Late-night talk show
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A late-night talk show is a genre of talk show popular in the United States, where the format originated. It is generally structured around humorous monologues about the day's news, guest interviews, comedy sketches and music performances. It is characterized by spontaneous conversation, and for an effect of immediacy and intimacy as if the host was speaking alone to each of the millions of audience members. Late-night talk shows are also fundamentally shaped by the personality of the host, which constitutes the "trademark" of the show.
The late-night talk show format was popularized by Johnny Carson with The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson on NBC. Typically the show's host conducts interviews from behind a desk, while the guest is seated on a couch. Many late night talk shows feature a house band which generally performs cover songs for the studio audience during commercial breaks and occasionally will back up a guest artist.
Late-night talk shows are a popular format in the United States, but are not as prominent in other parts of the world. Shows that loosely resemble the format air in other countries, but generally air weekly as opposed to the nightly airings of those in the United States. They also generally air in time slots considered to be prime time in the United States.
Late-night talk shows had their genesis in early variety shows, a format that migrated to television from radio, where it had been the dominant form of light entertainment during most of the old-time radio era. The Pepsodent Show, which opened each weekly episode with host Bob Hope's rapid-fire, topical and often political observational comedy, was a particularly important predecessor to the late-night format.
Early television variety shows included The Ed Sullivan Show (originally known as Toast of the Town), which aired on CBS Sunday nights from 1948 to 1971 and was hosted by Ed Sullivan, and Texaco Star Theater with Milton Berle, which aired on NBC from 1948 to 1956. These shows aired once a week in evening time slots that would come to be known as prime time.
The first show to air in a late-night time slot itself, Broadway Open House, aired on NBC in 1950 and ended a year later after host Jerry Lester left the show, a combination of frustration with being upstaged by his sidekick Virginia "Dagmar" Lewis, burnout from having to go through so much material in a short time, and the lack of enough television sets in the United States to make television broadcasting in late-night viable. (Lester himself was a last-minute replacement host for up-and-coming 26-year-old comic Don Hornsby, whom Hope had recommended to NBC but who caught polio and died less than a week before the show began.) For the next season, the only late-night program on the networks would be NBC's Nightcap, a preview of the next day's programming hosted by Mary Kay Stearns.
The first version of The Tonight Show, Tonight Starring Steve Allen, debuted in 1954 on NBC. The show created many modern talk show staples including an opening monologue, celebrity interviews, audience participation, comedy bits, and musical performances; it also had some holdovers from the radio era, including a vocal group (Steve and Eydie, who went on to decades of success after Tonight) in addition to the house band, something that later late-night shows would abandon. By this point, the Federal Communications Commission had lifted a freeze on new television stations, which allowed new stations to pop up across the country, and television adoption soon grew exponentially. As a result, unlike Broadway Open House, Tonight proved to be a resounding success.
The success of the show led Allen to get another show, entitled The Steve Allen Show, which would compete with The Ed Sullivan Show on Sunday nights. Meanwhile, hosting duties of The Tonight Show were split between Allen and Ernie Kovacs; Kovacs had defected to NBC from his own late-night show on the then-crumbling DuMont Television Network. Both Allen and Kovacs departed from Tonight in 1957 in order to focus on Allen's Sunday night show. After the two left, the format changed similar to that of Today and was renamed Tonight! America After Dark and was hosted first by Jack Lescoulie and then by Al Collins while interviews were performed by Hy Gardner, and a house band led by Lou Stein. The show was not popular leading to many NBC affiliates dropping the show. The show returned to the original format that year and was renamed Tonight Starring Jack Paar, with Jack Paar assuming hosting duties.
The even greater success of the show during Paar's hosting resulted in many NBC affiliates re-airing the show. He was noted for his conversational style, relatively highbrow interview guests, feuds with other media personalities (his feuds with print journalists Ed Sullivan and Walter Winchell marked a power shift from print to television; Winchell's career never recovered from the damage), and mercurial personality; Paar famously quit the show in 1960 in a dispute over a censored joke but was allowed to come back a month later. Paar permanently left the show in 1962, citing the reason that he could not handle the workload of The Tonight Show (at the time, the show ran 105 minutes a day, five days a week), and he moved to his own weekly prime-time show, which would run until 1965.
After Paar's departure, hosting duties were filled by Groucho Marx, Mort Sahl and many others. Johnny Carson took over as host of The Tonight Show in 1962 and the show was renamed The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Carson streamlined the format of the show, focusing more on entertainment personalities, tweaking the monologue to include shorter jokes, and emphasizing sketch comedy. Ed McMahon served as Carson's announcer while from 1962 to 1966 the band was led by Skitch Henderson, who hired, among others, Doc Severinsen. When Henderson left, Milton DeLugg took over. Severinsen took over in 1967 and served as bandleader with the NBC Orchestra. The show originated from NBC Studios in New York City but, as part of Carson's shifting the show toward a more entertainment-oriented program, moved to Burbank, California in 1972.
NBC's two other rivals during the early television era, CBS and ABC, did not attempt any major forays into late-night television until the 1960s. ABC's first effort at the late-night TV was hosted by Les Crane, which pioneered the controversial tabloid talk show format that would not become popular until two decades later. Crane's show lasted only six months. Shorter still was The Las Vegas Show, a Las Vegas-based late-night show hosted by Bill Dana that was the only offering of the United Network that ever made it to air (because that network only had a handful of affiliates, it also syndicated to CBS, ABC and independent stations); it, along with the network, only lasted five weeks in summer 1967. Steve Allen himself returned to late-night in syndication twice in this time frame, first with a show that ran from 1962 to 1964 and then with a series that ran from 1968 to 1971. ABC added the Joey Bishop Show to its late-night lineup in 1967, employing a talk show format, in an attempt to rival the Tonight Show, which lasted until 1969. CBS went without late-night TV (the closest thing it would have to a late-night show was its popular late-prime-time variety show The Danny Kaye Show from 1963 to 1967) until 1969, when it acquired The Merv Griffin Show from syndication; Griffin returned to syndication in 1972, and CBS would not air any further late-night talk shows until 1989, instead opting for reruns, lifestyle programs and imported Canadian dramas in the time slot. By the 1960s, NBC had already cornered the market for late-night television viewing and would go on to dominate the ratings for several decades in the future.
