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Later Zhao (後趙)
Later Zhao in the northern China
|Capital||Xiangguo (319-335, 350-351)|
• Destruction of Han Zhao
• Shi Le's claim of imperial title
• Ran Min's establishment of Ran Wei
|329 est.||2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi)|
The Later Zhao (simplified Chinese: 后赵; traditional Chinese: 後趙; pinyin: Hòuzhào; 319-351) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. It was founded by the Shi family of the Jie ethnicity. The Jie were most likely a Yeniseian people and spoke next to Chinese one of the Yeniseian languages. The Later Zhao was the second in territories to the Former Qin that once unified Northern China under Fu Jiān.
When Later Zhao was founded by Shi Le, the capital was at Xiangguo (襄國, in modern Xingtai, Hebei), but in 335 Shi Hu moved the capital to Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei), where it would remain for the rest of the state's history (except for Shi Zhi's brief attempt to revive the state at Xiangguo).
Rulers of the Later Zhao
|Temple names||Posthumous names||Family names and given name||Durations of reigns||Era names and their according durations|
|Chinese convention: use family and given names|
|Gaozu (高祖 Gāozǔ)||Ming (明 míng)||Shi Le (石勒 Shí Lè)||319-333||Zhaowang (趙王 Zhàowáng) 319-328|
Taihe (太和 Tàihé) 328-330
Jianping (建平 Jiànpíng) 330-333
|Did not exist||Prince of Haiyang (海陽王 Hǎiyáng wáng)||Shi Hong (石弘 Shí Hóng)||333-334||Yanxi (延熙 Yánxī) 334|
|Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ)||Wu (武 Wǔ)||Shi Hu (石虎 Shí Hǔ)||334-349||Jianwu (建武 Jiànwǔ) 335-349|
Taining (太寧 Tàiníng) 349
|Did not exist||Prince of Qiao (譙王 Qiáo wáng)||Shi Shi (石世 Shí Shì)||33 days in 349||Taining (太寧 Tàiníng) 33 days in 349|
|Did not exist||Prince of Pengcheng (彭城王 Péngchéng wáng)||Shi Zun (石遵 Shí Zūn)||183 days in 349||Taining (太寧 Tàiníng) 183 days in 349|
|Did not exist||Prince of Yiyang (義陽王 Yìyáng wáng)||Shi Jian (石鑒 Shí Jiàn)||103 days within 349-350||Qinglong (青龍 Qīnglóng) 103 days within 349-350|
|Did not exist||Prince of Xinxing (新興王 Xīnxīng wáng)||Shi Zhi (石祗 Shí Zhī)||350-351||Yongning (永寧 Yǒngníng) 350-351|
Rulers family tree
|Later Zhao monarchs family tree|
- Jie (ethnic group)
- List of past Chinese ethnic groups
- Wu Hu
- Buddhism in China
- Memoirs of Eminent Monks
- Ran Min
- Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
- Vovin, Alexander. "Did the Xiongnu speak a Yeniseian language?". Central Asiatic Journal 44/1 (2000), pp. 87–104.
- Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.