Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem
Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem
Patriarchatus Hierosolymitanus Latinorum
Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
|Ecclesiastical province||None; immediately subject to the Holy See|
- Catholics (including non-members)
|(as of 2012)|
|Sui iuris church||Latin Church|
|Cathedral||Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre|
|Co-cathedral||Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus|
|Vicar General||Imad Twal|
The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Latin: Patriarchatus Latinus Hierosolymitanus) is the Catholic episcopal see of Jerusalem, officially seated in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. It was originally established in 1099, with the Kingdom of Jerusalem encompassing the territories in the Holy Land newly conquered by the First Crusade. From 1374-1847 it was a titular see, with the Patriarchs of Jerusalem being based at the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome. A resident Latin Patriarch was re-established in 1847 by Pius IX.
The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is now the archbishop of Latin Church Catholics of the Catholic Archdiocese of Jerusalem with jurisdiction for all Latin Catholics in Israel, the Palestinian territories, Jordan and Cyprus. The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem also holds the office of Grand Prior of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. The office of Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem became vacant (sede vacante) on 24 June 2016, and the Patriarchate was managed by Archbishop Pierbattista Pizzaballa as apostolic administrator. Pizzaballa was appointed Latin Patriarch on 24 October 2020. He took possession of the see on 6 November 2020.
It is exempt, being directly subject to the Holy See (and exceptionally its Roman Congregation for the Oriental Churches, which normally handles Eastern Catholics). It is not an ecclesiastical province, and has no metropolitan functions.
The title of Patriarch in the Latin Church is retained by only four archbishops (since Benedict XVI relinquished the papal title of "Patriarch of the West" in 2006): the Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem, of Venice, of Lisbon and of the East Indies. Until 1964, there had also been the honorary patriarchal titles of Constantinople, Alexandria and Antioch; still others were abolished earlier. The title of "Patriarch of Jerusalem" is also used by the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, the Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem, as well as, titularly (along Alexandria), by the Melkite Patriarch.
Jerusalem (in Latin also Hierosolyma) was one of the Apostles' original bishoprics. It was renamed Aelia Capitolina in 135 AD, again Jerusalem in 325. In 451 it was promoted as Patriarchal See. After 649, Pope Martin appointed John of Philadelphia (Amman) as Patriarchal vicar of Jerusalem to replace Sergius of Jaffa.
In 1054, the Great Schism split Christianity into the Eastern Orthodox Church—which consisted of the four Orthodox Christian Patriarchs of Antioch, Jerusalem, Constantinople and Alexandria—under the stewardship of Constantinople; and the Catholic Church, which consisted of the Pope of Rome and virtually all of Western Christianity. Apart from the Maronites, most Christians in the Holy Land came under the jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem.
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
In 1099, the Western Crusaders captured Jerusalem, set up the Kingdom of Jerusalem and established a Latin hierarchy under a Latin Patriarch (in communion with Rome), while expelling the Orthodox Patriarch. The Latin Patriarchate was divided into four archdioceses—their heads bearing the titles of Archbishop of Tyre, Archbishop of Caesarea, Archbishop of Nazareth and Archbishop of Petra—and a number of suffragan dioceses. The Latin Patriarch took over control of the Latin quarter of the city of Jerusalem (the Holy Sepulchre and the immediate surroundings) as his Metropolitan see, and had as his direct suffragans the bishops of Lydda-Ramla, Bethlehem, Hebron and Gaza, and the abbots of the Temple, Mount Sion and the Mount of Olives.
The Latin Patriarch resided in Jerusalem from 1099 to 1187, while Orthodox Patriarchs continued to be appointed, but resided in Constantinople. In 1187, the Crusaders were forced to flee Jerusalem, and the Latin Patriarchy moved to Acre (Akka), while the Orthodox Patriarch returned to Jerusalem. The Catholic Church continued to appoint residential Latin Patriarchs. The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem endured almost 200 years until the last vestiges of the Kingdom were conquered by the Muslim Mamluks in 1291, and the Latin hierarchy was effectively eliminated in the Levant.
Titular Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem
From that time on, the Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem ceased to reside in Cyprus. The Catholic Church continued to appoint titular Patriarchs of Jerusalem, but from then on they were based at the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome.
In 1342, Pope Clement VI officially committed the care of the Holy Land to the Franciscans and the Franciscan Custos of the Holy Lands (The Grand Masters of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre) held the title ex officio under the Papal bull Gratiam agimus by Pope Clement VI, unless someone was specifically appointed to the honorary office.
Yet in 1570, it gained territories from the suppressed Archdiocese of Nicosia and Diocese of Paphos, and in 1571 it gained more territories from the suppressed Diocese of Limassol and Diocese of Famagosta, all in former Crusader Kingdom of Cyprus, which had fallen to the Ottoman Turks.