A number of restrictions on television networks that took effect in 1971, among them a nationwide prohibition on tobacco advertising, the requirement that a portion of prime time be set aside for local stations, and rules prohibiting networks from also acting as syndicators, prompted NBC to extend its broadcast day by an additional hour with programming it hoped would recuperate some of their lost revenue. In 1973, NBC launched two new programs: a concert series The Midnight Special that aired Friday nights, and a low-cost talk show, The Tomorrow Show hosted by Tom Snyder, that aired Mondays through Thursdays. Both shows aired immediately following Carson's Tonight Show at 1:00 a.m. ET. Tomorrow was different from The Tonight Show. For instance, the show featured no studio audience, while Snyder would conduct one-on-one interviews (Snyder's guest list was often more eclectic and would sometimes include the intellectuals that Carson had long since abandoned) with a cigarette in hand. Carson's new contract in 1980 allowed him to cut the length of his show from 90 minutes to 60 minutes, and for a short time, Tomorrow was moved to an earlier timeslot. NBC felt that Snyder's more conversational style would not bring in enough viewership in the earlier time slot, forcibly changed the show's format to resemble Carson's, and added gossip reporter Rona Barrett as a co-host. The two did not get along and had an acrimonious relationship on and off the air. The agreement gave Carson's production company ownership of the timeslot following Tonight, which, a year later, Carson Productions and NBC used to create Late Night with David Letterman. When NBC offered Snyder the time slot after Letterman, he refused it, having always been resentful of the forced change in format, and NBC News Overnight, a newscast, took the slot instead.
During his tenure as host of The Tonight Show, Carson became known as The King of Late Night. While numerous hosts (Merv Griffin and Dick Cavett being the best-known) attempted to compete with Carson, none was ever successful in drawing more viewers than Carson did on Tonight, not even ABC's short-lived revival of Paar's show in 1973 using the name Jack Paar Tonite (though Paar blamed erratic scheduling and his own unwillingness to succeed at the expense of Cavett, his friend and former writer). Much like Paar, Carson became tired of fulfilling the workload of 525 minutes a week, so as local newscasts expanded, The Tonight Show was shortened to 90 minutes and again to 60 minutes in 1980 with 15 weeks of vacation a year. Because of a lack of competition, Carson was free to take time off (Carson, by 1980, was only hosting three new shows a week) and invite guest hosts to host the show on a weekly basis, and for weeks at a time when Carson was on vacation including Joey Bishop, Joan Rivers, David Letterman, Bob Newhart, Don Rickles, David Brenner and Jerry Lewis.
In his final years, Carson produced new shows only three nights a week with guest hosts and "Best of Carson" reruns the other two nights. From 1983 to 1986, Rivers and Brenner served as Carson's permanent guest hosts. Many in 1986, including top executives at NBC, thought it was possible that Johnny Carson would retire after reaching his 25th anniversary on October 1, 1987, as it was such a logical cut-off point. In the spring of 1986, a confidential memo between top NBC executives listing about ten possible replacements in the event of Carson's retirement the next year was leaked. When Rivers saw it, she was shocked to see that she was nowhere on the list despite the fact that she had been The Tonight Show's permanent guest host since 1983. In 1986, Joan Rivers joined the brand new Fox network, where she would host her own late night talk show, The Late Show which competed directly against The Tonight Show. Clint Holmes served as Rivers' announcer while Mark Hudson served as bandleader. Carson was incensed that Rivers did not consult him beforehand and never spoke to Rivers again.
Brenner also left Tonight in 1986, although he did so amicably, to launch a syndicated 30 minute late night talk show called Nightlife which was cancelled after one season.
Garry Shandling, who had been a frequent guest host in the early 80's, served as permanent guest host, alternating with Jay Leno, from 1986 to 1987 when he left to focus on his cable show leaving Leno to be Carson's sole guest host.
Carson did not retire in 1987, instead continuing as host until 1992 with Leno as sole permanent guest host. Rivers was fired from The Late Show in 1987 after abysmal ratings and a battle with network executives, leading to her being replaced by Arsenio Hall. Hall performed extremely well in the 18–49 demographic, however Fox had already greenlit The Wilton North Report to replace The Late Show, leading to Hall hosting his own late night talk show in syndication after The Late Show was cancelled in 1988. The Late Show continued with many unknown hosts until its cancellation. Hall's syndicated show, The Arsenio Hall Show, began in syndication in 1988, becoming more popular among younger viewers than Carson. The last network attempt at a Carson competitor, CBS's The Pat Sajak Show, lasted less than sixteen months, debuting in 1989 and being cancelled in 1990. ABC opted not to compete against Carson with a late night talk show; in 1980, it piloted a Richard Dawson-hosted show called Bizarre (it instead went to series on Showtime with John Byner as host) and, for two years, carried the weekly sketch comedy Fridays. ABC instead counterprogrammed Carson with a successful news magazine entitled Nightline beginning in 1980.
