Lata Mangeshkar

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Lata Mangeshkar
Lata-Mangeshkar.jpg
Born
Hema Mangeshkar

(1929-09-28) 28 September 1929 (age 91)[1]
NationalityIndian
Other namesQueen of Melody, Voice of the Nation, Voice of the Millennium, Nightingale of India
OccupationPlayback singer, music director, producer
Years active1942–present
Parent(s)Deenanath Mangeshkar (father)
Shevanti Mangeshkar (mother)
RelativesSee Mangeshkar-Hardikar-Abhisheki family
Awards
Honours
Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha
In office
22 November 1999 – 21 November 2005
Personal details
Political partyIndependent[2]
Signature
Signature of Lata Mangeshkar.svg

Lata Mangeshkar ([ləˈtaː məŋˈɡeːʃkər] (About this soundlisten) (born as Hema Mangeshkar on 28 September 1929)) is an Indian playback singer and music director. She is one of the best-known and most respected playback singers in India.[3][4] She has recorded songs in over a thousand Hindi films and has sung songs in over thirty-six regional Indian languages and foreign languages, though primarily in Marathi, Hindi, Bengali and Assamese.

The Dadasaheb Phalke Award was bestowed on her in 1989 by the Government of India. In 2001, in recognition of her contributions to the nation, she was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour and is only the second vocalist, after M. S. Subbulakshmi, to receive this honour.[5] France conferred on her its highest civilian award, the Officer of the Legion of Honour, in 2007.[6]

She is the recipient of three National Film Awards, 15 Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards, four Filmfare Best Female Playback Awards, two Filmfare Special Awards, Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award and many more. In 1974, she became the first Indian to perform in the Royal Albert Hall.

She has four siblings—Meena Khadikar, Asha Bhosle, Usha Mangeshkar, and Hridaynath Mangeshkar—of whom she is the eldest.

Early life[edit]

Childhood photo of Lata Mangeshkar

Lata Mangeshkar was born in 1929, the eldest daughter of Pandit Deenanath Mangeshkar, a Marathi and Konkani musician and his wife Shevanti[7] in Indore (in present-day Madhya Pradesh and then the capital of the princely state of Indore which was part of the Central India Agency in British India). Her father, Pandit Deenanath Mangeshkar, was a classical singer and theatre actor. Her mother, Shevanti (later renamed Shudhamati), a Gujarati woman from Thalner, Bombay Presidency (now in northwest Maharashtra), was Deenanath's second wife; his first wife Narmada, who had died, was Shevanti's older sister.[8]

Lata's paternal grandfather, Ganesh Bhatt Navathe Hardikar (Abhisheki), was a Karhade Brahmin priest who performed the abhishekam of the Shiva lingam at the Mangueshi Temple in Goa,[9] and her paternal grandmother, Yesubai Rane, belonged to the Gomantak Maratha Samaj community of Goa and Lata's maternal grandfather was the Gujarati businessman Seth Haridas Ramdas Lad, a prosperous businessman and landlord of Thalner; and Mangeshkar learnt Gujarati folk songs such as garbas of Pavagadh from her maternal grandmother.[10]

The family's last name used to be Hardikar; Deenanath changed it to Mangeshkar in order to identify his family with his native town of Mangeshi, Goa. Lata was named "Hema" at her birth. Her parents later renamed her Lata after a female character, Latika, in one of her father's plays, BhaawBandhan.[11]

Lata is the eldest child of the family. Meena, Asha, Usha, and Hridaynath, in birth order, are her siblings; all are accomplished singers and musicians.

Lata received her first music lesson from her father. At the age of five, she started to work as an actress in her father's musical plays (Sangeet Natak in Marathi). On her first day of school,[11] she left school because they would not allow her to bring her sister Asha with her, as she would often bring her younger sister with her.

Singing career[edit]

Early career in the 1940s[edit]

In 1942, when Lata was 13, her father died of heart disease. Master Vinayak (Vinayak Damodar Karnataki), the owner of Navyug Chitrapat movie company and a close friend of the Mangeshkar family, took care of them. He helped Lata get started in a career as a singer and actress.

Lata sang the song "Naachu Yaa Gade, Khelu Saari Mani Haus Bhaari", which was composed by Sadashivrao Nevrekar for Vasant Joglekar's Marathi movie Kiti Hasaal (1942), but the song was dropped from the final cut. Vinayak gave her a small role in Navyug Chitrapat's Marathi movie Pahili Mangalaa-gaur (1942), in which she sang "Natali Chaitraachi Navalaai" which was composed by Dada Chandekar.[11] Her first Hindi song was "Mata Ek Sapoot Ki Duniya Badal De Tu" for the Marathi film Gajaabhaau (1943).

