" because "he fought back for African-Americans who are being killed by white police officers."
Davis was the youngest of 15 children. Davis was sought as a suspect in seven murders: the execution-style killing of four drug dealers in a Bronx apartment, another during an apparent drug robbery in Manhattan, and two more. During the weeks before the raid, he knew he was wanted by the police and avoided his own apartment, spending time at his girlfriend's and at his two sisters' adjoining apartments on Fulton Avenue. At age 20, Davis had a record of arrests and convictions dating back to early 1983 and had violated his probation for a 1984 robbery.
Acting on a tip, in the evening of Wednesday, November 19, 1986 a team of 27 officers and detectives from the Bronx 41st Precinct and the NYPD's elite Emergency Service Unit assembled in a parking lot. Wearing bulletproof vests and armed with shotguns and handguns, they went to the six-story Fulton Avenue building where two of Davis's sisters had adjoining apartments on the ground floor. The police later said the raid was an attempt to question Davis. Although a "positive identification" of Davis had been made in a car chase 20 days earlier in which shots were fired at the police, he had not been named as a suspect in any crime, and no arrest warrant was issued until after the raid and shootout. A senior police official said that no charges had been brought beforehand because "once you move to introduce an accusatory instrument you lose the benefit of being able to talk to that person." A lawyer for Davis said the raid was staged to kill him to suppress his knowledge of police involvement in drug sales.
Raid and escape
At about 8:30 p.m. 15 officers surrounded the building and 12 others entered; nine of these went to the three-room apartment of Davis's sister Regina Lewis and seven entered it. Davis, his girlfriend, his sister and her husband were in the apartment along with four children. Lewis's two infant children were asleep in the bedroom at the rear.
According to an interview with Regina Lewis the next day, she answered a knock at the door and the police entered the living room with guns drawn. They told the adults to get the children out, and called out "Come out, Larry, you don't have a chance - we've got you surrounded." Thinking the police were about to start firing, Lewis shouted "Don't shoot! My babies are back there!" At trial, accounts would differ as to whether Davis or the police fired first. From the darkened bedroom Davis fired a 16-gauge sawed-off shotgun and a .45-caliber semi-automatic pistol, wounding six of the seven officers in the living room, two seriously. The police took cover, returning fire as they retreated. In the confusion no one kept track of Davis, who slipped into his other sister's apartment and escaped out a back window. Lewis had complained to her brother about him bringing guns to the apartment and told him to get out; he did leave but returned. She also quoted him as telling her, "If I'm caught in the street, the police are going to shoot me. But I am going to shoot them first."
Police collected the shotgun and the expended shells from the .45-caliber pistol that Davis took with him. A .32-caliber revolver and .357 Magnum pistol were also left behind. Ballistics tests would later link the .32-caliber revolver to the Manhattan drug dealer killing and the .45 caliber pistol to the four dead Bronx dealers. A police official said that all escape routes had been covered by officers but none apparently saw Davis leave. He also said that the wounded officers were unable to return fire effectively due to the presence in the apartment of the two infants and other bystanders. Davis fired four shotgun rounds and nine .45 caliber pistol shots; the police fired four shotgun rounds and 20 pistol shots. Neither Davis nor the two infants with him in the bedroom were wounded.
In the following year, three of the wounded officers accused the NYPD of "negligent" and "reckless" planning and execution of the raid, and blamed the Bronx detectives for creating "chaos" by bursting into the apartment before Emergency Service Unit officers could seal off escape routes.
Search and capture
The six wounded officers were carried across the street to the Bronx-Lebanon Hospital and the manhunt began. The surrounding area and the rest of the building were searched immediately. Police stakeouts were set up at terminals, bridges and tunnels leading out of the city and a nationwide alarm was issued. As the manhunt spread, raids were staged in Chicago, Albany, Newark and other cities where Davis had relatives or friends. A man who said he was Davis called ABC-TV, expressing fears he would be beaten by police and stating he would not be taken alive.
