Last Year at Marienbad
|Last Year at Marienbad|
|Directed by||Alain Resnais|
|Produced by||Pierre Courau
|Written by||Alain Robbe-Grillet|
|Music by||Francis Seyrig|
|Edited by||Jasmine Chasney
L'Année dernière à Marienbad (released in the US as Last Year at Marienbad and in the UK as Last Year in Marienbad) is a 1961 French film directed by Alain Resnais from a screenplay by Alain Robbe-Grillet.
The film is famous for its enigmatic narrative structure, in which truth and fiction are difficult to distinguish, and the temporal and spatial relationship of the events is open to question. The dream-like nature of the film has both fascinated and baffled viewers; many have hailed the work as a masterpiece, while others find it incomprehensible.
At a social gathering at a château or baroque hotel, a man approaches a woman. He claims they met the year before at Marienbad and is convinced that she is waiting there for him. The woman insists they have never met. A second man, who may be the woman's husband, repeatedly asserts his dominance over the first man, including beating him several times at a mathematical game (a version of Nim). Through ambiguous flashbacks and disorienting shifts of time and location, the film explores the relationships among the characters. Conversations and events are repeated in several places in the château and grounds, and there are numerous tracking shots of the château's corridors, with ambiguous voiceovers. The characters are unnamed in the film; in the published screenplay, the woman is referred to as "A", the first man is "X", and the man who may be her husband is "M".
- Giorgio Albertazzi, as the man
- Delphine Seyrig, as the woman
- Sacha Pitoëff, as the second man, who may be the woman's husband
L'Année dernière à Marienbad was created out of an unusual collaboration between its writer Alain Robbe-Grillet and its director Alain Resnais. Robbe-Grillet described its basis: "Alain Resnais and I were able to collaborate only because we had seen the film in the same way from the start, and not just in the same general outlines but exactly, in the construction of the least detail as in its total architecture. What I wrote might have been what was already in [his] mind; what he added during the shooting was what I might have written. ...Paradoxically enough, and thanks to the perfect identity of our conceptions, we almost always worked separately."
Robbe-Grillet wrote a screenplay which was very detailed, specifying not only the décor and gestures but also the placement and movement of the camera and the sequencing of shots in the editing. Resnais filmed the script with great fidelity, making only limited alterations which seemed necessary. Robbe-Grillet was not present during the filming. When he saw the rough-cut, he said that he found the film just as he had intended it, while recognising how much Resnais had added to make it work on the screen and to fill out what was absent from the script. Robbe-Grillet then published his screenplay, illustrated by shots from the film, as a "ciné-roman" (ciné-novel).
Despite the close correspondence between the written and filmed works, numerous differences between them have been identified. Two notable examples are the choice of music in the film (Francis Seyrig's score introduces extensive use of a solo organ), and a scene near the end of the film in which the screenplay explicitly describes a rape, whereas the film substitutes a series of repeated bleached-out travelling shots moving towards the woman. In subsequent statements by the two authors of the film, it was partly acknowledged that they did not entirely share the same vision of it.
Filming took place over a period of ten weeks between September and November 1960. The locations used for most of the interiors and the gardens were the palaces of Schleissheim and Nymphenburg, including the Amalienburg hunting lodge, and the Antiquarium of the Residenz, all of them in and around Munich. Additional interior scenes were filmed in the Photosonore-Marignan-Simo studios in Paris. (No filming was done in the Czech spa town of Marienbad — and the film does not allow the viewer to know with certainty which, if any, scenes are supposed to be located there.) Filming was in black-and-white in Dyaliscope wide-screen.
The film continually creates an ambiguity in the spatial and temporal aspects of what it shows, and creates uncertainty in the mind of the spectator about the causal relationships between events. This may be achieved through the editing, giving apparently incompatible information in consecutive shots, or within a shot which seems to show impossible juxtapositions, or by means of repetitions of events in different settings and décor. These ambiguities are matched by contradictions in the narrator's voiceover commentary. Among the notable images in the film is a scene in which two characters (and the camera) rush out of the château and are faced with a tableau of figures arranged in a geometric garden; although the people cast long dramatic shadows (which were painted on the ground), the trees in the garden do not (not real trees but constructions).
The manner in which the film is edited challenged the established classical style of narrative construction. It allowed the themes of time and the mind and the interaction of past and present to be explored in an original way. As spatial and temporal continuity is destroyed by its methods of filming and editing, the film offers instead a "mental continuity", a continuity of thought.