Lata moved to Mumbai in 1945 when Master Vinayak's company moved its headquarters there. She started taking lessons in Hindustani classical music from Ustad Aman Ali Khan of Bhindibazaar Gharana.[12][13] She sang "Paa Lagoon Kar Jori" for Vasant Joglekar's Hindi-language movie Aap Ki Seva Mein (1946),[11] which was composed by Datta Davjekar. The dance in the film was performed by Rohini Bhate who later became a famous classical dancer. Lata and her sister Asha played minor roles in Vinayak's first Hindi-language movie, Badi Maa (1945). In that movie, Lata also sang a bhajan, "Maata Tere Charnon Mein." She was introduced to music director Vasant Desai during the recording of Vinayak's second Hindi-language movie, Subhadra (1946).

After Vinayak's death in 1948, music director Ghulam Haider mentored her as a singer. He introduced Lata to producer Sashadhar Mukherjee, who was working then on the movie Shaheed (1948), but Mukherjee dismissed Lata's voice as "too thin".[11] An annoyed Haider responded that in coming years producers and directors would "fall at Lata's feet" and "beg her" to sing in their movies. Haider gave Lata her first major break with the song "Dil Mera Toda, Mujhe Kahin Ka Na Chhora"—lyrics by Nazim Panipati—in the movie Majboor (1948), which became her first big breakthrough film hit. In an interview on her 84th birthday, in September 2013, Lata herself declared, "Ghulam Haider is truly my Godfather. He was the first music director who showed complete faith in my talent."[11][14]

Initially, Lata is said to have imitated the acclaimed singer Noor Jehan, but she later developed her own style of singing.[11] Lyrics of songs in Hindi movies are primarily composed by Urdu poets and contain a higher proportion of Urdu words, including the dialogue. Actor Dilip Kumar once made a mildly disapproving remark about Lata's Maharashtrian accent while singing Hindi/Urdu songs; so for a period of time, Lata took lessons in Urdu from an Urdu teacher named Shafi.[15] In subsequent interviews, Lata has said that Noor Jehan had heard her as a child and had told her to practice a lot. The two stayed in touch with each other for many years to come.[16]

One of her first major hits was "Aayega Aanewaala," a song in the movie Mahal (1949), composed by music director Khemchand Prakash and lip-synced on screen by actress Madhubala.[17]

1950s[edit]

Mangeshkar in 1953 (aged 23)

In the 1950s, Lata sang songs composed by various music directors of the period, including Anil Biswas (in films such as Tarana (1951) and Heer (1956)), Shankar Jaikishan, Naushad Ali, S. D. Burman, Amarnath, Husanlal, and Bhagatram (in films like Bari Behen (1949), Meena Bazaar (1950), Aadhi Raat (1950), Chhoti Bhabi (1950), Afsana (1951), Aansoo (1953), and Adl-e-Jehangir (1955)), C. Ramchandra, Hemant Kumar, Salil Chowdhury, Datta Naik, Khayyam, Ravi, Sajjad Hussain, Roshan, Kalyanji-Anandji, Vasant Desai, Sudhir Phadke, Hansraj Behl, Madan Mohan, and Usha Khanna. She sang "Sri Lanka, Ma Priyadara Jaya Bhumi", a song in Sinhala, for the 1955 Sri Lankan film Seda Sulang. She made her debut in Tamil playback singing with "Vanaradham" in 1956 (Uran Khotala dubbed in Tamil) with the Tamil song "Enthan Kannalan" for Nimmi in the dubbed version composed by Naushad.

Lata sang many raga-based songs for Naushad in movies such as Deedar (1951), Baiju Bawra (1952), Amar (1954), Uran Khatola (1955) and Mother India (1957).[17] Ae Chorre Ki Jaat Badi Bewafa, a duet with G. M. Durrani, was her first song for the composer Naushad. The duo, Shankar-Jaikishan, chose Lata for Barsaat (1949), Aah (1953), Shree 420 (1955) and Chori Chori (1956). Before 1957, composer S. D. Burman chose Lata as the leading female singer for his musical scores in Sazaa (1951), House No. 44 (1955), and Devdas (1955). However a rift developed between Lata and Burman in 1957, and she did not sing his compositions again until 1962.[11]

Lata won a Filmfare Award for Best Female Playback Singer for Salil Chowdhury's composition "Aaja Re Pardesi" from Madhumati (1958). Lata Mangeshkar's association with C. Ramchandra produced songs in movies such as Albela (1951), Shin Shinkai Bublaa Boo (1952), Anarkali (1953), Pehli Jhhalak (1954), Azad (1955), Aasha (1957), and Amardeep (1958).[18] For Madan Mohan, she performed for films like Baagi (1953), Railway Platform (1955), Pocketmaar (1956), Mr. Lambu (1956), Dekh Kabira Roya (1957), Adalat (1958), Jailor (1958), Mohar (1959), and Chacha Zindabad (1959).[19]

1960s[edit]

Lata's song "Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya" from Mughal-e-Azam (1960), composed by Naushad and lip-synced by Madhubala, still remains famous. The Hawaiian-themed number "Ajeeb Dastaan Hai Yeh", from Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai (1960), was composed by Shankar-Jaikishan and lip-synced by Meena Kumari.