Carson retired as host of The Tonight Show in 1992 following his 30th anniversary as host. This garnered major media attention and speculation on who would replace Carson. The two candidates were David Letterman (host of Late Night since 1982) and Jay Leno (Carson's regular guest host since 1987). Leno was eventually chosen, leading to Letterman leaving the network to launch a directly competitive late-night talk show, the Late Show with David Letterman on CBS in 1993. The Tonight Show with Jay Leno debuted in 1992. Letterman was replaced by newcomer Conan O'Brien as host of Late Night. Arsenio Hall's show lost numerous affiliates after Letterman's debut and his show was canceled one year later. Fox returned to late night television in September 1993 with The Chevy Chase Show hosted by Saturday Night Live alumnus Chevy Chase. However, due to sagging ratings, disastrous reviews and Chase's embitterment at not being allowed to do the show the way he wanted to host it, the show was cancelled the following month. Even MTV entered the late night contest when it debuted The Jon Stewart Show, hosted by Jon Stewart, which ran until 1995. Letterman initially won the late night ratings battle but fell behind Leno in 1995; Leno generally remained in first place until first leaving Tonight in 2009. To combat NBC's Late Night, David Letterman created The Late Late Show to follow Letterman at 12:37; the first host was former host of The Tomorrow Show Tom Snyder, who hosted the show using the same format he had used on Tomorrow until his departure in 1999. The Late Late Show's second host, Craig Kilborn, followed a more conventional (albeit low-budget) late-night format; had previously served as host of The Daily Show, a late night satirical news program on Comedy Central, and upon Kilborn's departure, Jon Stewart replaced him on that show. Perhaps one of the most unusual late night hosts to come out of this boom was basketball player and later entrepreneur Magic Johnson, whose syndicated The Magic Hour was a major flop and effectively ended any future efforts at a syndicated late-night talk show at that point in time.
ABC finally re-entered the late night comedy fray in 1997 by installing Politically Incorrect with Bill Maher (which had aired on Comedy Central from 1993 to 1996) into its lineup after Nightline. Unlike traditional late-night talk shows, Politically Incorrect was a half-hour in length and (following a brief host monologue) featured a panel of four guests debating topical issues while Maher moderated in a comedic fashion.
Many late-night talk shows went off the air in the days following the September 11 attacks of 2001, while many of their networks aired round-the-clock news coverage. Letterman was the first to return on September 17, addressing the situation in an opening monologue. The show was not presented in its normal jovial manner, and featured Dan Rather, Regis Philbin, and a musical performance from Tori Amos. Politically Incorrect also resumed on September 17 and immediately drew controversy due to remarks Maher and a guest (Dinesh D'Souza) made concerning the "coward" label given to the terrorists by President George W. Bush. The Tonight Show returned the following night, featuring John McCain and a performance from Crosby, Stills, and Nash.
Politically Incorrect was canceled due to low ratings in the summer of 2002, after which Maher joined HBO and began hosting the similarly formatted weekly series Real Time. ABC then tapped Comedy Central personality Jimmy Kimmel to host a more traditional late-night program, Jimmy Kimmel Live!. From its beginning in 2003 until early 2013, the show aired following Nightline on ABC's late-night lineup. With Nightline past its peak in popularity, and ABC citing stronger ratings potential in the time slot, Jimmy Kimmel Live! was moved to 11:35 p.m. ET/PT on January 8, 2013—placing it in line with its competitors.
On October 17, 2005, Comedy Central premiered a spin-off of The Daily Show hosted by regular cast member Stephen Colbert, The Colbert Report. The show was structured as a parody of personality-based cable news programs, featuring Colbert portrayed as a narcissistic conservative pundit reminiscent of Fox News hosts such as Bill O'Reilly and Tucker Carlson, among others.
Jake Sasseville entered the late night arena after a self-syndication campaign got him clearance on several ABC affiliates by local general managers in 2008. The Edge with Jake Sasseville aired after Jimmy Kimmel Live! in markets reaching a total of 35 million homes, despite the network's concerns. The show went off the air in 2010. Another syndicated show that earned significant clearance in the late 2000s was Comics Unleashed, a panel comedy show that lasted only one season but ran in reruns for several years afterward.
Scottish native Craig Ferguson succeeded Kilborn as host of The Late Late Show in 2005, renaming it The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson. TBS entered the late night scene in 2009 when it debuted Lopez Tonight, hosted by comedian George Lopez. On September 27, 2004, the 50th anniversary of The Tonight Show's debut, NBC announced that Jay Leno would be succeeded by Conan O'Brien, in 2009. Leno explained that he did not want to see a repeat of the hard feelings and controversy that occurred when he was given the show over David Letterman following Carson's retirement in 1992. O'Brien's last Late Night episode was taped on February 20, 2009. Saturday Night Live alum Jimmy Fallon took over as host of Late Night on March 2, 2009.
The popularity of late-night shows in the United States has been cited as a key factor why Americans do not get the requisite seven to eight hours of sleep per night. Since 2015, late-night talk shows have competed for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety Talk Series; prior to that, the genre competed against general variety shows for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety Series.
It was announced on July 21, 2008 that Jay Leno would host his final episode of The Tonight Show on May 29, 2009 with Conan O'Brien and James Taylor as his guests. O'Brien took over hosting duties the following Monday, June 1, 2009. On December 9, 2008, it was announced that Jay Leno would be hosting a new nightly prime time show in September 2009, which aired at 10 p.m. ET. The Jay Leno Show ended after a short run on February 9, 2010, due to low ratings, which, combined with NBC's poor prime-time performance at the time, affected viewership of its lead-out late newscasts on many NBC stations.
On January 7, 2010, multiple media outlets reported that The Jay Leno Show would be moved from the 10 p.m. Eastern time slot to 11:35 p.m. and The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien would be moved from 11:35 p.m. to 12:05 a.m. effective March 1, 2010, the first time in its history that the show would begin after midnight. On January 12, 2010, O'Brien publicly announced in an open letter that he intended to leave NBC if they moved The Tonight Show to anytime after midnight in order to accommodate moving The Jay Leno Show to 11:35 p.m. ET. He felt it would damage the show's legacy as it always started after the late local news since it began in 1954. After several days of negotiations, O'Brien reached a settlement with NBC that allowed him to leave The Tonight Show on January 22, 2010, ending his partnership with NBC after 22 years. Leno began his second tenure as host of The Tonight Show on March 1, 2010, after the 2010 Winter Olympics, but only after major controversy. Leno's second Tonight was taped at NBC's Studio 11 in Burbank, the former home of The Jay Leno Show, with a modified version of that show's set. After leaving NBC, O'Brien began hosting his own late night talk show, Conan, on TBS on November 8, 2010, after his non-compete clause had lapsed.
