Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier (born Lars Trier; 30 April 1956) is a Danish film director and screenwriter with a prolific and controversial career spanning for more than five decades. His work is known for its genre and technical innovation, confrontational examination of existential, social, and political issues, and his treatment of subjects such as mercy, sacrifice, and mental health.
Among his more than 100 awards and 200 nominations at film festivals worldwide, von Trier has received: the Palme d'Or (for Dancer in the Dark), the Grand Prix (for Breaking the Waves), the Prix du Jury (for Europa), and the Technical Grand Prize (for The Element of Crime and Europa) at the Cannes Film Festival.
Early life and education
Von Trier was born in Kongens Lyngby, Denmark, north of Copenhagen, to Inger Høst and Fritz Michael Hartmann (the head of Denmark's Ministry of Social Affairs and a World War II resistance fighter). He received his surname from Høst's husband, Ulf Trier, whom he believed to be his biological father until 1989.
He studied film theory at the University of Copenhagen and film direction at the National Film School of Denmark. At 25, he won two Best School Film awards at the Munich International Festival of Film Schools for Nocturne and Last Detail. The same year, he added the German nobiliary particle "von" to his name, possibly as a satirical homage to the equally self-invented titles of directors Erich von Stroheim and Josef von Sternberg, and saw his graduation film Images of Liberation released as a theatrical feature.
1984–1994: Career beginnings and the Europa trilogy
In 1984, The Element of Crime, von Trier's breakthrough film, received twelve awards at seven international festivals including the Technical Grand Prize at Cannes, and a nomination for the Palme d'Or. The film's slow, non-linear pace, innovative and multi-leveled plot design, and dark dreamlike visual effects[failed verification] combine to create an allegory for traumatic European historical events.
His next film, Epidemic (1987), was also shown at Cannes in the Un Certain Regard section. The film features two story lines that ultimately collide: the chronicle of two filmmakers (played by von Trier and screenwriter Niels Vørse) in the midst of developing a new project, and a dark science fiction tale of a futuristic plague – the very film von Trier and Vørsel are depicted making.
Von Trier has occasionally referred to his films as falling into thematic and stylistic trilogies. This pattern began with The Element of Crime (1984), the first of the Europa trilogy, which illuminated traumatic periods in Europe both in the past and the future. It includes The Element of Crime (1984), Epidemic (1987), and Europa (1991).
He directed Medea (1988) for television, which won him the Jean d'Arcy prize in France. It is based on a screenplay by Carl Th. Dreyer and stars Udo Kier. Trier completed the Europa trilogy in 1991 with Europa (released as Zentropa in the US), which won the Prix du Jury at the 1991 Cannes Film Festival, and picked up awards at other major festivals. In 1990 he also directed the music video for the song "Bakerman" by Laid Back. This video was re-used in 2006 by the English DJ and artist Shaun Baker in his remake of the song.
Seeking financial independence and creative control over their projects, in 1992 von Trier and producer Peter Aalbæk Jensen founded the film production company Zentropa Entertainment. Named after a fictional railway company in Europa, their most recent film at the time, Zentropa has produced many movies other than Trier's own, as well as several television series. It has also produced hardcore sex films: Constance (1998), Pink Prison (1999), HotMen CoolBoyz (2000), and All About Anna (2005). To make money for his newly founded company, von Trier made The Kingdom (Danish title Riget, 1994) and The Kingdom II (Riget II, 1997), a pair of miniseries recorded in the Danish national hospital, the name "Riget" being a colloquial name for the hospital known as Rigshospitalet (lit. The Kingdom's Hospital) in Danish. A projected third season of the series was derailed by the death in 1998 of Ernst-Hugo Järegård, who played Dr. Helmer, and that of Kirsten Rolffes, who played Mrs. Drusse, in 2000, two of the major characters.
1995–2000: the Dogme 95 manifesto, and the Golden Heart trilogy
In 1995, von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg presented their manifesto for a new cinematic movement, which they called Dogme 95. The Dogme 95 concept, which led to international interest in Danish film, inspired filmmakers all over the world. In 2008, together with their fellow Dogme directors Kristian Levring and Søren Kragh-Jacobsen, von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg received the European film award for European Achievement in World Cinema.
In 1996 von Trier conducted an unusual theatrical experiment in Copenhagen involving 53 actors, which he titled Psychomobile 1: The World Clock. A documentary chronicling the project was directed by Jesper Jargil, and was released in 2000 with the title De Udstillede (The Exhibited).
