Latin Patriarchate of Antioch
|Patriarch of Antioch|
The jurisdiction of the Latin patriarchs in Antioch extended over the three feudal principalities of Antioch, Edessa, and Tripolis. Towards the end of the twelfth century the island of Cyprus was added. In practice they were far more dependent upon the popes than their predecessors, the Greek patriarchs. After the fall of Antioch (1268) the popes still appointed patriarchs, who, however, were unable to take possession of the see. Since the middle of the fourteenth century they were only titular dignitaries. The title of Latin Patriarch of Antioch was conferred until the early 1950s; but the recipient resided in Rome and was a member of the chapter of the basilica of St. Mary Major. The Basilica of St. Mary Major was the Antioch patriarchium, or papal major basilicas assigned to the Patriarch of Antioch to officiated if they came to Rome, near which they dwelt.
The seat of the Patriarch of Antioch was one of the oldest and most prestigious in Christendom. At one time it was the principal city of Syria; the third largest city of the Roman Empire, after Rome and Alexandria. When the Great Schism took place in 1054, the four Greek Patriarchs of Antioch, Jerusalem, Constantinople and Alexandria "formed" the Eastern Orthodox Church, while the Pope of Rome "formed" the Roman Catholic Church. ("formed" is used in quotations because neither side started anything new after the schism and both continued unaltered and the same as they did pre-schism - the Western Church being under the jurisdiction of Rome, and the Greek Church under the jurisdiction of Constantinople.)
After 1054, the See of Antioch came under the influence of the Byzantine Empire. As part of his grand strategy, the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos sought to utilize the military elan and prowess of the Frankish and European princes of the First Crusade in recovering for him the Eastern Roman Empire, including Antioch and its See.
The crusaders reinstated at first the Greek patriarch, then John IV as long as the Orthodox patriarch remained there they tried to make him a Catholic instead of appointing a rival. However, when at last he fled to Constantinople they considered the see vacant. Thereupon the Latin Christians elected (1100) a patriarch of their own, an ecclesiastic by the name of Bernard who had come to the Orient with the crusaders. From that time Antioch had its Latin patriarchs until the last incumbent Christian was put to death by the Sultan Baibars during the conquest of the city in 1268. The Greeks also continued to choose their patriarchs of Antioch, but these lived generally in Constantinople.
The Byzantine Empire was greatly offended by this and tried to re-establish either a Greek patriarchate or a joint patriarchate. Though the Treaty of Devol in 1108 nominally restored a Greek patriarch, the treaty was never enforced. Under Manuel I Komnenos there was briefly a joint patriarchate when Antioch fell under Byzantine control, but for the most part there was only a Latin patriarch. The Byzantine Empire recognized this de facto control of the See of Antioch and the Latin Patriarch soon played a key role in solidifying ties between the Crusader states and the Byzantine Empire. This represented one of the sole instances of coordinated action by Byzantine and the Franks throughout the crusader period, and led to a number of joint political, diplomatic, military, and marriage alliances. The Latin Patriarch of Antioch was established to serve the Catholic members of the diocese and represent all Christians living in its territory and was one of the major ecclesiastical authorities in the Crusader states. Throughout the Crusader period both Greeks and Latins served under its hierarchy which included numerous suffragan bishops, abbots, cathedrals, monasteries, and churches under its ecclesiastical rule. Damascus quickly grew in dominance, eclipsing Antioch, and the Greek Patriarchate's seat was transferred there in 1342.
Both Latin and Greek Patriarchs continued to be appointed by the Pope and the Byzantine Emperor respectively during the following centuries. However, the Latin Patriarch was a titular office, with its seat at the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. It continued to play a role in helping to protect various isolated Christian communities in the Near East and eventually secured their unity with Rome. The last holder of this office was Roberto Vicentini, who died without a successor in 1953. The post itself was abolished in 1964.
List of Latin religious heads of Antioch
Latin Patriarchs of Antioch
- Bernard of Valence (1100–1135)
- Ralph I of Domfront (1135–1139)
- Aimery of Limoges (1139–1193)
- Ralph II (1193–1196)
- Peter of Angoulême (1196–1208)
- Peter of Ivrea (1209–1217) (also mentioned as Peter of Locedio, who probably was another Cistercian monk confused by Alberic of Trois Fontaines to be the same person)
- vacant (1217–1226)
- Albert Rezzato (1226–1245)
- Opizo Fieschi (1247–1292), in exile after 1268
Titular Latin Patriarchs of Antioch
- Gerard de Crussol (Bastet de Crussol) (1471-1472 Died)
- Lorenzo Zanni (Lorenzo Zane) (1473-1485 Died)
- Giovanni Michiel (1497-1503 Died)
- St. Juan de Ribera (1568-1611 Died)
- Tomás Dávalos de Aragón (1611- 1621 Died)
- Luigi Caetani (1622–1626)
- Giovanni Battista Pamphili (1626–1629), later Pope Innocent X of Rome
- Cesare Monti (1629–1633)
- Fabio Lagonissa (1634–1652)
- Giacomo Altoviti (1667–1693)
- Michelangelo Mattei (1693–1699)
- Charles Thomas Maillard de Tournon (1701–1710)
- Giberto Bartolomeo Borromeo (1711–1735)
- Joaquín Fernández Portocarrero (1735–1760?)
- Giulio Maria della Somaglia (1788-1795)
- Antonio Despuig y Dameto (1799–1813)
- vacant (1813–1822)
- Lorenzo Girolamo Mattei (1822–1833)
- Albert Barbolani di Montauto (1856–1857)
- Iosephus Melchiades Ferlisi (1858–1860, became titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople
- vacant (1860–1862)
- Carolus Belgrado (1862–1866)
- Paulus Brunoni (1868–1877)
- vacant (1877–1879)
- Petrus De Villanova (1879–1881)
- Placidus Ralli (1882–1884)
- vacant (1884–1886)
- Vencentius Tizzani (1886–1892)
- vacant (1892–1895)
- Francesco di Paola Cassetta (1895–1899)
- Carlo Nocella (1899–1901), died 1903, became titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople.
- Lorenzo Passarini (1901–1915)
- Ladislao Michele Zaleski (1916–1925)
- Roberto Vicentini (1925–1953)
- vacant (1953–1964)
This patriarchate was officially abolished in 1964.
- List of Popes
- Patriarch of Antioch
- Latin Patriarch of Constantinople
- Latin Patriarch of Alexandria
- Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Church of Antioch". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Patriarch and Patriarchate". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- The First Crusade, Steven Runciman, page 164, Cambridge University Press, 2005
- The Latin Church in the Crusader states: the secular church, Bernard Hamilton, page 219, 1980 "Alberic of Trois Fontaines confused him with another Cistercian, Peter, abbot of Locedio"
- Römische historische Mitteilungen , Volume 29, Böhlaus Nachf., 1988 - Rome, page 223 ("There is no evidence for the statement frequently made that Peter (of Antioch) had once been Abbot of Locedio")
- "Patriarch Pedro Amariz (Clasquerin)" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- "Patriarch Gerard (Bastet) de Crussol" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- "Patriarch Lorenzo Zanni (Zane)" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- "Giovanni Cardinal Michiel" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- "Archbishop St. Juan de Ribera" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- "Patriarch Tomás Dávalos de Aragón" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- List of Latin Patriarchs of Antioch by GCatholic.org