Acting on a tip that Davis had been seen entering his mother's home four days after the escape, police searched the building while interviewing Mary Davis in a laundromat across the street. She suffered an apparent heart attack shortly thereafter. As she recuperated three days later, she urged her son to call the NAACP, who had offered to help arrange a safe surrender.
On the afternoon of December 5, 1986, police received another tip that Davis had been seen entering the Bronx housing project where his sister Margaret lived. They surrounded the 14-story building, closed off local streets and posted sharpshooters on nearby rooftops. After searching his sister's second-floor apartment, police began a systematic canvass of all 312 units. At 11:45 p.m. Davis released the two visitors and sent the hostage's husband out to pick up food from a nearby Chinese restaurant. He also ordered the husband to call his mother's and sister's tapped telephones and give false location information. When the husband returned with the food he was stopped for questioning by the police and informed them that his wife and two daughters were being held.
Police set up a command post in a nearby apartment and by 1:30 a.m. had established telephone contact. At one point Davis threatened to kill the hostages with a hand grenade, at other points he chatted with negotiators about stereo equipment, asked about a lawyer and showed concern for his own safety, saying that he was afraid police would harm him. Throughout, negotiators repeated "There is no use running, you have nowhere to hide now." To assure Davis that he would not be harmed, police showed him the press credentials of three reporters in a nearby apartment and allowed him to speak to his girlfriend. At about 7 a.m. Larry Davis laid down his .45-caliber pistol and surrendered. As he was taken from the building in handcuffs, residents leaned out of their windows, clapped, and chanted Davis's name.
After the shootout and manhunt the Bronx District Attorney's office, together with District Attorney offices in Manhattan and Long Island, had a long list of charges against Larry Davis including weapons possession, murder of drug dealers, attempted murder of police, kidnapping, and automobile theft. Despite three trials in two years, prosecutors were unable to convince a jury of Larry Davis' guilt for any but the weapons charge, finally getting a conviction over four years after the shootout.
Murders of four Bronx drug dealers
During their opening of and closing arguments Davis's attorneys William Kunstler and Lynne Stewart contended, without producing any evidence, that the prosecution evidence was fabricated and that the murder charges were a frame-up to excuse the police raid on Davis's sister's apartment. They further contended that Davis had been recruited into a drug ring by rogue police officers and that the object of the raid was to kill him. The prosecution contended that Davis was a crack dealer who specialized in the armed robbery of other crack dealers, and presented testimony from more than 50 witnesses, including ballistic evidence and fingerprints on a cash box that placed Davis at the scene of the October 1986 murders. The jury found conflicting testimony from witnesses, and discrepancies in times given by prosecution witnesses. After deliberating for nine days, the longest in Bronx history for a single defendant, the jury acquitted Davis of the charges.
Attempted murders of nine police officers
Davis was next tried for shooting six police officers during the apartment raid. He was charged with nine counts of attempted murder, six counts of aggravated assault, two of criminal use of a firearm and eight of criminal possession of a weapon.
During jury selection, each side charged the other with racist tactics. The defense charged that the prosecution was deliberately excusing black women because they might be sympathetic to Davis. The judge found that the defense as well had abused their peremptory challenges, "to exclude white jurors on racially motivated grounds". Judge Fried dismissed the first six seated jurors and declared a mistrial.
A second mistrial was declared at the request of both sides after the only white juror on the new jury expressed a concern about possible police harassment if he voted to acquit Davis. The jury finally seated was made up of ten blacks and two Hispanics.
Once the trial began, ballistic experts linked the shootings to the .45-caliber pistol seized when Davis was captured. Several wounded officers, including "point man" Thomas McCarren who entered first, identified Davis as the person who had shot them. McCarren testified that when he entered the apartment Davis got up from the couch and ran down a narrow hall to the back bedroom carrying a handgun. McCarren pursued, and the next time he saw Davis was when Davis shot him in the mouth with the .45 pistol. A 12-gauge shotgun slug was found embedded in a drawer in the bedroom and the defense suggested that McCarren was carrying a 12-gauge shotgun and was the first to fire. McCarren said that he had been carrying a shotgun earlier in the evening but had turned it over to another detective assigned to cover the rear of the building, and was armed with only a 38-caliber service revolver when he entered the apartment.