In March 2013, news broke that NBC was expected to part ways with Leno for good after his contract expired in 2014, clearing the way for Fallon (whose tenure at Late Night had found success with a young, culturally savvy audience) to take over The Tonight Show beginning that year, which also marked the 60th anniversary of the franchise. NBC confirmed the change on April 3, 2013. Under Fallon, the show returned to New York City, where the show originated from its 1954 debut until 1972; NBC no longer owns the former company-owned studios in Burbank where Carson and Leno's programs originated (O'Brien's Tonight Show taped at nearby Universal Studios). On May 13, 2013, it was announced that Fallon's former SNL castmate Seth Meyers would take over as host of Late Night once Fallon took over The Tonight Show. The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon debuted during NBC's coverage of the Winter Olympics in Russia on February 17, 2014, while Late Night with Seth Meyers debuted one week later.
2014 and 2015 saw a realignment to CBS's late night lineup: in April 2014, Craig Ferguson announced that he would leave The Late Late Show at the end of the year. On September 8, 2014, British actor and comedian James Corden was announced as the new host of The Late Late Show. His incarnation of the program is modelled more upon British chat shows such as The Graham Norton Show, de-emphasizing the monologue and relying on multiple guests present throughout the show rather than interviewed individually. Meanwhile, in May 2015, David Letterman retired from Late Show, and was succeeded the following September by Stephen Colbert—who departed from Comedy Central and The Colbert Report to host the program. On August 6, 2015, Jon Stewart also retired from The Daily Show (being succeeded by fellow cast member and South African comedian Trevor Noah), joining The Late Show with Stephen Colbert as an executive producer and occasional contributor.
The Late Show with Stephen Colbert achieved critical and ratings successes for its satire of the 2016 U.S. presidential election campaign and the presidency of Donald Trump; following the 2018-19 television season, it was the highest-rated late-night talk show overall for the third season in a row, and narrowly beat The Tonight Show in key demographic viewership for the first time since 1994-95.
On February 12, 2019, NBC announced that Last Call with Carson Daly would conclude after its 2000th and final episode. Daly had already reduced his role on the program, which had been retooled from a traditional talk show to a format focusing exclusively on interviews and performances filmed on-location by the show's staff. On September 16, 2019, NBC premiered A Little Late with Lilly Singh—a new talk show hosted by Indian-Canadian YouTuber Lilly Singh. She became the first openly bisexual person and the first person of Indian descent to host a U.S. late-night talk show).
List of shows in Asia
- ArmComedy (ATV; 2012–present)
- Late Night with Ara Kazaryan (Ուշ երեկոյան Արա Կազարյան հետ) (Armenia TV; 2015–2016)
- Nice Evening (Լավ երեկո) (Armenia 1; 2017–present)
- Evening Azoyan (Երեկոյան Ազոյան) (Armenia TV; March, 2018)
- 5-to-5 (5-də-5) (Khazar TV; 2012–present)
- Against the good with Ilgar (Xeyrə qarşı) (Azad Azerbaijan TV; 2015-2016)
- Fateh's sofa (Fatehin divanı) (İctimai Television; 2019–present)
- Vano's Show (ვანოს შოუ ) (Rustavi 2 - 2007-2019) (Mtavari - 2019-present) is a Georgian version of American TV program format that has existed since the 1950s and is extremely successful in the United States.
- Late Show With Giorgi Gabunia (ღამის შოუ გიორგი გაბუნიასთან ერთად) (2018–present) (Imedi TV).
- Night Show on First Channel (ღამის შოუ პირველზე) (2019–present) (First Channel Georgia).
- Late Show (გვიანი შოუ) (Rustavi 2 - 2019 )
- Ini Baru Empat Mata (Trans7; 2006–2020)
- Tonight Show (NET.; 2013–present)
- Malam Malam (NET.; 2019–present)
- Tukul Arwana One Man Show (Indosiar; 2020–present)
- The Sultan (SCTV; 2020-present)
- ChandShanbeh Ba Sina(چندشنبه با سینا) (Farsi1; 2013-2017)
- The Sina Show (RJTV ; 2017–present)
- "khandevane"( خندوانه )
- "Dorehami"( دورهمی )