In 1961, Lata recorded two popular bhajans, "Allah Tero Naam" and "Prabhu Tero Naam", for Burman's assistant, Jaidev. In 1962, she was awarded her second Filmfare Award for the song "Kahin Deep Jale Kahin Dil" from Bees Saal Baad, composed by Hemant Kumar.

In early 1962, Lata was given slow poison. A doctor was called. He came with an x-ray machine to examine her and gave her an injection to render her unconscious because she was in pain. For three days, she had a close brush with death. After ten days, she began to recover. The doctor told her that somebody had given her a slow poison. The slow poison incident rendered her very weak. She was bedridden for nearly 3 months. The most surprising thing was that soon after the incident, the cook who used to work at Lata's home, suddenly vanished without taking his wages. The cook had earlier worked with some people from the film industry. Lyricist Majrooh Sultanpuri used to regularly visit Lata at her home daily at 6 pm. Majrooh used to first taste the food and then allow Lata to eat. He used to recite poems and stories to keep Lata in good humour.[20][dubious ]

On 27 January 1963, against the backdrop of the Sino-Indian War, Lata sang the patriotic song "Aye Mere Watan Ke Logo" (literally, "Oh, People of My Country") in the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru, then the Prime Minister of India. The song, composed by C. Ramchandra and written by Kavi Pradeep, is said to have brought the Prime Minister to tears.[11][21]

In 1963, Lata returned to collaborate with S. D. Burman. She had sung in R. D. Burman's first film, Chhote Nawab (1961), and later in his films such as Bhoot Bungla (1965), Pati Patni (1966), Baharon ke Sapne (1967), and Abhilasha (1969). She also recorded several popular songs for S. D. Burman, including "Aaj Phir Jeene Ki Tamanna Hai", "Gata Rahe Mera Dil" (duet with Kishore Kumar) and "Piya Tose" from Guide (1965), "Hothon Pe Aisi Baat" from Jewel Thief (1967), and "Kitni Akeli Kitni Tanhaa" from Talash.

During the 1960s, Lata Mangeshkar continued her association with Madan Mohan, which included the songs "Aap Ki Nazron Ne Samjha" from Anpadh (1962), "Lag Jaa Gale" and "Naina Barse Rim Jhim" from Woh Kaun Thi? (1964), "Woh Chup Rahen To" from Jahan Ara (1964), "Tu Jahan Jahan Chalega" from Mera Saaya (1966) and "Teri Aankho Ke Siva" from Chirag (1969),[22] and she had a continuing association with the maestros Shankar Jaikishan, who got her to sing in various genres in the '60s.

The 1960s also witnessed the beginning of Mangeshkar's association with Laxmikant–Pyarelal, the music directors for whom she sang the most popular songs in her career. Starting in 1963, Laxmikant–Pyarelal's association with Lata Mangeshkar grew stronger over the years. Lata Mangeshkar sang over 700 songs for the composer duo over a period of 35 years, many of which became huge hits. She sang for Parasmani (1963), Mr. X in Bombay (1964), Aaye Din Bahar Ke (1966), Milan (1967), Anita (1967), Shagird (1968), Mere Hamdam Mere Dost (1968), Intaquam (1969), Do Raaste (1969) and Jeene Ki Raah, for which she got her third Filmfare Award.[23]

She also sang several playback songs for Marathi films, composed by Marathi music directors including Hridaynath Mangeshkar, Vasant Prabhu, Srinivas Khale, Sudhir Phadke and herself, under the pseudonym Anandghan. During the 1960s and 1970s, she also sang several Bengali songs composed by music directors like Salil Chowdhury and Hemant Kumar.[24]

Lata made her Kannada debut in 1967 for the film Kranthiveera Sangolli Rayanna by recording two songs for the music director Lakshman Berlekar.[25] The song "Bellane Belagayithu" was well received and appreciated.[26]

In the 1960s, Mangeshkar recorded duets with Mukesh, Manna Dey, Mahendra Kapoor, Mohammed Rafi, and Kishore Kumar. For a brief period during the 1960s, she was not on good terms with Mohammed Rafi over the issue of royalty payments to singers. Mangeshkar wanted Rafi to back her in demanding a half-share from the five percent song royalty that the film's producer conceded to select composers.[27] But Rafi took a diametrically opposite view, and believed that a playback singer's claim on the filmmaker ended with the payment of the agreed fee for the song, leading to tensions between the two. After an argument during the recording of the song "Tasveer Teri Dil Mein", from Maya (1961), the two refused to sing with each other.[28] The music director Jaikishan later negotiated a reconciliation between the two.[29]

1970s[edit]