Von Trier achieved his greatest international success with his Golden Heart trilogy. Each film in the trilogy is about naive heroines who maintain their "golden hearts" despite the tragedies they experience. This trilogy consists of: Breaking the Waves (1996), The Idiots (1998), and Dancer in the Dark (2000). While all three films are sometimes associated with the Dogme 95 movement, only The Idiots is a certified Dogme 95 film.
Breaking the Waves (1996), the first film in his Golden Heart trilogy, won the Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival and featured Emily Watson, who was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Its grainy images, and hand-held photography, pointed towards Dogme 95 but violated several of the manifesto's rules, and therefore does not qualify as a Dogme 95 film. The second film in the trilogy, The Idiots (1998), was nominated for a Palme d'Or, with which he was presented in person at the Cannes Film Festival despite his dislike of traveling. In 2000, von Trier premiered a musical featuring Icelandic musician Björk, Dancer in the Dark. The film won the Palme d'Or at Cannes. The song "I've Seen It All" (co-written by von Trier) received an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Song.
2003–2008: The Land of Opportunities and other works
The Five Obstructions (2003), made by von Trier and Jørgen Leth, is a documentary that incorporates lengthy sections of experimental films. The premise is that von Trier challenges director Jørgen Leth, his friend and mentor, to remake his old experimental film The Perfect Human (1967) five times, each time with a different "obstruction" (or obstacle) specified by von Trier.
A proposed trilogy, von Trier's Land of Opportunities consists of Dogville (2003), Manderlay (2005), and Wasington, which is yet to be made. Dogville and Manderlay were both shot with the same distinctive, extremely stylized approach, placing the actors on a bare sound stage with no set decoration and the buildings' walls marked by chalk lines on the floor, a style inspired by 1970s televised theatre. Dogville (2003) starred Nicole Kidman and Manderlay (2005) starred Bryce Dallas Howard in the same main role as Grace Margaret Mulligan. Both films have casts of major international actors, including Harriet Andersson, Lauren Bacall, James Caan, Danny Glover, and Willem Dafoe, and question various issues relating to American society, such as intolerance (in Dogville) and slavery (in Manderlay).
In 2006, von Trier released a Danish-language comedy film, The Boss of It All. It was shot using an experimental process that he has called Automavision, which involves the director choosing the best possible fixed camera position and then allowing a computer to randomly choose when to tilt, pan, or zoom. Following The Boss of It All, von Trier scripted an autobiographical film, The Early Years: Erik Nietzsche Part 1 in 2007, which went on to be directed by Jacob Thuesen. The film tells the story of von Trier's years as a student at the National Film School of Denmark. It stars Jonatan Spang as von Trier's alter ego, called "Erik Nietzsche", and is narrated by von Trier himself. All the main characters in the film are based on real people from the Danish film industry, with thinly veiled portrayals including Jens Albinus as director Nils Malmros, Dejan Čukić as screenwriter Mogens Rukov, and Søren Pilmark.
2009–2014: The Depression trilogy
The Depression trilogy consists of Antichrist, Melancholia, and Nymphomaniac. The three films star Charlotte Gainsbourg, and deal with characters who suffer depression or grief in different ways. This trilogy is said to represent the depression that Trier himself experiences.
Von Trier's next feature film was Antichrist, a film about "a grieving couple who retreat to their cabin in the woods, hoping a return to Eden will repair their broken hearts and troubled marriage; but nature takes its course and things go from bad to worse". The film stars Willem Dafoe and Charlotte Gainsbourg. It premiered in competition at the 2009 Cannes Film Festival, where the festival's jury honoured the movie by giving the Best Actress award to Gainsbourg.
In 2011, von Trier released Melancholia, a psychological drama. The film was in competition at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival. Known to be provocative in interviews, von Trier's remarks during the press conference before the premiere of Melancholia in Cannes caused significant controversy in the media, leading the festival to declare him persona non grata and to ban him from the festival for one year (without, however, excluding Melancholia from that year's competition). Minutes before the end of the interview, Trier was asked by a journalist about his German roots and the Nazi aesthetic in response to the director's description of the film's genre as "German romance". The director, who was brought up with his Jewish father and only found out later in life that his biological father was a non-Jewish German, appeared offended by the connotation and responded by discussing his German identity. He joked that since he was no longer Jewish he now "understands" and "sympathizes" with Hitler, that he is not against the Jews except for Israel which is "a pain in the ass" and that he is a Nazi. These remarks caused a stir in the media which, for the most part, presented the incident as an antisemitic scandal. The director released a formal apology immediately after the controversial press conference and kept apologizing for his joke during all of the interviews he gave in the weeks following the incident, admitting that he was not sober, and saying that he did not need to explain that he is not a Nazi. The actors of Melancholia who were present during the incident – Dunst, Gainsbourg, Skarsgård – defended the director, pointing to his provocative sense of humor and his depression. The director of the Cannes festival later characterized the controversy as "unfair" and as "stupid" as von Trier's bad joke, concluding that his films are welcome at the festival and that von Trier is considered a "friend". In 2019, von Trier stated that he made this remark at the "only press conference I ever had when I was sober."
