The Lateran councils were ecclesiastical councils or synods of the Catholic Church held at Rome in the Lateran Palace next to the Lateran Basilica. Ranking as a papal cathedral, this became a much-favored place of assembly for ecclesiastical councils both in antiquity (313, 487) and more especially during the Middle Ages.
- The First Council of the Lateran (1123) followed and confirmed the concordat of Worms.
- The Second Council of the Lateran (1139) declared clerical marriages invalid, regulated clerical dress, and punished attacks on clerics by excommunication.
- The Third Council of the Lateran (1179) limited papal electees to the cardinals alone, condemned simony, forbade the promotion of anyone to the episcopate before the age of thirty.
- The Fourth Council of the Lateran (1215) dealt with transubstantiation, papal primacy and conduct of clergy. It said Jews and Muslims should wear a special dress to enable them to be distinguished from Christians.
- The Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512–1517) attempted reform of the Church.