The defense contended that Davis feared for his life and acted in self-defense. Without producing any evidence, they charged that Bronx police were corrupt and involved in the drug trade, and that the police had opened fire first. Davis's mother testified that a police officer had pushed her and threatened to kill her son two weeks before the raid, and that she had warned her son, while also complaining to the Police Department's Civilian Complaint Review Board. The Board sustained her complaint.
On November 20, 1988, after deliberating 38 hours over five days, the jury acquitted Davis of attempted murder and aggravated assault charges but found him guilty of six counts of criminal possession of a weapon. Interviewed by a reporter afterward, the jury forewoman said Davis was a "young and innocent kid who got recruited by a few corrupt policemen... they came in to wipe him out... they wanted him dead so he couldn't squeal on them... they would have killed him." She said the jury believed the defense assertion that the police fired first and that Davis was defending himself.
McCarren, the detective most seriously wounded and forced by his injuries to retire, called the jury's verdict "a racist verdict", and said "The day this happened, a bunch of good honest police officers went to lock up Larry Davis because he had killed people, and not for anything else." Defense attorney Kunstler said "The jury understood what happened – that he acted in self-defense." Defense attorney Stewart said "I really think that the black community is no longer going to have black Sambos, they're going to have black Rambos."
Davis was sentenced to 5 to 15 years in prison on the weapons possession charges.
Murder of Victor Lagombra
In October 1989 Davis went on trial for the September 1986 murder of Victor Lagombra, described by the prosecutor as a "mid-level" crack dealer. The prosecution charged that Davis killed Lagombra in a "cold-blooded act of savagery" when Lagombra walked into a Manhattan apartment while Davis and two other men were robbing two drug dealers. Ballistics tests showed that Davis's 32-caliber revolver was used in the killing. The defense produced two witnesses who testified that Davis was in Florida making a rap album on the day of the murder.
After a five-week trial and three days of deliberations, Davis was found not guilty. Although William Kunstler was not Davis's attorney in this case, he afterward repeated earlier statements that Davis had helped dishonest police sell drugs, and said that the constant accusations against Davis were a conspiracy.
Murder of Raymond Vizcaino
In January 1987 Davis's older brother Eddie Davis was arrested on charges of murdering a drug dealer during an August 1986 robbery attempt. According to the prosecution, Eddie and Larry Davis, along with two others, shot Raymond Vizcaino to death through an apartment door on Webster Avenue in the Bronx. A jury found Eddie Davis guilty in June 1989.
Larry Davis went on trial for the Vizcaino murder five months later. He was found guilty on March 14, 1991. Already serving 5 to 15 years on weapons charges, he was sentenced to serve an additional 25 years to life. After the sentencing, Davis spoke for about an hour, repeating his longstanding complaint that the police and the court system were engaged in a vendetta against him.
Davis was serving his sentence at Shawangunk Correctional Facility near the Ulster County hamlet of Wallkill. At 7 p.m. on February 20, 2008, correctional officers overseeing one of the yards noticed inmates congregating around an apparent fight. When they went to break it up, they found Davis had been stabbed repeatedly with a 9 inches (23 cm) metal shiv. He was taken by ambulance to St. Luke's Hospital in nearby Newburgh, where he was pronounced dead on arrival.
After questioning by the state police and the New York State Department of Correctional Services's (DOCS) inspector general's office, another inmate, Luis Rosado, 42, was charged with murder.
Rosado was already serving a sentence of 25 years to life for murder and assault charges in the early 1980s, and had been denied parole in 2007. He was arraigned at Shawangunk Town Court the next morning. DOCS officials said both he and Davis had long disciplinary records, including fights with other inmates, but there was no record of any previous violence between the two.