- Haiom balila with Guri Alfi (היום בלילה עם גורי אלפי) (Channel 2; 30 December 2015–present)
- Night studio (Túngi studio;Qazaqstan; 2013–2019)
- The Medyo Late Night Show with Jojo A. (The Somewhat Late Night Show with Jojo A.) (RJTV; 2005–2007, Q; 2007–2009, TV5; 2009–2013, 2015; GMA; 2014-2017, PTV; 2018, RJDigiTV; 2020–Present)
- Tonight with Arnold Clavio (GMA News TV; 2011–present, Q; 2010–2011)
- Walang Tulugan with the Master Showman (No Sleeping with the Master Showman) (GMA; 1997–2016)
- The Tim Yap Show (GMA; 2013–present)
- Martin Late at Night (ABS-CBN; March 1–May 31, 2013)
- Martin After Dark (GMA; 1988-1993, ABS-CBN; 1993-1998)
- Gandang Gabi Vice (Good Evening Vice) (ABS-CBN; May 22, 2011 – April 12, 2020)
- Tonight with Boy Abunda (ABS-CBN; September 28, 2015 – Present)
- The Boobay and Tekla Show (GMA; January 27, 2019 – Present)
- The Night Night Show with Brian Tseng (STR Network; 2018–present)
- Tonight (Имшаб) (Tajikistan TV; 2015–present)
- Tonight's the Night (Channel 3 (Thailand); premiered on March 5, 2016)
- The Daily Show (Channel 7 HD)
- Talk Ka-thoey Tonight (GMMTV)
- MTV Show (Milliy TV, September, 2016–present)
- Movers & Shakers (Sony Entertainment Television, 1997 – 2012)
- Koffee With Karan (Star One, 2004 – present)
- Comedy Circus (Sony Entertainment Television, 2007-2018)
- Comedy Nights with Kapil (Colors TV, 2013-2016)
- The Anupam Kher Show - Kucch Bhi Ho Sakta Hai (Colors TV, 2014-2015)
- The Late Night Show - Jitna Rangeen Utna Sangeen (Colors TV, 2014-2014)
- Comedy Nights Bachao (Colors TV, 2015-2017)
- The Kapil Sharma Show (Sony Entertainment Television, 2016 – present)
- Comedy Nights Live (Colors TV, 2016)
List of shows in Africa
- WtfTumi on SABC 3
- TRENDING SA on SABC 3
- The Trend on NTV
- Takariva mafana an'i Mija Rasolo (2014–present)
- Rachid Show on 2M TV (2013–present) Host: Rachid Allali
- Highlites with IK on Africa Magic Showcase (2014 - 2017) Host: IK Osakioduwa
List of shows in the Americas
- Jô Soares Onze e Meia (SBT; August 17, 1988 – December 31, 1999)
- Programa do Jô (Globo; April 3, 2000 – December 16, 2016)
- Agora É Tarde (Band; June 29, 2011 – March 27, 2015)
- Agora É Tarde com Danilo Gentili (June 29, 2011 – December 31, 2013)
- Agora É Tarde with Rafinha Bastos (March 5, 2014 – March 27, 2015)
- Luciana by Night (RedeTV!; November 27, 2012 – present)
- The Noite com Danilo Gentili (SBT; March 10, 2014 – present)
- Programa do Porchat (RecordTV; August 24, 2016 – December 20, 2018)
- Lady Night, with Tatá Werneck (Multishow; April 12, 2017 – present)
- Conversa com Bial (Globo; May 2, 2018 – present)
- Que História é Essa, Porchat? (GNT; August 6, 2019 – present)
- Tá Pago! com Leandro Hassum (TNT; August 27, 2019 – present)
- Sterblitch Não Tem um Talk Show: o Talk Show (Globoplay; June 5, 2020 – present)
- The Hour/George Stroumboulopoulos Tonight (CBC; 2009–2012, primetime from 2005 to 2009 and 2012 to 2014)
- Ed & Red's Night Party (Citytv; 1995–2008)
- The Mike Bullard Show (Global; 2003–2004)
- Open Mike with Mike Bullard (CTV; 1997–2003)
- Friday Night! with Ralph Benmergui (CBC; 1993, primetime from 1992 to 1993)
- Canada After Dark with Paul Soles (CBC; 1978–79)
- Nightcap (CBC; 1963–67)
- 90 Minutes Live with Peter Gzowski (CBC; 1976–1978)
- It's Only Rock & Roll (CBC; 1987)
- The Being Frank Show (CHCH; 2010–present)
- Le Grand Blond avec un show sournois with Marc Labrèche (TVA; 2001–2003)
- La Fin du monde est à 7 heures with Marc Labrèche (TQS; 1997–2000)
- En mode Salvail with Eric Salvail (V; 2013–2017)
- Le Ti-Mé show with Ti-Mé Paré (Ici Radio-Canada Télé; 2014–2016)
- Le Show de Rousseau with Stéphane Rousseau (V; 2018)
- La semaine des 4 Julie with Julie Snyder (V; 2020)
List of shows in Europe
- Willkommen Österreich with Stermann & Grissemann (ORF eins; 2007–present)
- Gute Nacht Österreich with Peter Klien (ORF eins; 2019–present)
- Bussi Fussi with Rudi Fussi (Puls 24; 2020–present)
- Макаёнка, 9 (Belarus-1; 2018–present)
- Slavi's Show (bTV, 2000-2019)
- Azis's Evening show (TV2: 2007-2009, PRO.BG: 2009-2010)
- Slavi Trifonov's Evening show (7/8 TV, 2019–present)
- Nikolaos Tsitiridis' Show (bTV, 2020–present)
- Saturday Night with Donny (BNT, 2020–present)