In determining the visual appearance of the film, Resnais said that he wanted to recreate "a certain style of silent cinema", and his direction as well as the actors' make-up sought to produce this atmosphere. He even asked Eastman Kodak if they could supply an old-fashioned filmstock that would 'bloom' or 'halo' to create the look of a silent film (they could not). Resnais showed his costume designer photographs from L'Inhumaine and L'Argent, for which great fashion designers of the 1920s had created the costumes. He also asked members of his team to look at other silent films including Pabst's Pandora's Box: he wanted Delphine Seyrig's appearance and manner to resemble that of Louise Brooks but she had cut her hair which necessitated the smooth shaped hairstyle. Most of Seyrig's dresses in the film were designed by Chanel. The style of certain silent films is also suggested by the manner in which the characters who populate the hotel are mostly seen in artificial poses, as if frozen in time, rather than behaving naturalistically.
The films which immediately preceded and followed Marienbad in Resnais's career showed a political engagement with contemporary issues (the atomic bomb, the aftermath of the Occupation in France, and the then taboo subject of the war in Algeria); Marienbad however was seen to take a completely different direction and to focus principally on style. Commenting on this departure, Resnais said: "I was making this film at a time when I think, rightly, that one could not make a film, in France, without speaking about the Algerian war. Indeed I wonder whether the closed and stifling atmosphere of L'Année does not result from those contradictions."
Critical response to the film was divided from the outset and has remained so. Controversy was fuelled when Robbe-Grillet and Resnais appeared to give contradictory answers to the question whether the man and woman had actually met at Marienbad last year or not; this was used as a means of attacking the film by those who disliked it.
In 1963 the writer and film-maker Ado Kyrou declared the film a total triumph in his influential Le Surréalisme au cinéma, recognizing the ambiguous environment and obscure motives within the film as representing many of the concerns of surrealism in narrative cinema. Another early supporter, the actor and surrealist Jacques Brunius, declared that "Marienbad is the greatest film ever made".
Less reverently, Marienbad received an entry in The Fifty Worst Films of All Time, by Harry Medved, with Randy Dreyfuss and Michael Medved. The authors lampooned the film's surrealistic style and quoted numerous critics who found it to be pretentious and/or incomprehensible. The film critic Pauline Kael called it "the high-fashion experimental film, the snow job at the ice palace... back at the no-fun party for non-people".
Numerous explanations of the 'story' have been put forward: that it is a version of the Orpheus and Eurydice myth; that it represents the relationship between patient and psychoanalyst; that it all takes place in the woman's mind; that it all takes place in the man's mind, and depicts his refusal to acknowledge that he has killed the woman he loved; that the characters are ghosts or dead souls in limbo; etc.
Some have noted that the film has the atmosphere and the form of a dream, that the structure of the film may be understood by the analogy of a recurring dream, or even that the man's meeting with the woman is the memory (or dream) of a dream.
Others have heeded, at least as a starting point, the indications given by Robbe-Grillet in the introduction to his screenplay: "Two attitudes are then possible: either the spectator will try to reconstitute some 'Cartesian' scheme – the most linear, the most rational he can devise – and this spectator will certainly find the film difficult if not incomprehensible; or else the spectator will let himself be carried along by the extraordinary images in front of him [...] and to this spectator, the film will seem the easiest he has ever seen: a film addressed exclusively to his sensibility, to his faculties of sight, hearing, feeling."
Robbe-Grillet offered a further suggestion of how one might view the work: "The whole film, as a matter of fact, is the story of a persuading ["une persuasion"]: it deals with a reality which the hero creates out of his own vision, out of his own words."
Resnais for his part gave a more abstract explanation of the film's purpose: "For me this film is an attempt, still very crude and very primitive, to approach the complexity of thought, of its processes."
The film won the Golden Lion at the 1961 Venice Film Festival. In 1962 it won the critics' award in the category Best Film of the Syndicat Français de la Critique de cinéma in France. The film was selected as the French entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 34th Academy Awards in 1962, but was not accepted as a nominee. However, it was nominated for the 1963 Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay (Alain Robbe-Grillet) and it was also nominated for a Hugo Award as Best Dramatic Presentation.
The impact of L'Année dernière à Marienbad upon other film-makers has been widely recognised and variously illustrated, extending from French directors such as Agnès Varda, Marguerite Duras, and Jacques Rivette to international figures like Ingmar Bergman and Federico Fellini. Stanley Kubrick's The Shining and David Lynch's Inland Empire are two films which are cited with particular frequency as showing the influence of Marienbad.
The film's visual style has also been imitated in many TV commercials and fashion photography.
This film was the main inspiration for Karl Lagerfeld's Chanel Spring–Summer 2011 collection. Lagerfeld's show was complete with a fountain and a modern replica of the film's famous garden. Since costumes for this film were done by Coco Chanel, Lagerfeld drew his inspiration from the film and combined the film's gardens with those at Versailles.
Home video releases
On 23 June 2009, the Criterion Collection released L'Année dernière à Marienbad in the United States as a Region 1 DVD and Blu-ray. This edition went out of print in March 2013. It is available on DVD on Netflix.