Following Melancholia, von Trier began the production of Nymphomaniac, a film about the sexual awakening of a woman played by Charlotte Gainsbourg. In early December 2013, a four-hour version of the five-and-a-half-hour film was shown to the press in a private preview session. The cast also included Stellan Skarsgård (in his sixth film for von Trier), Shia LaBeouf, Willem Dafoe, Jamie Bell, Christian Slater, and Uma Thurman. In response to claims that he had merely created a "porn film", Skarsgård stated "... if you look at this film, it's actually a really bad porn movie, even if you fast forward. And after a while you find you don't even react to the explicit scenes. They become as natural as seeing someone eating a bowl of cereal." Von Trier refused to attend the private screening due to the negative response to Nazi-related remarks he had made at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, which had led to his expulsion from it. In the director's defense, Skarsgård stated at the screening, "Everyone knows he's not a Nazi, and it was disgraceful the way the press had these headlines saying he was." For its public release in the United Kingdom, the four-hour version of Nymphomaniac was divided into two "volumes" – Volume I and Volume II – and the film's British premiere was on 22 February 2014. In interviews prior to the release date, Gainsbourg and co-star Stacy Martin revealed that prosthetic vaginas, body doubles, and special effects were used for the production of the film. Martin also stated that the film's characters were a reflection of the director himself and referred to the experience as an "honour" that she enjoyed. The film was also released in two "volumes" for the Australian release on 20 March 2014, with an interval separating the back-to-back sections. In his review of the film for 3RRR's film criticism program, Plato's Cave, presenter Josh Nelson stated that, since the production of Breaking the Waves, the filmmaker von Trier is most akin to is Alfred Hitchcock, due to his portrayal of feminine issues. Nelson also mentioned filmmaker Andrei Tarkovsky as another influence whom Trier himself has also cited. In February 2014, an uncensored version of Volume I was shown at the Berlin Film Festival, with no announcement of when or if the complete five-and-a-half-hour Nymphomaniac would be made available to the public. The complete version premiered at the 2014 Venice Film Festival and was shortly afterward released in a limited theatrical run worldwide that fall.
2015–present: The House That Jack Built and the return to Cannes
In 2015, von Trier started to work on a new feature film, The House That Jack Built (2018), which was originally planned as an eight-part television series. The story is about a serial killer, seen from the murderer's point of view. Shooting started in March 2017 in Sweden, with shooting moving to Copenhagen in May.
In February 2017, von Trier explained in his own words that The House That Jack Built "celebrates the idea that life is evil and soulless, which is sadly proven by the recent rise of the Homo trumpus – the rat king". The film premiered at the Cannes Film Festival in May 2018. Despite more than 100 walkouts by audience members when initially screened at the Cannes Film Festival, the film still received a 10-minute standing ovation.
In December 2020, it was announced that von Trier would produce a final season for his acclaimed series The Kingdom, titled The Kingdom Exodus. It is expected to be shot in 2021 and will consist of five episodes that will be released in 2022.
Aesthetics, themes, and style of working
Von Trier is heavily influenced by the work of Carl Theodor Dreyer and the film The Night Porter. He was so inspired by the short film The Perfect Human, directed by Jørgen Leth, that he challenged Leth to redo the short five times in the feature film The Five Obstructions.
Von Trier's writing style has been heavily influenced by his work with actors on set, as well as the Dogme 95 manifesto that he co-authored. In an interview with Creative Screenwriting, von Trier described his process as "writing a sketch and keep[ing] the story simple...then part of the script work is with the actors."
While reflecting on the storytelling across his body of work, von Trier said, "All the stories are about a realist who comes into conflict with life. I'm not crazy about real life, and real life is not crazy about me." He further described his process as dividing different parts of his personality into different characters.
Von Trier has said that "a film should be like a stone in your shoe". To create original art he feels that filmmakers must distinguish themselves stylistically from other films, often by placing restrictions on the film making process. The most famous such restriction is the cinematic "vow of chastity" of the Dogme 95 movement with which he is associated. In Dancer in the Dark, he used jump shots and dramatically-different color palettes and camera techniques for the "real world" and musical portions of the film, and in Dogville everything was filmed on a sound stage with no set, where the walls of the buildings in the fictional town were marked as lines on the floor.