On July 31, 2008, an Ulster County grand jury indicted Rosado on nine felony charges related to the stabbing, including three different counts of murder, assault, criminal possession of a weapon and possession of prison contraband. The murder charges carried a potential sentence of life without parole. After his arrest, Rosado was moved to Clinton Correctional Facility, located in upstate New York close to the Canadian boundary . On Wednesday, February 25, 2009, Luis Rosado pleaded guilty to first-degree manslaughter in Ulster County Court and was sentenced to an additional 10 years in prison, to be served consecutively with his current 25-to-life sentence for murder.
- The 1997 Sidney Lumet film Night Falls on Manhattan was inspired by Davis's 1986 shootout with the police.
- Larry Davis tells his story in a 2003 film. The film describes Davis as being "shot in the head at point blank range" by police during the raid; and how he "turned himself in to the FBI, in exchange for their guarantee to investigate the NYPD's involvement in drug deals that he was forced to participate in as a teenager."
- In July 2006, Variety magazine reported that Roc-A-Fella Records co-founder Damon Dash was planning a documentary on Davis.
- The BET documentary series American Gangster did a profile on Larry Davis. It was revealed in that episode that Davis arranged to be interviewed by the show on the same day he died.
- The second episode of the 2010 A&E television series Fugitive Chronicles dramatizes the manhunt for Davis and features interviews with involved police officers.
- French, Howard W. (1987-10-18). "New Picture Emerges in Case of Larry Davis". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
Twenty days after the Jerome Avenue incident, on Nov. 19, six officers were wounded when, according to police officials, 30 officers tried to question Mr. Davis at his sister's apartment in the Bronx ... On Friday, officials from the Bronx District Attorney's office and the Police Department deflected questions about why no warrant had been issued for Mr. Davis's arrest after the Jerome Avenue incident. Each agency referred questions to the other.
- Purdum, Todd S. (1986-12-07). "Friends helped Davis to stay in shadow". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
Larry Davis eluded an intensive manhunt for 17 days by relying on a network of street friends and family contacts who gave him money and shelter as he slipped from place to place in the Bronx and upper Manhattan, law-enforcement officials said yesterday.
- McFadden, Robert D. (1986-12-07). "Cornered in manhunt, Davis surrenders in Bronx". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
Larry Davis, the fugitive accused of shooting six police officers and murdering five drug dealers, surrendered peacefully at a Bronx housing project early yesterday after a tense, all-night siege in which a woman and her two young children were held hostage.
- Wolff, Craig (1991-04-26). "Defiant Larry Davis Gets 25 Years to Life in Killing". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-23.
Larry Davis, whose repeated clashes with the law have made him a hero to some and a pariah to others, was sentenced yesterday to 25 years to life for the 1986 murder of a Bronx drug dealer. But not before he expressed his contempt for the criminal-justice system loudly and at length, creating a tumultuous scene in court until the judge expelled him.
- McFadden, Robert D. (2008-02-22). "Slain in Prison, but Once Celebrated as a Fugitive". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
- Freedman, Samuel G. (1987-01-02). "To some, Davis is a 'hero' amid attacks on blacks". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
Representatives from various segments of the black community say that Mr. Davis is regarded as, if not a folk hero for his violent actions and success in evading a massive manhunt for 17 days, at least an embodiment of their festering frustration with the police.
- Blair, William G (1988-10-08). "Mother Details Officer's Threat To Kill Davis". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
The mother of Larry Davis testified yesterday that a police officer had threatened to kill him several weeks before a shootout in 1986 between him and the police.
- McFadden, Robert D. (1986-11-21). "New York Police in Citywide Hunt for Gunman Who Shot 6 Officers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
The New York City police mounted a citywide manhunt yesterday for a 20-year-old gunman wanted for seven murders and a series of drug robberies this year and the wounding of six officers Wednesday night in a blazing shootout in a Bronx apartment where he was hiding.
- McFadden, Robert D. (1986-12-09). "Davis cited as member of violent assault gang". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-29.
Larry Davis was part of a small, loosely organized, 'very violent' group of gunmen who have robbed, assaulted and slain drug dealers in the Bronx and northern Manhattan in recent months, the Bronx District Attorney said yesterday.