In 1972, Meena Kumari's last film, Pakeezah, was released. It featured popular songs including "Chalte Chalte" and "Inhi Logon Ne", sung by Lata Mangeshkar, and composed by Ghulam Mohammed. She recorded many popular songs for S. D. Burman's last films, including "Rangeela Re" from Prem Pujari (1970), "Khilte Hain Gul Yahaan" from Sharmeelee (1971), and "Piya Bina" from Abhimaan (1973) and for Madan Mohan's last films, including Dastak (1970), Heer Raanjha (1970), Dil Ki Rahen (1973), Hindustan Ki Kasam (1973), Hanste Zakhm (1973), Mausam (1975) and Laila Majnu (1976).[30]

Many of Lata Mangeshkar's notable songs in the 1970s were composed by Laxmikant–Pyarelal and Rahul Dev Burman. Many of her songs composed by Laxmikant-Pyarelal in the 1970s were written by the lyricist Anand Bakshi. She also recorded many hit songs with Rahul Dev Burman in the films Amar Prem (1972), Caravan (1971), Kati Patang (1971), and Aandhi (1975). The two are noted for their songs with the lyricists Majrooh Sultanpuri, Anand Bakshi, and Gulzar.[31]

In 1973, she won the National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for the song "Beeti Na Bitai" from the film Parichay, composed by R. D. Burman, and written by Gulzar. In 1974, she sang her only Malayalam song "Kadali Chenkadali" for the film Nellu, composed by Salil Chowdhury, and written by Vayalar Ramavarma. In 1975, she again won the National Award, this time for the song "Roothe Roothe Piya" from the film Kora Kagaz, composed by Kalyanji Anandji.[32]

From the 1970s onwards, Lata Mangeshkar has also staged many concerts in India and abroad, including several charity concerts. Her first concert overseas was at the Royal Albert Hall, London, in 1974 and was the first Indian to do so.[33][34] She also released an album of Mirabai's bhajans, "Chala Vaahi Des", composed by her brother Hridaynath Mangeshkar. Some of the bhajans in the album include "Saanware Rang Ranchi" and "Ud Jaa Re Kaaga". In the early 1970s, she released other non-film albums, such as her collection of Ghalib ghazals, an album of Marathi folk songs (Koli-geete), an album of Ganesh aartis (all composed by her brother Hridaynath) and an album of "abhangs" of Sant Tukaram composed by Shrinivas Khale.

In the 1978 Raj Kapoor-directed Satyam Shivam Sundaram, Lata Mangeshkar sang the main theme song "Satyam Shivam Sundaram," among the chart-toppers of the year. The film's story is inspired by Lata Mangeshkar was revealed by Kapoor's daughter Ritu Nanda in her latest book. The book quotes Kapoor as saying, "I visualised the story of a man falling for a woman with an ordinary countenance but a golden voice and wanted to cast Lata Mangeshkar in the role."[35]

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, she worked with the children of composers she had earlier worked with. Some of these composers included Rahul Dev Burman, son of Sachin Dev Burman, Rajesh Roshan, son of Roshan, Anu Malik, son of Sardar Malik, and Anand-Milind, sons of Chitragupta.[36] She also sang many songs in the Assamese language and developed a very good relationship with the Assamese musician Bhupen Hazarika. She sang many songs under his direction; the song "Dil Hoom Hoom Kare" from Rudaali (1993) made the highest record sales that year.[37][38][39]

1980s[edit]

From the 1980s onwards, Lata Mangeshkar worked with music directors such as Shiv-Hari in Silsila (1981), Faasle (1985), Vijay (1988), and Chandni (1989) and Ram Laxman in Ustadi Ustad Se (1981), Bezubaan (1982), Woh Jo Hasina (1983), Ye Kesa Farz (1985), and Maine Pyar Kiya (1989). She sang in other movies, such as Karz (1980), Ek Duuje Ke Liye (1981), Silsila (1981), Prem Rog (1982), Hero (1983), Pyar Jhukta Nahin (1985), Ram Teri Ganga Maili (1985), Nagina (1986), and Ram Lakhan (1989). Her song "Zu Zu Zu Yashoda" from Sanjog (1985) was a chartbuster.[40] In the late 1980s, Mangeshkar made a comeback to Tamil films with two back-to-back renditions of composer Ilaiyaraaja's songs "Aaraaro Aaraaro" and "Valai Osai", for the films Anand (1987) and Sathya (1988), respectively.[41]

In the 1980s, the composer duo Laxmikant–Pyarelal had Lata sing their biggest hits—"Sheesha Ho Ya Dil Ho" in Asha (1980), "Tu Kitne Baras Ka" in Karz (1980), "Kitna Aasan Hai" in Dostana (1980), "Hum Ko Bhi Gham" in Aas Paas (1980), "Mere Naseeb Mein" in Naseeb (1980), "Zindagi Ki Na Toote" in Kranti (1981), "Solah Baras Ki" in Ek Duuje Ke Liye (1981), "Ye Galiyan Ye Chaubara" in Prem Rog (1982), "Likhnewale Ne Likh Dale" in Arpan (1983), "Din Maheene Saal" in Avtaar (1983), "Pyar Karnewale" and "Nindiya Se Jagi" in Hero (1983), "Zu Zu Zu Yashoda" in Sanjog (1985), "Zindagi Har Qadam" in Meri Jung (1985), "Baith Mere Paas" in Yaadon Ki Kasam (1985), "Ungli Mein Anghoti" in Ram Avtar (1988) and "O Ramji Tere Lakhan Ne" in Ram Lakhan (1989).[42]