Von Trier often shoots digitally and operates the camera himself, preferring to continuously shoot the actors in-character without stopping between takes. In Dogville he let actors stay in character for hours, in the style of method acting. These techniques often put great strain on the actors, most famously with Björk during the filming of Dancer in the Dark.
Von Trier would later return to explicit images in Antichrist (2009), exploring darker themes, but he ran into problems when he tried once more with Nymphomaniac, which had 90 minutes cut out (reducing it from five-and-one-half to four hours) for its international release in 2013 in order to be commercially viable, taking nearly a year to be shown complete anywhere in an uncensored director's cut.
Trier also attributes most of his profound ideas to that of his previous mentor, Thomas Boguszewski. "Thomas' genius is one I could never match," says von Trier, "but it would be a shame not to try."
Approach to actors
In a Skype interview for IndieWire, von Trier compared his approach to actors with "how a chef would work with a potato or a piece of meat", clarifying that working with actors has differed on each film based on the production conditions.
Von Trier has occasionally courted controversy by his treatment of his leading ladies. He and Björk famously fell out during the shooting of Dancer in the Dark, to the point where Björk would abscond from filming for days at a time. She stated about Trier, who among other things shattered a monitor while it was next to her, "...you can take quite sexist film directors like Woody Allen or Stanley Kubrick and still they are the one that provide the soul to their movies. In Lars von Trier's case it is not so and he knows it. He needs a female to provide his work soul. And he envies them and hates them for it. So he has to destroy them during the filming. And hide the evidence." Despite this, other actresses such as Kirsten Dunst and Charlotte Gainsbourg have spoken out in defence of von Trier's approach. Nymphomaniac star Stacy Martin has stated that he never forced her to do anything that was outside her comfort zone. She said "I don't think he's a misogynist. The fact that he sometimes depicts women as troubled or dangerous or dark or even evil; that doesn't automatically make him anti-feminist. It's a very dated argument. I think that Lars loves women."
Nicole Kidman, who starred in von Trier's Dogville, said in an interview with ABC Radio National: "I think I tried to quit the film three times because he said, 'I want to tie you up and whip you, and that's not to be kind.' I was, like, what do you mean? I've come all this way to rehearse with you, to work with you, and now you're telling me you want to tie me up and whip me? But that's Lars, and Lars takes his clothes off and stands there naked and you're like, 'Oh, put your clothes back on, Lars, please, let's just shoot the film.' But he's very, very raw and he's almost like a child in that he'll say and do anything. And we would have to eat dinner every night and most of the time that would end with me in tears because Lars would sit next to me and drink peach schnapps and get drunk and get abusive and I'd leave and...anyway, then we'd go to work the next morning."
Von Trier has a penchant for working with actors and production members more than once. His main crew members and producer team has remained intact since the film Europa. The list of actors reappearing in his films, even for small parts or cameos, is also extensive. Many of them have repeatedly expressed their devotion to von Trier and willingness to return on set with him, even without payment. He uses the same regular group of actors in many of his films including Jean-Marc Barr, Udo Kier and Stellan Skarsgård who was cast in several von Trier films: Breaking the Waves, Dancer in the Dark, Dogville, and Nymphomaniac.
Note: This list shows only the actors who have collaborated with von Trier in three or more productions.
|Actor||The Element of Crime||Epidemic||Medea||Europa||The Kingdom||Breaking the Waves||The Idiots||Dancer in the Dark||Dogville||Manderlay||The Boss of It All||Antichrist||Melancholia||Nymphomaniac||The House That Jack Built||Total|
|Siobhan Fallon Hogan||Yes||Yes||Yes||3|
In October 2017, Björk posted on her Facebook page that she had been sexually harassed by a "Danish film director she worked with". The Los Angeles Times found evidence identifying him as Lars von Trier. Von Trier has rejected Björk's allegation that he sexually harassed her during the making of the film Dancer in the Dark, and said "That was not the case. But that we were definitely not friends, that's a fact," to Danish daily Jyllands-Posten in its online edition. Peter Aalbaek Jensen, the producer of Dancer in the Dark, told Jyllands-Posten that "As far as I remember we [Lars von Trier and I] were the victims. That woman was stronger than both Lars von Trier and me and our company put together. She dictated everything and was about to close a movie of 100M kroner [$16M]." After von Trier's statement, Björk explained the details about this incident, while her manager, Derek Birkett, also condemned von Trier's alleged past actions.
The Guardian later found that Jensen's studio, Zentropa, with which von Trier frequently collaborated with, had an endemic culture of sexual harassment. Jensen stepped down from CEO position of Zentropa as further harassment allegations came to light in 2017. 