- Ravo, Nick (1986-11-21). "Suspect to sister: 'I'm going to shoot them first'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
A few weeks ago, Regina Lewis asked her brother, Larry Davis, why he had to keep bringing guns into her South Bronx apartment. His answer: The police were after him.
- McFadden, Robert D. (1986-12-08). "Ballistics link 2 Davis pistols and shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
Ballistic tests show that the gun seized with Larry Davis Saturday was used in the execution-style killing of four drug dealers in the Bronx in October as well as the shootout that left six police officers wounded last month, law-enforcement officials said yesterday.
- Purdum, Todd S. (1987-08-29). "3 Officers Assert Police Bungled Davis Shootout". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
Three of the six New York City police officers wounded in a shootout with Larry Davis in the Bronx last November have charged in legal papers that they were injured because the Police Department severely bungled the attempt to arrest the suspect, who was wanted for killing four drug dealers.
- McFadden, Robert D. (1986-11-22). "Hunt grows for suspect in shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
The hunt for the suspected killer who shot and wounded six police officers in a Bronx apartment Wednesday night spread across the nation yesterday as rewards totaling $15,000 were offered for the capture and conviction of the fugitive.
- Gutis, Philip S. (1986-12-07). "On the 14th floor, siege ends in quiet talk". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
At times, the police said, the man holed up in the apartment next door spoke very much like a 'frightened child,' concerned solely with his personal safety. At other times, they said, he changed strategies, threatening violence and saying he had a gun and a hand grenade.
- Verhovek, Sam Howe (1988-03-04). "Larry Davis Cleared In the 1986 Slayings Of 4 Drug Suspects". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
After presenting a defense based almost entirely on the assertion that he had been framed by the authorities, Davis was acquitted of all charges last night in the murder of four suspected drug dealers 16 months ago in the South Bronx.
- Ver Hovek, Sam Howe (1988-05-03). "Davis Jury Selection Is Halted Over Bias Issue". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
A Bronx judge yesterday suspended jury selection for the latest trial of Larry Davis to hear charges from prosecutors that defense lawyers had been systematically excluding white people as jurors.
- Blair, William G (1988-06-29). "Judge Declares 2d Mistrial In Larry Davis Case in Bronx". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
In another bizarre twist in the latest trial of Larry Davis, the judge declared a mistrial yesterday at the request of the defense and the prosecution after a dispute over the removal of the only white juror.
- Blair, William G (1988-11-21). "Jury in Bronx Acquits Larry Davis In Shooting of Six Police Officers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
Larry Davis won his second courtroom victory in nine months yesterday when a Bronx jury acquitted him of attempted murder of nine police officers in a blazing shootout in 1986.
- Blair, William G (1988-09-28). "Ex-Detective Denies Firing A Shotgun in the Davis Raid". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-23.
A retired Bronx detective testified yesterday that he never carried a shotgun or fired a shotgun at Larry Davis during a shootout with him in a Bronx apartment in 1986 in which the detective was wounded.
- Verhovek, Sam Howe (1988-11-22). "Davis Juror Defends Verdict and Ward Assails It". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
The forewoman of the jury that acquitted Larry Davis on charges of trying to kill nine police officers yesterday defended the outcome of the four-month trial, saying Mr. Davis was a "young and innocent kid who got recruited by a few corrupt policemen" who later wanted to silence him.
- "Statement to Davis Trial Jury". The New York Times. 1989-11-05. Retrieved 2007-12-23.
Already sentenced to up to 15 years on a weapons conviction and still facing separate charges of murder, kidnapping, assault on correction officers and automobile theft, Larry Davis went on trial last week on murder charges in the fatal shooting of a Harlem drug dealer.
- Wolff, Craig (1989-12-04). "Larry Davis Not Guilty of Drug Dealer's Murder". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-23.
Larry Davis, who has been acquitted of murder or attempted murder charges twice in the last two years, was acquitted again Saturday night on charges that he fatally shot a Harlem drug dealer in a robbery.