Some Rahul Dev Burman compositions for Lata in these years include "Aaja Sar-e-Bazaar" in Alibaba Aur 40 Chor (1980), "Bindiya Tarase" in Phir Wohi Raat (1981), "Thodi Si Zameen" in Sitara (1981), "Kya Yahi Pyar Hai" in Rocky (1981), "Dekho Maine Dekha" in Love Story (1981), "Tune O Rangeele" in Kudrat (1981), "Jaane Kaise Kab" in Shakti (1982), "Jab Hum Jawan Honge" in Betaab (1983), which became instantly popular, "Humein Aur Jeene" in Agar Tum Na Hote (1983), "Tujhse Naraaz Nahin" in Masoom (1983), "Kahin Na Ja" and "Jeevan Ke Din" in Bade Dil Wala (1983), "Jaane Kya Baat" in Sunny (1984), "Bhuri Bhuri Aankhon" in Arjun (1985), "Sagar Kinare" in Sagar (1985), "Din Pyar Ke Aayenge" in Savere Wali Gaadi (1986). "Kya Bhala Hai Kya", "Khamosh Sa Afsana" and "Seeli Hawa Chhoo" in Libaas (1988). Rajesh Roshan's collaboration with Dev Anand in Lootmaar and Man Pasand resulted in songs such as "Paas Ho Tum Magar Qareeb" and "Sumansudha Rajni Chandha" respectively. Lata had duets with Rafi such as "Mujhe Chhoo Rahi Hain" in Swayamwar (1980), "Kabhi Kabhi Bezubaan" in Johnny I Love You (1982), "Tujh Sang Preet" in Kaamchor (1982), "Angrezi Mein Khete Hai" in Khud-Daar (1982), "Ankhiyo Hi Ankhiyo Mein" in Nishaan (1983), "Dushman Na Kare" in Aakhir Kyon? (1985) and "Wada Na Tod" in Dil Tujhko Diya (1987), later featured in the soundtrack of the 2004 film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind.[43]

Bappi Lahiri composed some songs for Lata, such as "Dooriyan Sab Mita Do" in Saboot (1980), "Baithe Baithe Aaj Aayi" in Patita (1980), "Jaane Kyun Mujhe" in Agreement (1980), "Thoda Resham Lagta Hai" in Jyoti (1981), "Dard Ki Ragini" in Pyaas (1982), and "Naino Mein Sapna" (duet with Kishore Kumar) in Himmatwala (1983).[44]

Mohammed Zahur Khayyam continued to work with Lata Mangeshkar during the 80s and composed songs such as "Hazaar Rahein Mud" (duet with Kishore Kumar) in Thodisi Bewafai (1980), "Simti Huyi" from Chambal Ki Kasam (1980), "Na Jane Kya Hua" in Dard (1981), "Chandni Raat Mein" in Dil-e-Nadaan (1982), "Dikhayi Diye" in Bazaar (1982), "Chand Ke Paas" in Dil-e-Nadaan (1982), "Bhar Lein Tumhe" and "Aaja Nindiya Aaja" from Lorie (1984) and "Kiran Kiran Mein Shokhiyan" in Ek Naya Rishta (1988).[45]

During the 80s, Lata sang hits such as "Sun Sahiba Sun" in Ram Teri Ganga Maili (1985) for Ravindra Jain, "Chand Apna Safar" in Shama (1981), "Shayad Meri Shaadi" and "Zindagi Pyar Ka" in Souten (1983), "Hum Bhool Gaye Re" in Souten Ki Beti (1989) for Usha Khanna. Hridaynath Mangeshkar had "Kale Kale Gehre Saye" in Chakra (1981), "Ye Ankhen Dekh Kar", and "Kuchh Log Mohabbat Ko" in Dhanwan (1981), "Mujhe Tum Yaad Karna" in Mashaal (1984), Assamese song "Jonakore Rati" (1986) with music and lyrics by Dr. Bhupen Hazarika, "Jaane Do Mujhe" in Shahenshah (1989) for Amar-Utpal, "Sajan Mera Us Paar" in Ganga Jamuna Saraswati (1988) and "Mere Pyar Ki Umar" in Waaris (1989) for Uttam Jagdish.[46]

In June 1985, the United Way of Greater Toronto invited Lata Mangeshkar to perform at Maple Leaf Gardens. At the request of Anne Murray, Lata sang her song "You Needed Me". 12,000 attended the concert, which raised $150,000 for the charity.[47][48]

1990s[edit]

During the 1990s, she recorded with music directors including Anand-Milind, Nadeem-Shravan, Jatin Lalit, Dilip Sen-Sameer Sen, Uttam Singh, Anu Malik, Aadesh Shrivastava and A. R. Rahman. She recorded some non-film songs, including ghazals with Jagjit Singh. She has also sung with Kumar Sanu, Amit Kumar, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Udit Narayan, Hariharan, Suresh Wadkar, Mohammed Aziz, Abhijeet Bhattacharya, Roop Kumar Rathod, Vinod Rathod, Gurdas Maan and Sonu Nigam.