- On n'est pas couché (France 2, 2006–2020)
- Ce Soir avec Arthur (Comédie +, 2010–2012; TF1, 2013–present)
- La nuit nous appartient (NRJ 12;Comédie +, 2009–2012)
- La Méthode Cauet (TF1; 2003–2008)
- Claudy Show (France Ô; 2013–present)
- Schmidteinander (WDR: 1990–1993; Das Erste: 1994)
- Gottschalk Late Night (RTL: 1992–1995)
- RTL Nachtshow (RTL: 1994–1995)
- Harald Schmidt Show (Sat.1: 1995–2003, 2011–2012; Sky Atlantic HD, Sky Hits HD: 2012–2014), Harald Schmidt (Das Erste: 2004–2007, 2009–2011)
- Late Lounge (hr: 1999–2005), Late Lounge Club (hr: 2005–2006)
- TV Total (ProSieben: 1999–2015)
- SWR3 Ring frei! (SWR: 2003–2007), SWR3 latenight (SWR: 2007–2015), Die Pierre M. Krause Show (SWR: 2016–present)
- Anke Late Night (Sat.1: 2004)
- Sarah Kuttner – Die Show (VIVA: 2004–2005), Kuttner (MTV: 2005–2006)
- Schmidt & Pocher (Das Erste: 2007–2009)
- Inas Nacht (NDR: 2007–2009; Das Erste: 2009–present)
- Die Kurt Krömer Show (rbb: 2003–2005), Krömer – Die Internationale Show (rbb: 2007–2011), Krömer – Late Night Show (Das Erste: 2012–2014)
- Die Oliver Pocher Show (Sat.1: 2009–2011)
- MTV Home (MTV: 2009–2011)
- Heute-show (ZDF: 2009–present)
- Stuckrad–Barre (ZDFneo: 2010–2012; Tele 5: 2012–2013)
- NeoParadise (ZDFneo: 2011–2013)
- Circus HalliGalli (ProSieben: 2013–2017)
- Neo Magazin (ZDFneo: 2013-2014), Neo Magazin Royale (ZDFneo, ZDF: 2015–2019)
- Geht's noch?! Kayas Woche (RTL: 2014–2015)
- Promi Big Brother – Late Night Live (sixx: 2014), Promi Big Brother – Die Late Night Show (sixx: 2015–2016)
- Der Klügere kippt nach (Tele 5: 2015)
- Luke! Die Woche und ich (Sat.1: 2015–present)
- Boomarama Late Night (Tele 5: 2015–2016), Boomarama 3000 (Tele 5: 2017–present)
- Ringlstetter (BR: 2016–present)
- Late Night Berlin (ProSieben: 2018–present)
- Radio Arvyla (ANT1, 2008–2018, Skai TV, 2019–present)
- Ellinofreneia (Skai TV, 2008–2011),Ellinofreneia (Alpha TV, 2013–2017)
- Al Tsantiri News (Alpha TV, 2004–2016),Al Tsantiri News (Open TV, 2019–present)
- A.M.A.N. (Mega Channel, 1996–1997), [A.M.A.N. (TV series)] (ANT1, 1997–2000),A.M.AN. Ta Katharmata (ANT1, 2000–2007)
- Comfusio (ERT3, 1993-1994),Comfusio (Star Channel, 1994-1996)
- Heti dörgés with Géza Villám (Comedy Central, 2019)
- Esti Frizbi with Péter Hajdú (ATV, 2006-2008, 2016–present; Story TV, 2009; TV2; 2010–2016 as Frizbi)
- Fábry (M1, 2012–2015; Duna TV, 2015-present)
- Heti Hetes (RTL Klub, 1999–2012; RTL2, 2012–2016)
- Showtime with Péter Hajdú (TV2, 2016)
- Kasza! (Super TV2, 2013–2014; TV2, 2015)
- Esti Showder with Sándor Fábry (M1, 1998; RTL Klub, 1999–2011)
- Light Night with László Lovász (Prizma TV, 2011)
- Késő este with András Hajós (Viasat 3, 2004)
- Magánszám with András Hajós (TV2, 2003)
- Boros-Bochkor Show (TV2, 2001-2002)
- Friderikusz Show (M1, 1992–1997)
- The Late Late Show (RTÉ; 1962–present)
- Saturday Night with Miriam (RTÉ; 2005–present)
- The Ray D'Arcy Show (RTÉ; 2015–present)
- The Saturday Night Show (RTÉ; 2010–2015)
- Kenny Live (RTÉ; 1988–1999)
- Good Grief Moncrieff! (RTÉ; 1996)
- Kennedy (RTÉ; 1997)
- Tubridy Tonight (RTÉ; 2004–2009)
- Tonight with Craig Doyle (RTÉ; 2010)
- Io e te di notte (Rai 1 2019–present)
- L'intervista (Canale 5; 2016–present)
- CCN (Comedy Central; 2015–present)
- E poi c'è Cattelan (Sky Uno; 2014–present)
- Gazebo (Rai 3; 2013–2017)
- Volo in Diretta (Rai 3; 2012–2013)
- Victor Victoria - niente è come sembra (La7; 2009-2010)
- Very Victoria (MTV; 2005-2008)
- Cronache Marziane (Italia 1; 2004-2005)
- Che tempo che fa (Rai 3, Rai 1 and Rai 2; 2003–present)
- Satyricon (Rai 2; 2001)
- Barracuda (Italia 1; 1999)
- Maurizio Costanzo Show (Rete 4-Canale 5; 1982–2009;2015–present)
- Evening with Renārs Zeltiņš (Vakars ar Renāru Zeltiņu; LTV1; 17 October 2014 – 18 December 2015)
- Midnight Show at Seven (Pusnakts šovs septiņos; 7 November 2014–present)
- Late Show with Streips (Vēlais ar Streipu; RīgaTV24, 29 February 2016–present)
- Senkveld med HC og Tommy - TV2 (2001-2002)
- Senkveld med Thomas og Harald - TV2 (2003-2018)
- Senkveld med Stian og Helene - TV2 (2018–present)
- Lindmo - NRK (2012–present)
- I kveld med Ylvis - TVNorge (2011-2016)
- Først & sist - NRK (1998-2007)(Skavlans first talk show.)