In 1989, von Trier's mother told him on her deathbed that the man von Trier thought was his biological father was not, and that he was the result of a liaison she had with her former employer, Fritz Michael Hartmann (1909–2000), who was descended from a long line of Danish classical musicians. Hartmann's grandfather was Emil Hartmann, his great-grandfather J. P. E. Hartmann, his uncles included Niels Gade and Johan Ernst Hartmann, and Niels Viggo Bentzon was his cousin. She stated that she did this to give her son "artistic genes".
Until that point I thought I had a Jewish background. But I'm really more of a Nazi. I believe that my biological father's German family went back two further generations. Before she died, my mother told me to be happy that I was the son of this other man. She said my foster father had had no goals and no strength. But he was a loving man. And I was very sad about this revelation. And you then feel manipulated when you really do turn out to be creative. If I'd known that my mother had this plan, I would have become something else. I would have shown her. The slut!"
During the German occupation of Denmark, von Trier's biological father Fritz Michael Hartmann worked as a civil servant and joined a resistance group, Frit Danmark, actively counteracting any pro-German and pro-Nazi colleagues in his department. Another member of this infiltrative resistance group was Hartmann's colleague Viggo Kampmann, who would later become prime minister of Denmark. After von Trier had had four awkward meetings with his biological father, Hartmann refused further contact.
Family background and political and religious views
Von Trier's mother considered herself a Communist, while his father was a Social Democrat. Both were committed nudists, and von Trier went on several childhood holidays to nudist camps. His parents regarded the disciplining of children as reactionary. He has noted that he was brought up in an atheist family, and that although Ulf Trier was Jewish, he was not religious. His parents did not allow much room in their household for "feelings, religion, or enjoyment", and also refused to make any rules for their children, with complex effects upon von Trier's personality and development.
In a 2005 interview with Die Zeit, von Trier said, "I don't know if I'm all that Catholic really. I'm probably not. Denmark is a very Protestant country. Perhaps I only turned Catholic to piss off a few of my countrymen."
Von Trier suffers from various fears and phobias, including an intense fear of flying. This fear frequently places severe constraints on him and his crew, necessitating that virtually all of his films be shot in either Denmark or Sweden. As he quipped in an interview, "Basically, I'm afraid of everything in life, except film making."
Awards and honors
- Lumholdt, Jan (2003). Lars von Trier: interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-1-57806-532-5. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- Lars Dinesen (4 September 2015). "Lars von Trier skal skilles" (in Danish). metroxpress. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- Lumholdt, Jan (1 January 2003). Lars Von Trier: Interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-532-5.
- Indiewire (24 March 2014). "A History of Lars Von Trier at the Box Office". Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- "Kinema:A Journal for Film and Audiovisual Media". kinema.uwaterloo.ca. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- "A joke or the most brilliant film-maker in Europe?". The Guardian. 22 January 1999. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Simons, Jan (1 January 2007). Playing the Waves: Lars Von Trier's Game Cinema. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789053569917.
- "Carl Th. Dreyer – From Dreyer to von Trier". Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Badley, Linda. "UI Press | Linda Badley | Lars von Trier". www.press.uillinois.edu. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- "Politics and Open-ended Dialectics in Lars von Trier's Dogville: a Post-Brechtian Critique, in New Review of Film and Television Studies 11:3 (2013), pp.334–353". Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- "Scandinavian Canadian Studies: Behind Idealism: The Discrepancy between Philosophy and Reality in The Cinema of Lars von Trier". scancan.net. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- S, Behrend, Wendy (1 January 2014). "The Birth of Tragedy in Lars von Trier's 'Melancholia'". Portland State University.
- Badley, Linda (1 January 2010). Lars Von Trier. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07790-6.
- "Lars von Trier". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Winfrey, Graham (24 May 2016). "How Lars Von Trier's Zentropa Is Conquering Europe". Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- "HISTORIEN – Historien om Zentropa". zentropa.dk. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "Carl Th. Dreyer – From Dreyer to von Trier". Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- "The Tomb: Lars von Trier Interview". Time Out. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Lumholdt, Jan (2003). Lars von Trier: interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-57806-532-5. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
Nocturne was the more important of the two and it also won a prize at the film festival in Munich
- Cowie, Peter (15 June 1995). Variety International Film Guide 1996. Focal. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-240-80253-4. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
...he won two consecutive awards at the European Film School competition in Munich with Nocturne and The Last Detail
- Roman, Shari (15 September 2001). Digital Babylon: Hollywood, Indiewood & Dogme 95. IFILM. ISBN 978-1-58065-036-6. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Befrielsesbilleder". Nationalfilmografien (in Danish). Danish Film Institute. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Trier, Lars von (14 May 1984), The Element of Crime, retrieved 25 July 2016
- Melanie Goodfellow, Andreas Wiseman (19 April 2013). "Lars von Trier welcome back at Cannes Film Festival". Screen Daily. Media Business Insight Limited. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Koutsourakis, Angelos (24 October 2013). Politics as Form in Lars von Trier: A Post-Brechtian Reading. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 978-1-62356-027-0.