- According to Thomas Beltzer, in Last Year at Marienbad: An Intertextual Meditation, the film script may have been based in part on The Invention of Morel, a science fiction novel published in 1940 by the Argentine writer Adolfo Bioy Casares. The Invention of Morel is about a fugitive, hiding out alone on a deserted island who one day awakens to discover that the island is miraculously filled with anachronistically dressed people who, according to the text, "dance, stroll up and down, and swim in the pool, as if this were a summer resort like Los Teques or Marienbad." He later learns that they are creations of an inventor, Morel, whose recording machine captured the exact likenesses of a group of friends, which are "played" over and over again. The Italian director Emidio Greco made a film L'Invenzione di Morel (1974) based on Bioy Casares' novel, and earlier there was a French TV movie, L'invention de Morel (1967). Although Alain Robbe-Grillet acknowledged familiarity with the novel of Bioy Casares, Alain Resnais had not read the book at the time of making the film. (Robert Benayoun, Alain Resnais: arpenteur de l'imaginaire. Paris: Ramsay, 2008. p. 98.)
- From the introduction to Alain Robbe-Grillet's Last Year at Marienbad: a Ciné-Novel; trans. from the French by Richard Howard. (London: John Calder, 1962) p. 6.
- Alain Robbe-Grillet, L'Année dernière à Marienbad: ciné-roman. (Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit, 1961). See the introduction, pp. 10–12, for his account of the film's gestation.
- Jean-Louis Leutrat, L'Année dernière à Marienbad; trans. by Paul Hammond. (London: BFI Publishing, 2000) pp. 52–60.
- According to Resnais, Robbe-Grillet used to insist that it was he who wrote Marienbad, without question, and that Resnais's filming of it was a betrayal—but that since he found it very beautiful he did not blame him for it. See Robert Benayoun, Alain Resnais: arpenteur de l'imaginaire. Paris: Ramsay, 2008. p. 103: "Resnais raconte: 'Robbe-Grillet me disait tout le temps: "Moi j'ai écrit L'Année dernière, point final. Vous vous avez réalisé L'Année dernière à Marienbad: c'est une trahison, mais comme je trouve ça très beau, j'ai décidé de ne pas vous en vouloir!"'"
- James Monaco, Alain Resnais: the role of imagination. (London: Secker & Warburg, 1978) pp. 57–59. Jean-Louis Leutrat, L'Année dernière à Marienbad; trans. by Paul Hammond. (London: BFI Publishing, 2000) p. 70.
- Antoine de Baecque, "Ce lieu réel n'existe pas, ou si peu...", in Libération, 27 août 2004. [Retrieved 10 October 2015]
- David Bordwell & Kristin Thompson, Film Art: an Introduction; 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993) pp. 391–396.
- James Monaco, Alain Resnais: the role of imagination. (London: Secker & Warburg, 1978) p. 53.
- Roy Armes, The Cinema of Alain Resnais. (London, New York: Zwemmer, A.S Barnes, 1968) p. 185.
- Jacques Brunius, "Every Year in Marienbad", in Sight & Sound, v.31, no.3 (summer 1962), p. 123.
- Roy Armes, The Cinema of Alain Resnais. (London, New York: Zwemmer, A.S Barnes, 1968) p. 105.
- James Monaco, Alain Resnais: the role of imagination. (London: Secker & Warburg, 1978) p. 55.
- Renais interview on Criterion supplemental DVD
- Jean-Louis Leutrat, L'Année dernière à Marienbad; trans. by Paul Hammond. (London: BFI Publishing, 2000) p. 62 and p. 70.
- James Monaco, Alain Resnais: the role of imagination. (London: Secker & Warburg, 1978) p. 64.
- Emma Wilson, Alain Resnais. (Manchester University Press, 2006) p. 84: "Et faire ce film au moment où je crois, justement, qu'on ne peut faire de film, en France, sans parler de la guerre d'Algérie. D'ailleurs, je me demande si l'atmosphère close et étouffante de L'Année ne résulte pas de ces contradictions."
- Robert Benayoun, Alain Resnais: arpenteur de l'imaginaire. Paris: Ramsay, 2008. pp. 84–85.
- Jean-Louis Leutrat, L'Année dernière à Marienbad; trans. by Paul Hammond. (London: BFI Publishing, 2000) pp. 7–8.
- Jacques Brunius, "Every Year in Marienbad", in Sight & Sound, v.31, no.3 (summer 1962), p. 122.
- Ado Kyrou, Le Surréalisme au cinéma. ([Paris]: Le Terrain Vague, 1963) p. 206.
- Jacques Brunius, "Every Year in Marienbad", in Sight & Sound, v.31, no.3 (summer 1962), pp. 122–127 and 153.