- Skavlan - NRK/SVT/TV2 (2009–present) (Recorded in Sweden, England and US, broadcast on both Swedish and Norwegian television. The host is Norwegian)
- Kuba Wojewódzki (Polsat; 2002-2006; TVN: 2006-present)
- Wieczór z Wampirem (RTL7; 1997-1999)
- Wieczór z Jagielskim (TVP2; 1999-2001)
- Szymon Majewski Show (TVN; 2005-2011)
- Szymon Na Żywo (TVN; 2012)
- Chestiunea Zilei cu Florin Călinescu (1998 – 2004) (Pro TV; Tele7ABC)
- Noaptea Târziu cu Mircea Badea și Oreste (1999-2002) (Antena 1)
- Show de Seară cu Viorel Dragu (Comedy Central Extra) (April 3, 2017 – present)
- Starea Nației cu Dragoș Pătraru (TVR)
- Good Night (Добрый вечер; RTR (РТР); 1997–1998)
- Once in the Night (Однажды вечером; TNT (ТНТ); 1999–2001)
- Good Night with Maxim (Добрый вечер с Максимом; Rossiya 1 (Россия 1); 2011)
- Prozhektorperiskhilton (ru:Прожекторперисхилтон; Channel One (Первый канал); May 17, 2008 – June 10, 2012, 2017 – present)
- Evening Urgant (Вечерний Ургант; Channel One (Первый канал); 2012–present)
- Nightly Herasimets (Вечерний Герасимец; Dozhd (Дождь) ; 2012–2013)
- The Time G (Время Г; NTV (НТВ); 2015)
- Vecher s Knyazhnoi (Вечер с Княжной; TNT Samara (ТНТ Самара); 2017)
- The International sawmill with Tigran Keosayan (Международная пилорама с Тиграном Кеосаяном; NTV (НТВ); 2016-present)
- Studio 94 (Студия 94; Grozny TV (Chechnya); 2015–present)
- Martirosyan Official (Мартиросян Official; TNT (ТНТ); April, 2018–present)
- 24 minuta sa Zoranom Kesićem (2013—present)
- Veče sa Ivanom Ivanovićem (2010–present)
- Marko Živić Show (2007)
- Oralno doba (2007-2008)
- Fajront Republika (2008-2011)
- La noche se mueve (Telemadrid; 1992–1993)
- Sense titol (TV3; 1995)
- Esta noche cruzamos el Mississippi (Telecinco; 1995–1997)
- La noche prohibida (Antena 3; 1996)
- Sense titol 2 (TV3; 1996)
- Effecto F (Antena 3; 1997)
- Sense titol, Sense Vacances (TV3; 1997)
- Crónicas marcianas (Telecinco; 1997–2005)
- La sonrisa del pelícano (Antena 3; 1997)
- Sense titol, s/n (TV3; 1998)
- La cosa nostra (TV3; 1999–2002)
- La Central (Antena 3; 2000)
- Maldita la hora (Antena 3; 2001)
- Abierto al anochecer (Antena 3; 2002)
- Una altra cosa (TV3; 2002–2004)
- TNT (Telecinco; 2004–2007)
- Noche sin tregua (Paramount Comedy; 2004–2007)
- Buenafuente (Antena 3; 2005–2007, laSexta; 2007–2011)
- La azotea de Wyoming (La Primera; 2005)
- Plan C (Telecinco; 2005)
- Ruffus & Navarro (La Primera; 2005–2006)
- Noche Hache (Cuatro; 2005–2008)
- Sabías a lo que venías (laSexta; 2007)
- La semana más larga (Canal Sur; 2010–2013)
- UAU! (Cuatro; 2010)
- En el aire (laSexta; 2013–2015)
- Se enciende la noche (Telecinco; 2013–2014)
- Hable con ellas (Telecinco; 2014–2015; also had a brief prime time run in 2016)
- Alaska y Segura (La 1; 2015; also had previous prime time runs on La 2 as Torres y Reyes and Alaska y Coronas in 2013–2014)
- El último mono (laSexta; 2015)
- Late Motiv (Canal+/#0; 2016–present)
- La resistencia (#0; 2018–present)
- Las que faltaban (#0; 2019)
- Animales nocturnos (Telecinco; 2020)
- Night Moor with Dieter Moor (Swiss Television; 1997-1999)
- Giacobbo/Müller Late Service Public (Swiss Television; 2008–2016)
- 15 Minutes till Tomorrow (15 хвилин до завтра; K1; 2011-2012)
- Evening. Pasha. Stars (Вечір. Паша. Зорі; K1; 2012)
- Crazy Week (Шалений тиждень; TVi; 2012)
- Проти ночі (TVi; 2012)
- ЧистоNEWS (1+1, March 23, 2012-present)
- Pedan-Prytula Show (Педан-Притула Шоу; Novyi Kanal (Новий канал); March 10, 2013–2014)
- Uteodyn with Michael Shchur (Утеодин з Майклом Щуром; UA:First (UA:Перший); October 18, 2014–July 25, 2015)
- Lumpen Show (NLO TV, 2015—present)
- ЧереЩур (UA:First, 2017)
- The Evening with Nataliya Garipova (Вечір з Наталею Гаріповою; STB (СТБ); March 3, 2018)
- The Evening Show with Yuriy Marchenko (Вечірнє шоу з Юрієм Марченком; UA:First (UA:Перший); 2018)
- Kondratyuk on Monday (Кондратюк у понеділок; 5 Kanal (5 канал); September 21, 2020–present)
- Parkinson (BBC One; 1971–1982, 1998–2004, ITV; 1987–1988, 2004–2007)
- Des O'Connor Tonight (BBC Two; 1977–1982, ITV; 1983–1999, 2001–2002)
- Wogan (BBC One; 1982–1992)
- Aspel & Company (ITV; 1984–1993)
- The Last Resort with Jonathan Ross (Channel 4; 1987–1988)
- After Dark (Channel 4; 1987–1991; sporadic specials to 2003; BBC4 series, 2003)
- Saturday Night Clive (BBC Two; 1988–1994)
- Clive Anderson Talks Back (Channel 4; 1989–1996)
- Tonight with Jonathan Ross (Channel 4; 1990–1992)
- The Danny Baker Show (BBC One; 1994–1995)
- The Frank Skinner Show (BBC One; 1995–1999; ITV; 2000–2005)
- The Gaby Roslin Show (Channel 4; 1996)
- Clive Anderson All Talk (BBC One; 1996–1999)
- The Late Jonathan Ross (Channel 4; 1996)
- The Jack Docherty Show (Channel 5; 1997–1999)
- So Graham Norton (Channel 4; 1998–2002)
- The Richard Blackwood Show (Channel 4; 1999–2001)
- Clive Anderson Now (Channel 5; 2001)
- Friday Night with Jonathan Ross (BBC One; 2001–2010)
- V Graham Norton (Channel 4; 2002–2003)
- The Ralf Little Show (BBC Choice; 2002)
- God Almighty (Channel 5; 2003)
- Graham Norton's Bigger Picture (BBC One; 2005–2006)
- The Charlotte Church Show (Channel 4; 2006–2008)
- Russell Brand's Got Issues (E4; 2006)
- The Russell Brand Show (Channel 4; 2006)
- The Graham Norton Show (BBC Two; 2007–2009, BBC One; 2009–present)
- Lily Allen and Friends (BBC Three; 2008)
- The Justin Lee Collins Show (ITV2; 2009)
- Piers Morgan's Life Stories (ITV; 2009–present)
- Alan Carr: Chatty Man (Channel 4; 2009–2017)
- Justin Lee Collins: Good Times (Channel 5; 2010)
- Paul O'Grady Live (ITV; 2010–2011)
- The Rob Brydon Show (BBC Two; 2010–2012)
- The Jonathan Ross Show (ITV; 2011–present)