- "The Element of Crime". Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- "Festival de Cannes: Europa". festival-cannes.com. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- Schepelern, Peter (2000). Lars von Triers film: tvang og befrielse (in Danish). Rosinante. p. 313. ISBN 978-87-621-0164-7. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- Chaudhuri, Shohini (2005). Contemporary world cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. Edinburgh University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7486-1799-9. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
The Dogme concept has, moreover, spilled across national borders and inspired filmmaking outside Denmark.
- Unconventional Trilogies, dated June 2013, at andsoitbeginsfilms.com
- "Festival de Cannes: Dancer in the Dark". festival-cannes.com. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
- Scott, A. O. (26 May 2004). "The Five Obstructions (2003) | FILM REVIEW; A Cinematic Duel of Wits For Two Danish Directors". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
- Knight, Chris (20 March 2014). "Nyphomaniac, Volumes I and II, reviewed: Lars von Trier's sexually graphic pairing will titillate, but fails to satisfy". National Post. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Antichrist HD : Kyle Kallgren : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive". 15 February 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- "Cannes jury gives its heart to works of graphic darkness". The Irish Times. 5 May 2009. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qHXjNGzPbS4%7C Brows Held High: Melancholia Part 2
- "Festival de Cannes: Official Selection". Cannes. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- Higgins, Charlotte (18 May 2011). "Lars Lars von Trier provokes Cannes with 'I'm a Nazi' comments". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- gustavo ponciano (19 May 2011), Lars von Trier – Conférence de presse – Melancholia, retrieved 28 July 2016
- "Von Trier 'persona non grata' at Cannes after Nazi row". BBC News. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "Lars von Trier's Sex Epic 'Nymphomaniac' Can't Compete at Cannes, Says Thierry Fremaux". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "Lars von Trier 'persona non grata' at Cannes after Hitler remarks". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Turner, Kyle (21 February 2014). "The Romantic Cynicism of Lars von Trier". theretroset.com. The Retro Set. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
- Hammid (18 May 2011). "Lars von Trier – 'I understand Hitler...'". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "Carl Th. Dreyer – From Dreyer to von Trier". Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Klein, Uri (20 May 2011). "My Danish Sense of Humor Did Me In". haaretz.com. Amos Schocken. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
- "Lars Von Trier at Cannes: Anti-Semitic spew or strange, stupid gaffe? UPDATED | Hollywood Jew". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "Reuters – Lars von Trier – Cannes – Hitler".
- RT (24 May 2011), 'I'm not Nazi' – Lars von Trier in RT exclusive on Cannes Hitler remarks, retrieved 28 July 2016
- TheCelebFactory (28 September 2011), Lars Von Trier interview on the Nazi comments he made at the Cannes Film Festival, retrieved 28 July 2016
- celluloidVideo (20 May 2011), LARS von TRIER comments on his Nazi statement in Cannes // 2011, retrieved 28 July 2016
- Mathias B. (15 February 2015), Lars Von Trier interview 2014 English Subtitles (1/2), retrieved 28 July 2016
- Anne Thompson (25 May 2011), Lars von Trier Part One, retrieved 28 July 2016
- euronews (in English) (21 May 2011), euronews cinema – Von Trier regrets 'idiotic' Hitler comments, retrieved 28 July 2016
- O'Hehir, Andrew. "Interview: Charlotte Gainsbourg talks von Trier's 'Melancholia'". Salon. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "Stellan Skarsgard to his long ongoing collaboration with Lars Von Trier".