- Pauline Kael, "The Come-Dressed-as-the-Sick-Soul-of-Europe Parties", in I Lost It at the Movies. (Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1965) p. 186.
- "Games: Two on a Match", Time Magazine, 23 March 1962, archived from the original on 19 February 2011
- These three options are cited by Roy Armes, The Cinema of Alain Resnais. (London, New York: Zwemmer, A.S Barnes, 1968) p. 184.
- John Ward, Alain Resnais, or the Theme of Time. (London: Secker & Warburg, 1968) p. 39.
- Cited by Jean-Louis Leutrat, L'Année dernière à Marienbad; trans. by Paul Hammond. (London: BFI Publishing, 2000) pp. 28–30.
- Jacques Brunius, "Every Year in Marienbad", in Sight & Sound, v.31, no.3 (summer 1962), pp. 124–126.
- Robert Benayoun, Alain Resnais: arpenteur de l'imaginaire. Paris: Ramsay, 2008. p. 99–100.
- Introduction to Alain Robbe-Grillet's Last Year at Marienbad: a Ciné-Novel; trans. from the French by Richard Howard. (London: John Calder, 1962) pp. 17–18.
- Introduction to Alain Robbe-Grillet's Last Year at Marienbad: a Ciné-Novel; trans. from the French by Richard Howard. (London: John Calder, 1962) p. 12. "Tout le film est en effet l'histoire d'une persuasion: il s'agit d'une réalité que le héros crée par sa propre vision, par sa propre parole."
- From an interview with Cahiers du Cinéma, quoted by Robert Benayoun, Alain Resnais: arpenteur de l'imaginaire. Paris: Ramsay, 2008. pp. 105–106: "Ce film est pour moi une tentative, encore très grossière and très primitive, d'approcher la complexité de la pensée, de son mécanisme".
- Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
- "The 35th Academy Awards (1963) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011-10-29.
- Steinlein, Almut (12 January 2010). "Letztes Jahr in Marienbad" (in German). Critic.de. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
- Robert Benayoun, Alain Resnais: arpenteur de l'imaginaire. Paris: Ramsay, 2008. p. 106.
- E.g. Last Year at Marienbad: Which Year at Where?, by Mark Polizzotti (an essay for the Criterion Collection). [Retrieved 11 November 2011]
- E.g. "Marienbad Returns, Unsettling as Ever", by Mark Harris, in The New York Times, 13 January 2008. [Retrieved 11 November 2011]
- p.27 Rubin, Stephen Jay James Bond Films Random House Value Publishing, 1 Mar 1982
- Film-makers on film: Peter Greenaway: an interview with John Whitley in The Daily Telegraph, 14 June 2004. [Retrieved 11 November 2011]
- Last Year in Marienbad, [review] by Philip French, in The Observer, 22 April 2007. [Retrieved 11 November 2011]
- "Chanel’s Year in Marienbad", by Suzy Menkes, in The New York Times, 5 October 2010. [Retrieved 11 November 2011]
- "Last Year at Marienbad Amazon" [Retrieved 2 February 2013]
- "Criterion Out of Print Announcement" [Retrieved 2 February 2013]
- Leutrat, Jean-Louis. L'Année dernière à Marienbad. (London: British Film Institute, 2000).
- Powell, Dilys. The Golden Screen. (London: Pavilion Books, 1989) pp. 183–184. (Review published in The Sunday Times, 1962.)
- Powell, Dilys. The Dilys Powell Film Reader. (Manchester: Carcanet, 1991) pp. 372–373. (Review published in The Sunday Times, 1962, preceded by notes made during Sep. 1961 - Feb. 1962.)
- Robbe-Grillet, Alain. L'Année dernière à Marienbad: ciné-roman. (Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit, 1961). English translation: Last Year at Marienbad: a Ciné-Novel; translated from the French by Richard Howard. (London: John Calder, 1962).
- Last Year at Marienbad at the Internet Movie Database
- Last Year at Marienbad at Rotten Tomatoes
- Last Year at Marienbad at AllMovie
- Film review by Roger Ebert, 30 May 1999. [Retrieved 11 November 2011]
- Still Searching for Lost Time: On Leutrat on Resnais, review essay by Jeremy J. Shapiro in Film-Philosophy, v.9, no.39 (July 2005). [Retrieved 11 November 2011]
- Marcel in Marienbad, [an essay] by Mark Rappaport, in Rouge (2003). [Retrieved 11 November 2011]
- Article by Shannon Gramas (25 May 2010), at Spectrum Culture. [Retrieved 11 November 2011]
- Last Year in Marienbad: An Intertextual Meditation, by Thomas Beltzer, in Senses of Cinema, 5 November 2000. [Retrieved 3 August 2012]