In 1990, Mangeshkar launched her own production house for Hindi movies which produced the Gulzar-directed movie Lekin.... She won her third National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for her rendition of the song "Yaara Sili Sili" from the film, which was composed by her brother Hridaynath.

Mangeshkar has sung for almost all the Yash Chopra films and films from his production house Yash Raj Films at that time, including Chandni (1989), Lamhe (1991), Darr (1993), Yeh Dillagi (1994), Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995), Dil To Pagal Hai (1997) and later in Mohabbatein (2000), Mujhse Dosti Karoge! (2002) and Veer-Zaara (2004).

During 1990, Mangeshkar records with Raamlaxman in Patthar Ke Phool (1991), 100 Days (1991), Mehboob Mere Mehboob (1992), Saatwan Aasman (1992), I Love You (1992), Dil Ki Baazi (1993), Antim Nyay (1993), The Melody of Love (1993), The Law (1994), Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! (1994), Megha (1996), Lav Kush (1997), Manchala (1999), and Dulhan Banoo Main Teri (1999).

A. R. Rahman recorded a few songs with Mangeshkar during this period, including "Jiya Jale" in Dil Se.., "Khamoshiyan Gungunane Lagin" in One 2 Ka 4, "Ek Tu Hi Bharosa" in Pukar, "Pyaara Sa Gaon" in Zubeidaa, "So Gaye Hain" in Zubeidaa, "Lukka Chuppi" in Rang De Basanti, "O Paalanhaare" in Lagaan and Laadli in Raunaq.[49] She made an on-screen appearance in the film Pukar singing "Ek Tu Hi Bharosa."

In 1994, Lata Mangeshkar released Shraddanjali - My Tribute to the Immortals. The special feature of the album is that Lata offers her tributes to immortal singers of the time by rendering a few of their songs in her own voice. There are songs of K. L. Saigal, Mohammed Rafi, Hemant Kumar, Mukesh, Punkaj Mallick, Kishore Kumar, Geeta Dutt, Zohrabai, Amirbai, Parul Ghosh and Kanan Devi.[50]

Mangeshkar sang both Rahul Dev Burman's first and last songs. In 1994, she sang his last song; "Kuch Na Kaho" for Rahul Dev Burman in 1942: A Love Story.[51]

In 1999, Lata Eau de Parfum, a perfume brand named after her, was launched.[52] She was also awarded Zee Cine Award for Lifetime Achievement the same year[53] In 1999, Mangeshkar was nominated as a member of Rajya Sabha.[54] However, she did not attend Rajya Sabha sessions regularly, inviting criticism from several members of the House, including the Deputy Chairperson Najma Heptullah, Pranab Mukherjee and Shabana Azmi.[55][56] She stated the reason for her absence as ill-health; it was also reported that she had not taken a salary, allowance or a house in Delhi for being a Member of Parliament.[55][57]

2000s[edit]

In 2001, Lata Mangeshkar was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.

In the same year, she established the Master Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital in Pune, managed by the Lata Mangeshkar Medical Foundation (founded by the Mangeshkar family in October 1989). In 2005, she designed a jewellery collection called Swaranjali, which was crafted by Adora, an Indian diamond export company. Five pieces from the collection raised £105,000 at a Christie's auction, and a part of the money was donated for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake relief.[58] Also in 2001, she recorded her first Hindi song with the composer Ilaiyaraaja, for the film Lajja; she had earlier recorded Tamil and Telugu songs composed by Ilaiyaraaja.

Lata Mangeshkar's song "Wada Na Tod" was included in the film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) and in its soundtrack.

On 21 June 2007, she released the album Saadgi, featuring eight ghazal-like songs written by Javed Akhtar and composed by Mayuresh Pai.[59]

2010s[edit]

On 12 April 2011, Mangeshkar released the album Sarhadein: Music Beyond Boundaries, which contains the duet "Tera Milna Bahut Acha Lage" by Mangeshkar and Mehdi Hassan (written by Pakistan's Farhad Shahzad). The album features Usha Mangeshkar, Suresh Wadkar, Hariharan, Sonu Nigam, Rekha Bhardwaj and another Pakistani singer, Ghulam Ali, with compositions by Mayuresh Pai and others.[60][61]