- "Larry Davis's Elder Brother Convicted of a Bronx Murder". The New York Times. 1989-06-13. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
Larry Davis's brother, Eddie, has been convicted of murdering a suspected Bronx narcotics dealer during a robbery attempt, the Bronx District Attorney's office said yesterday.
- Tomasson, Robert E (1991-03-15). "Larry Davis Convicted in Killing of a Drug Dealer". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
Larry Davis, who gained near folk-hero status in some quarters after a shootout with police officers and then beat back three attempts by prosecutors to convict him of murder and attempted murder, was convicted last night of killing a drug dealer in a Bronx robbery.
- Garland, Sarah (2008-02-21). "Man Arraigned in Killing of Police Shooter". New York Sun. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
His alleged attacker, identified by officials as Luis Rosado, was being charged with the killing, which officials said took place at 7 p.m. last night during a recreational period in the prison's B block yard. The three prison guards stationed in the yard with 22 inmates, including Rosado and Davis, said they saw Rosado assaulting Davis with a 9-inch metal shank, according to officials. Prison guards helped Davis into a building and called an ambulance, according to officials. He was treated in the ambulance on his way to St. Luke's Hospital, where he was pronounced dead at 7:46 p.m. with multiple wounds to his head, chest, arms, back, and legs, officials said.
- O'Connor, Anahad (2008-02-21). "Man in 1986 Police Gunfight Is Killed". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
Mr. Davis, 41, was stabbed to death by another inmate around 7:30 p.m. during a recreational break on the grounds of the Shawangunk Correctional Facility in Ulster County, about 80 miles north of New York City, corrections officials said. The other inmate, Luis Rosado, used a crude, nine-inch shank to stab Mr. Davis repeatedly in his head, arms, back and chest, said Erik Kriss, a spokesman for the Department of Corrections ... Mr. Rosado, 42, was serving a sentence of 25 years to life for multiple counts of murder, assault and attempted assault. He had a long and extensive history of being disciplined for violent behavior during his incarceration — including assaults on staff and other inmates — corrections officials said, and had just recently been denied parole in 2007. Mr. Davis also had a long history of being disciplined while incarcerated. His prison records indicate approximately 75 incidents that merited disciplinary action, including assaulting staff and inmates, making threats, harassment, and fighting, Linda Foglia, a corrections spokeswoman, said in an interview on Thursday ... But it did not appear however that Mr. Davis and Mr. Rosado had a history of fighting with each other.
- "Inmate indicted in slaying of fellow prisoner at Shawangunk Correctional". Times-Herald Record (Ottaway Community Newspapers). 2008-08-05. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
Luis Rosado, 42, was indicted Thursday on two counts of first-degree murder, a single count of second-degree murder, two counts each of first- and second-degree assault and single counts of third-degree criminal possession of a weapon and possession of prison contraband. All the charges are felonies ... Since his arrest, he's been moved to the maximum security Clinton Correction Facility near the Canadian boundary, according to state corrections records.
- Bronx man pleads guilty to stabbing death of notorious prisoner, Times Herald-Record, February 25, 2009
- "A Streetwise Legend Sticks to His Guns". New York. May 26, 1997.
- "The Larry Davis Story: A Routine Typical Hit". MediaRights. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
A "Routine Typical Hit", is the story of a young man named Larry Davis. Who at the age of 19, took the NYC Police Department on one of the largest manhunts in the history of NY State.
- Fleming, Michael (2006-07-27). "Dash making splash with pic projects". Variety. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
Roc-a-Fella Records co-founder Damon Dash has set up a trio of film projects.
- Hinckley, David (2010-04-02). "A&E's 'Fugitive Chronicles' starts well with Ralph 'Bucky' Phillips' charming cop evasion". Daily News. Retrieved 2010-05-28.
The way "Fugitive Chronicles" tries to distinguish itself is by focusing on cases where fugitives eluded intensive searching, often making newspaper headlines in the process.