- Anne Thompson (16 November 2011), Kirsten Dunst 1, retrieved 28 July 2016
- "A filmmaker's flamelike glow," New York Times, 15 February 2019
- Pham, Andrias (24 March 2011). "Lars von Trier to Make 'The Nymphomaniac' Next?". Slashfilm. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- Xan Brooks (5 December 2013). "Lars Von Trier's Nymphomaniac arouses debate as a 'really bad porn movie'". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Xan Brooks; Henry Barnes (20 February 2014). "Nymphomaniac star Charlotte Gainsbourg: 'The sex wasn't hard. The masochistic scenes were embarrassing' – video interview" (Video upload). The Guardian. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- Thomas Caldwell and Josh Nelson (31 March 2014). "Broadcast on Monday, March 31st, 2014, 7:00 pm". Plato's Cave. 3RRR. Archived from the original (Podcast) on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- Foundas, Scott (9 February 2014). "'Nymphomaniac Vol. 1' Review: Bigger, Longer and Uncut". Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- "Lars von Trier". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- Jensen, Jorn Rossing (17 April 2015). "Lars von Trier back at work on The House That Jack Built". Cineuropa.
- Shoard, Catherine (14 February 2017). "Lars von Trier inspired by Donald Trump for new serial-killer film". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
- Kermode, Mark; critic, Observer film (16 December 2018). "The House That Jack Built review – a killer with room for improvement". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Marotta, Jenna (14 May 2018). "The House That Jack Built First Reactions: von Trier Inspires Walkouts".
- Shoard, Catherine (17 May 2018). "Lars von Trier on Cannes walkouts: 'I'm not sure they hated my film enough'".
- Stevenson, Jack (2002). Lars von Trier. British Film Institute. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-85170-902-4. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
During work on a TV adaptation of the never-filmed Dreyer script, Medea, in 1988, von Trier claimed to have a telepathic connection with him. He even claimed his golden retriever, Kajsa, was also in spiritual contact with Dreyer ...
- Loughlin, Gerard (2004). Alien sex: the body and desire in cinema and theology. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-631-21180-8. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- Livingston, Paisley; Plantinga, Carl R.; Mette Hjort (3 December 2008). "58". The Routledge companion to philosophy and film. Routledge. pp. 631–40. ISBN 978-0-415-77166-5. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- Taylor, Elayne (2001). "'My films are a little dark, right?' Lars von Trier". Creative Screenwriting. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
- Bell, Emma (21 October 2005). "Lars von Trier: Anti-American? Me?". The Independent. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- Hurbis-Cherrier, Mick (13 March 2007). Voice & vision: a creative approach to narrative film and DV production. Focal Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-240-80773-7. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
Lars von Trier uses jump cuts as an aesthetic device throughout Dancer in the Dark
- Jagernauth, Kevin (17 October 2017). "Björk further details 'paralyzing' sexual harassment from Lars von Trier". The Playlist. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
- "DFI-FILM – Stensgaard & von Trier". www.dfi-film.dk. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- "Nymphomaniac: Director's cut". Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- Sélavy, Virginie. "Antichrist: Interview with Lars von Trier". Electric Sheep Magazine. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- Brooks, Brian. "Lars von Trier: "I think working with actors is a little bit how a chef would work with a potato…" - IndieWire". www.indiewire.com. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- "Lars Von Trier: A Problematic Sort Of Ladies' Man?". NPR.org. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- Fletcher, Rosie (6 June 2018). "The 8 most notorious feuds between stars and their directors". digitalspy.com. Hearst Magazines UK. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
- Heath, Chris (17 October 2011). "Lars von Trier Interview GQ October 2011". Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- Regnier, Isabelle (28 January 2014). "Charlotte Gainsbourg : " Je suis prête à excuser beaucoup chez Lars "" – via Le Monde.
- Hoeij, Boyd van. "Charlotte Gainsbourg On Being Lars von Trier's 'Nymphomaniac': 'I was disturbed, embarrassed and a little humiliated…' - IndieWire". www.indiewire.com.
- Brooks, Xan (6 February 2014). "Nymphomaniac stars: 'Lars isn't a misogynist, he loves women'" – via www.theguardian.com.
- "Interview with Nicole Kidman, actor, 'Margot at the Wedding'".
- "Lars von Trier". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- "Kirsten Dunst on Lars von Trier & Feeling Free". 11 November 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- "Jean-Marc Barr Talks Lars von Trier's Nymphomaniac". 24 January 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Smith, Nigel M. (6 March 2014). "Willem Dafoe on Reuniting With Wes Anderson, Working With Lars von Trier and Why He Doesn't Want to Be Famous". Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- selinakyle (10 June 2012), Charlie Rose – An Interview with Nicole Kidman, retrieved 27 July 2016
- Christian Monggaard (8 March 2017). "Lars von Trier talks Uma Thurman, serial killers and Cannes at first press conference since Nazi row". Screen Daily. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- Nyren, Erin (15 October 2017). "Björk Shares Experience of Harassment By 'Danish Director:' He Created 'An Impressive Net of Illusion'". Variety. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- Björk (15 October 2017). "i am inspired by the women everywhere who are speaking up online to tell about my experience with a danish director". Facebook. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- D'Zurilla, Christie (17 October 2017). "Björk details alleged harassment; Lars von Trier denies accusations". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- Staff and agencies (19 October 2017). "'Not the case': Lars Von Trier denies sexually harassing Björk". the Guardian.