After 14 years, Mangeshkar recorded a song for composer Nadeem-Shravan; "Kaise Piya Se" for Bewafaa (2005).[62] After "Kitne Ajeeb Rishte Hain Yahan Par" for Page 3 (2005) and "Daata Sun Le" for Jail (2009), Shamir Tandon once again recorded a song with Mangeshkar; "Tere Hasne Sai Mujheko" for the film Satrangee Parachute (2011).[63] After a hiatus, Mangeshkar came back to playback singing and recorded at her own studio the song "Jeena kya hai, jaana maine" for Dunno Y2...Life Is A Moment (2015), the sequel to Kapil Sharma's queer love story Dunno Y... Na Jaane Kyun.[64]

On 28 November 2012, Mangeshkar launched her own music label, LM Music, with an album of bhajans, Swami Samarth Maha Mantra, composed by Mayuresh Pai. She sang with her younger sister Usha on the album.[65] In 2014, she recorded a Bengali album, Shurodhwani, including poetry by Salil Chowdhury, also composed by Pai.[citation needed] On 30 March 2019, Mangeshkar released the song "Saugandh Mujhe Is Mitti Ki", composed by Mayuresh Pai, as a tribute to the Indian army and nation.[66]

Bengali career[edit]

Mangeshkar has sung 185 songs in Bengali,[67] making her debut in 1956 with the hit song "Prem Ekbari Esechilo Nirobe", composed by Hemant Kumar. The same year, she recorded "Rongila Banshite", composed by Bhupen Hazarika, which was also a hit. In the late 1950s, she recorded a string of hits such as "Jaare Ude Jare Pakhi", "Na Jeona", and "Ogo Aar Kichu To Noy", all composed by Salil Chowdhury, and which were respectively adapted into Hindi as "Ja Re Ud Ja Re Panchi" and "Tasveer Tere Dil Mein" in Maya, and "O Sajna" in Parakh. In 1960, she recorded "Akash Pradip Jole", a smash hit even today. Later in the 1960s, she sang hits like "Ekbar Biday De Ma Ghure Ashi," "Saat Bhai Champa," "Ke Pratham Kache Esechi," "Nijhum Sandhyay," "Chanchal Mon Anmona," "Asharh Srabon," "Bolchi Tomar Kaney," and "Aaj Mon Cheyeche" by composers like Sudhin Dasgupta, Hemant Kumar, and Chowdhury.

Collaboration with other singers[edit]

From the 1940s to the 1970s, Mangeshkar sang duets with Asha Bhosle, Suraiya, Shamshad Begum , Usha Mangeshkar, Mohammed Rafi, Kishore Kumar, Mukesh, Manna Dey, Hemant Kumar, and Mahendra Kapoor. In 1964, she sang "Chanda Se Hoga" with P. B. Sreenivas from Main Bhi Ladki Hoon.[68]

Mukesh died in 1976. The 1980s saw the deaths of Mohammed Rafi and Kishore Kumar.[69] Mangeshkar's last duets with Mohammed Rafi were during the 1980s; she continued to sing with Shabbir Kumar, Shailendra Singh, Nitin Mukesh (Mukesh's son), Manhar Udhas, Amit Kumar (Kishore Kumar's son), Mohammed Aziz, Vinod Rathod, and S.P. Balasubrahmanyam.[70]

In the 1990s, Mangeshkar began singing duets with Pankaj Udhas, Mohammed Aziz, Abhijeet Bhattacharya, Udit Narayan, Kumar Sanu, and Suresh Wadkar.[71] Her most notable work of the 90s was Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge with songs such as "Mere Khwabon Mein Jo Aaye", "Ho Gaya Hai Tujhko To Pyaar Sajna", "Tujhe Dekha To Yeh Jana Sanam", and "Mehndi Laga Ke Rakhna".[72]

In the 2000s, Mangeshkar's duets were mainly with Udit Narayan and Sonu Nigam. 2005-06 were the years of her last well-known songs: "Kaise Piya Se" from Bewafa and "Shayad Yehi To Pyaar Hai" from Lucky: No Time for Love, with Adnan Sami and "Lukka Chhupi" in Rang De Basanti (2006 film) with A. R. Rahman. She sang "Ek Tu Hi Bharosa" from Pukar. Other notable songs of this decade were from Veer-Zaara, sung with Udit Narayan, Sonu Nigam, Jagjit Singh, Roop Kumar Rathod, and Gurdas Mann. One of her latest songs was "Jeena Hai Kya" from Dunno Y2 (2014).[73]

Non-singing career[edit]

Music direction[edit]

Lata Mangeshkar composed music for the first time in 1955 for the Marathi movie Ram Ram Pavhane. Later in the 1960s, she composed music for following Marathi movies under the pseudonym of Anand Ghan.[74][75][76]

  • 1960 - Ram Ram Pavhana
  • 1963 - Maratha Tituka Melvava
  • 1963 - Mohityanchi Manjula
  • 1965 - Sadhi Manase
  • 1969 - Tambadi Mati

She won Maharashtra State Government's Best Music Director Award for the film Sadhi Manase. The song "Airanichya Deva Tula" from the same film received best song award.[77]

Production[edit]

Lata Mangeshkar has produced four films:

  • 1953 - Vaadal (Marathi)
  • 1953 - Jhaanjhar (Hindi), co-produced with C. Ramchandra
  • 1955 - Kanchan Ganga (Hindi)
  • 1990 - Lekin... (Hindi)

Awards and recognitions[edit]

Mangeshkar at the Dinanath Mangeshkar Awards announcement in 2013

Lata Mangeshkar has won several awards and honours, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, Padma Bhushan (1969),[78] Padma Vibhushan (1999), Zee Cine Award for Lifetime Achievements (1999),[79] Dadasaheb Phalke Award (1989), Maharashtra Bhushan Award (1997),[80] NTR National Award (1999), Bharat Ratna (2001), Legion of Honour (2007), ANR National Award (2009), three National Film Awards and 15 Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards. She has also won four Filmfare Best Female Playback Awards. In 1969, she made the unusual gesture of giving up the Filmfare Best Female Playback Award in order to promote fresh talent. She was later awarded the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award in 1993 and Filmfare Special Awards in 1994 and 2004.

In 1984, the State Government of Madhya Pradesh instituted the Lata Mangeshkar Award in honour of Lata Mangeshkar. The State Government of Maharashtra also instituted a Lata Mangeshkar Award in 1992.

In 2009, Mangeshkar was awarded the title of Officer of the French Legion of Honour, France's highest order.[81]

In 2012, Mangeshkar was ranked number 10 in Outlook India's poll of the Greatest Indian.[82]

Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan said kambakht, kabhi besuri na hoti ("[she] is never off-key").[83] Dilip Kumar once commented, "Lata Mangeshkar ki awaaz kudrat ki takhleek ka ek karishma hain," meaning "Lata Mangeshkar's voice is a miracle from God."[84]

Mangeshkar is also a recipient of honorary doctorates from the Sangeet Natak Akademi in 1989, Indira Kala Sangeet Vishwavidyalaya, Khairagarh, and Shivaji University in Kolhapur.[85]

Guinness controversy[edit]

In 1974, The Guinness Book of Records listed Lata Mangeshkar as the most recorded artist in history, stating that she had reportedly recorded "not less than 25,000 solo, duet and chorus backed songs in 20 Indian languages" between 1948 and 1974. Her record was contested by Mohammad Rafi, who was claimed to have sung around 28,000 songs.[86][87] After Rafi's death, in its 1984 edition, the Guinness Book of World Records stated Lata Mangeshkar's name for the "Most Recordings", but also stated Rafi's claim. The later editions of Guinness Book stated that Lata Mangeshkar had sung no fewer than 30,000 songs between 1948 and 1987.[88]

The entry was discontinued by Guinness editions in 1991 without explanation, while several sources continued to claim that she recorded thousands of songs, with estimates ranging up to figures as large as 50,000.[89][90] However, even the earliest Guinness claim of 25,000 songs (between 1948 and 1974) was disputed and claimed to have been exaggerated by several others, stating that the number of songs sung by Lata Mangeshkar in Hindi films till 1991 was found to be 5025.[91][92][93][94] Mangeshkar herself has stated that she does not keep a record of the number of songs recorded by her, and that she did not know from where Guinness Book editors got their information.[95] In 2011, the entry was revived by Guinness crediting the record to her sister Asha Bhosle as the most recorded artist in music history, "for recording up to 11,000 solo, duet and chorus-backed songs and in over 20 Indian languages since 1947".[96] Since 2016, current record in this category belongs to Pulapaka Susheela, for recording at least 17,695 songs in 6 languages, not counting some lost early recordings.[97]

See also[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Bichu, Dr. Mandar (2011). Lata — Voice of the Golden Era. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-625-4.
  • Bhimani, Harish (1995). In search of Lata Mangeshkar. Indus. ISBN 978-81-7223-170-5.
  • Bharatan, Raju (1995). Lata Mangeshkar: A Biography. UBS Publishers Distributors. ISBN 978-81-7476-023-4.
  • Kabir, Nasreen Munni (2009). Lata Mangeshkar: In Her Own Voice. Niyogi Books. ISBN 978-81-89738-41-9.
  • Lata, Mangeshkar (1995). Madhuvanti Sapre; Dinkar Gangal (eds.). In search of Lata Mangeshkar (in Marathi). Harper Collins/Indus. ISBN 978-81-7223-170-5.. A collection of articles written by Lata Mangeshkar since 1952.
  • Nerurkar, Vishwas. Lata Mangeshkar Gandhar Swaryatra (1945-1989) (in Hindi). Mumbai: Vasanti P. Nerukar..
  • Bichhu, Mandar V. (1996). Gaaye Lata, Gaaye Lata (in Hindi). Sharjah: Pallavi Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7223-170-5.. A collection of articles written by Lata Mangeshkar since 1952.
  • Verma, Sunanda (2018). Namaste, Lata Mangeshkar! Her voice touches at least a billion hearts. Singapore: The Indologist. ISBN 978-9814782111..

External links[edit]