- The Michael McIntyre Chat Show (BBC One; 2014)
- Up Late with Rylan (Channel 5; 2016)
- Alan Carr: Happy Hour (Channel 4; 2016)
- John Bishop: In Conversation With... (W; 2016–2018)
- The Nightly Show (ITV; 2017)
- The Big Narstie Show (Channel 4; 2018–present)
Mock chat shows
- The Dame Edna Experience (ITV; 1987–1989)
- The Word, (Channel 4; 1990–1995)
- Room 101 (BBC Two; 1994–2007, BBC One; 2012–2018)
- Knowing Me, Knowing You with Alan Partridge (BBC Two; 1994–1995)
- The Mrs Merton Show (BBC Two; 1995, BBC One; 1996–1998)
- TFI Friday (Channel 4; 1996–2000, 2015)
- Da Ali G Show (Channel 4; 2000, HBO; 2003–2004)
- Meet Ricky Gervais (Channel 4; 2000)
- The Kumars at No. 42 (BBC Two; 2001–2004, BBC One; 2005–2006, Sky 1 2014)
- This Is Dom Joly (BBC Three; 2003)
- The Keith Barret Show (BBC Two; 2004–2005)
- TV Heaven, Telly Hell (Channel 4; 2006–2007)
- Al Murray's Happy Hour (ITV; 2007–2008)
- The Dame Edna Treatment (ITV; 2007)
- Carpool (Dave; 2010–2011)
- Comic's Choice (Channel 4; 2011)
- The Angelos Epithemiou Show (Channel 4; 2011–2012)
- All Round to Mrs. Brown's (BBC One; 2017–present)
- This Time with Alan Partridge (BBC One; 2019–present)
- The Lateish Show with Mo Gilligan (Channel 4; 2019–present)
- Bernard M. Timberg, Robert J. Erler (2010) Television Talk: A History of the TV Talk Show, pp.3-4
- Erving Goffman (1981) Forms of Talk pp.234-160
- Erler, Robert (2010) "A Guide to Television Talk," in Television Talk: A History of the TV Talk Show, by Bernard M. Timberg
- "This Is Bob Hope..." American Masters (November 13, 2017). Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Tom Snyder on Later, 1994
- "'Jimmy Kimmel Live' Moved to 11:35 p.m.; 'Nightline' Bumped to 12:35 a.m." The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- Carter, Bill (January 7, 2013). "Late-Night Ratings Are Becoming a Three-Way Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- Kurtz, Howard (October 10, 2005). TV's Newest Anchor: A Smirk in Progress. The Washington Post. Retrieved on August 15, 2007
- Nolan, Clancy (February 10, 2008). "Late-Night Hustler". New York Magazine.
- "Leno promises smooth transition to O'Brien". Today.com. September 28, 2004. Retrieved May 12, 2008.
- "O'Brien to replace Leno on 'The Tonight Show'". CNN. September 27, 2004. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8450575.stm "This diet of TV late at night is a key reason up to 40% of Americans get less than the "recommended" seven to eight hours of sleep, according to recent research from the University of Pennsylvania."
- Elber, Lynn (May 14, 2009). Leno's last `Tonight' guest is Conan O'Brien. Associated Press via The Buffalo News. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
- "Jay Leno Taking Over 10 pm On NBC". BroadcastingCable. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
- LA Times article: "Future For NBC's Tonight Show Up In The Air".
- Access Hollywood article: "Jay Leno Heading Back To Late Night, Conan O’Brien Weighing Options".
- Carter, Bill (January 24, 2010). "O'Brien Undone by His Media-Hopping Fans". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
- Conan O'Brien: I Won't Do "The Tonight Show" at 12:05AM Archived January 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Zap2It.com, January 12, 2010
- NBC Dumps Conan for $45 Million Payoff; Reinstates Jay as "Tonight Show" Host, TV Guide, January 21, 2010
- Conan O'Brien: I Won't Do a 12:05AM "Tonight Show" Archived May 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Fancast.com, January 12, 2010
- "Craig Ferguson to Exit CBS' 'Late Late Show'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
- Rice, Lynette (September 8, 2014). "James Corden Officially Announced to Replace Craig Ferguson on Late Late Show". People. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Wright, Megh (March 4, 2015). "James Corden Reveals Some Details on the Format of 'Late Late Show'". Vulture. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- Stelter, Frank Pallotta and Brian (May 20, 2015). "David Letterman says good night". CNNMoney. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
- Zuckerman, Esther (April 10, 2014). "Stephen Colbert Will Take Over for David Letterman". The Wire. Archived from the original on August 15, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
- Itzkoff, Dave (March 30, 2015). "Trevor Noah to Succeed Jon Stewart on 'The Daily Show'". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Jon Stewart Blasts Fox News' Embrace of Donald Trump". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
- "Stephen Colbert Captures Late-Night Ratings Crown in 2018-19". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
- Petski, Nellie Andreeva,Denise; Andreeva, Nellie; Petski, Denise (February 12, 2019). "'Last Call With Carson Daly' To End After 17 Seasons On NBC". Deadline. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Andreeva, Nellie (November 22, 2013). "'Last Call With Carson Daly' Carries On With New Format". Deadline. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
- Ramos, Dino-Ray (August 21, 2019). "NBC Sets 'A Little Late With Lilly Singh: The Primetime Special' To Introduce Late Night's Newest Voice". Deadline. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
- "Lilly Singh: From YouTube Superwoman to NBC Late Night TV Trailblazer". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
- Adela show sa už na Markízu nevráti [Adela show will not return to Markíza] [online]. In Mediálne.Trend.sk, 2012-01-16 [cit. 2018-02-05].
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