- "Björk". www.facebook.com.
- "Björk's manager accuses director Lars Von Trier of 'verbal and physical abuse' - NME". 25 October 2017.
- "Lars von Trier producer: 'I'll stop slapping asses' in wake of #MeToo - The Guardian". 10 May 2018.
- Philipps-Universität Marburg; Universität-Gesamthochschule-Siegen (2004). Medien Wissenschaft (in German). Niemeyer. p. 112. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- Grodal, Torben Kragh; Laursen, Iben Thorving (2005). Visual authorship: creativity and intentionality in media. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-87-635-0128-6. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- Nicodemus, Katja (10 November 2005). "Lars von Trier, Katja Nicodemus: 'I am an American woman' (17/11/2005) – signandsight". Die Zeit. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- "Entry on Fritz Michael Hartmann in the Database of the Danish Resistance Movement" (in Danish). Archived from the original on 26 May 2012.
- Skov, Jesper (2004). "Viggo Kampmann under besættelsen" (PDF). Siden Saxo (in Danish) (4): 39. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "Stranger and fiction". The Sydney Morning Herald. 22 December 2003. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012.
- "Copenhagen: Lars von Trier". Visit-copenhagen.com. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Nicodemus, Katja (10 November 2005). "Lars von Trier, Katja Nicodemus: 'I am an American woman' (17/11/2005) – signandsight". Die Zeit. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
I come from a family of communist nudists. I was allowed to do or not do what I liked. My parents were not interested in whether I went to school or got drunk on white wine. After a childhood like that, you search for restrictions in your own life.
- Fielder, Miles (4 August 2009). "Lars von Trier". Archived from the original on 18 August 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2011.. The Big Issue Scotland. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Burke, Jason (13 May 2007). "Guardian UK interview 2007". The Guardian. London, England: Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- Goss, Brian Michael (2009). Global auteurs: politics in the films of Almodóvar, von Trier, and Winterbottom. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-4331-0134-2. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- Bainbridge, Caroline (2007). The Cinema of Lars von Trier: Authenticity and Artifice. Wallflower Press. ISBN 978-1-905674-44-2.
- Goss, Brian Michael (January 2009). Global auteurs: politics in the films of Almodóvar, von Trier, and Winterbottom. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-1-4331-0134-2.
- Lasagna, Roberto; Lena, Sandra (1 June 2003). Lars von Trier (in French). Gremese Editore. ISBN 978-88-7301-543-7.
- Livingston, Paisley; Plantinga, Carl R.; Hjort, Mette (3 December 2008). The Routledge companion to philosophy and film. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-77166-5.
- Lumholdt, Jan (2003). Lars von Trier: interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-532-5.
- Schepelern, Peter (2000). Lars von Triers film: tvang og befrielse (in Danish). Rosinante. ISBN 978-87-621-0164-7.
- Simons, Jan (15 September 2007). Playing the waves: Lars Von Trier's game cinema. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-5356-979-5.
- Stevenson, Jack (2003). Dogme uncut: Lars von Trier, Thomas Vinterburg, and the gang that took on Hollywood. Santa Monica Press. ISBN 978-1-891661-35-8.
- Stevenson, Jack (2002). Lars von Trier. British Film Institute. ISBN 978-0-85170-902-4.
- Stühl, Leo (2013). Die Kunst im Horrorgenre: Gewaltexzesse und Pornografie in Lars von Triers Antichrist. Hamburg: Diplomica. ISBN 978-3-95549-099-7.
- Tiefenbach, Georg (2010). Drama und Regie (Writing and Directing): Lars von Trier's Breaking the Waves, Dancer in the Dark, Dogville. Königshausen & Neumann. ISBN 978-3-8260-4096-2.
- von Trier, Lars; Addonizio, Antonio (1 January 1999). Il dogma della libertà: conversazioni con Lars von Trier (in Italian). Edizioni della battaglia. ISBN 978-88-87630-07-7.
- von Trier, Lars; Björkman, Stig (2003). Trier on von Trier. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-20707-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lars von Trier.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Lars von Trier|
- Zentropa official website – von Trier's production company
- Lars von Trier at IMDb
- Lars von Trier in the Danish Film Database
- Senses of Cinema: Great Directors Critical Database
- The Burden From Donald Duck. An interview with Lars von Trier Video by Louisiana Channel