Modern Patriarchate of Jerusalem
A resident Latin Patriarch was re-established in 1847 by Pius IX, with Bishop Joseph Valerga being appointed to the office. Though officially superseding the Franciscans, Valerga was also the Grand Master of the Order. On Valerga's death in 1872, Vincent Braco was appointed, and following his death in 1889, the Ottoman Sultan authorised the re-establishment of a Latin hierarchy. The Grand Masters of the Order continued to be named as Latin Patriarchs until 1905.
The Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus is the principal, or "mother" church of the Latin Patriarchate, the church in which the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem has his official chair (cathedra). However, the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre has the title of cathedral of the patriarchate. The residence of the Patriarch is in the Old City, near the Co-Cathedral, while the seminary, which is responsible for the liturgical education, is in Beit Jala, a town 10 km south of Jerusalem, where it has been since 1936.
In 1987, Michel Sabbah became the first native Palestinian to be appointed Latin Patriarch. The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is now the diocesan archbishop of Latin Catholics of the Catholic Archdiocese of Jerusalem and has jurisdiction for all Latin Church Catholics in Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Cyprus.
In 2003, the Latin Patriarch was one of the signatories of the "Statement regarding the Separation Wall by heads of Churches in Jerusalem," and in 2006, the Jerusalem Declaration on Christian Zionism, which repudiates Christian Zionism as inconsistent with Christian teaching. In 2008, Sabbah also signed the Kairos Palestine Document (published in 2009, after Sabbah term) against Israeli occupation.
In 2008, Archbishop Fouad Twal was appointed Patriarch to succeed Patriarch Michel Sabbah. He exercised his mandate from June 21, 2008, until June 24, 2016, when he reached the canonical age of retirement and Pope Francis accepted his resignation. Pope Francis appointed Pierbattista Pizzaballa as apostolic administrator of the Patriarchate and named Patriarch on 24 October 2020.
Statistics and extent
As per 2015, it pastorally served 293,053 Catholics in 66 parishes with 464 priests (81 diocesan, 383 religious), 9 deacons, 1,652 lay religious (590 brothers, 1,062 sisters) and 55 seminarians.
The proper Archdiocese of the patriarchal see of Jerusalem has jurisdiction over all 'Latin Church' Catholics (not Eastern Catholics) in the Holy Land (Israel, Palestine and Jordan) as well as Cyprus. In Jerusalem, the Latin Catholic community is the largest Christian community, with some 4,500 people out of an estimated Christian population of about 11,000.
In Jerusalem, the patriarch has his Cathedral archiepiscopal see, a Minor Basilica and World Heritage Site: the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, as well as the Co-Cathedral, also a World Heritage Site: Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus, and four other Minor Basilicas and World Heritage Sites: Basilica of the Agony, Basilica of St. Stephen, Dormition Abbey of the Virgin Mary and St. Anne’s Church.
Other cities in the archdiocese have more Minor Basilicas: Basilica of the Annunciation in Nazareth, Basilica of the Transfiguration in Mount Tabor, Carmelite Monastery of Stella Maris in Haifa and Church of Emmaus in Emmaus (El Qubeibeh), and two other World Heritage Sites, both in Bethlehem : Church of St. Catherine and Church of the Nativity.
List of Latin patriarchs of Jerusalem
Prior to the Great Schism, there were no separate Latin and Greek Orthodox Churches, and thus no separate Patriarchs. For Patriarchs of Jerusalem of the unified Church prior to the Schism, see Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem.
- Arnulf of Chocques (1099)
- Dagobert of Pisa (1099–1101)
- Maurice of Porto (1101–1102), ad interim
- Evremar (1102–1105)
- Dagobert of Pisa (restored) (1105)
- Ghibbelin of Arles (1107–1112)
- Arnulf of Chocques (re-appointed) (1112–1118)
- Warmund of Jerusalem (also known as Garmond of Picquigny) (1119–1128)
- Stephen of La Ferté (1128–1130)
- William of Malines (1130–1145)
- Fulk of Angoulême (1146–1157)
- Amalric of Nesle (1157–1180)
- Heraclius (1180–1191)
Jerusalem itself was lost in 1187; seat of the Patriarch moved (with the kingdom in retreat) to Acre.
- Rodolfo (1191–1192)
- Michele de Corbeil (1193–1194)
- Aymar the Monk (also known as Aimaro Monaco dei Corbizzi) (1194–1202)
- Soffredo (also known as Loffredo Errico Gaetani) (1202–1204)
- Albert of Vercelli (also known as Albert Avogadro) (1204–1214)
- Raoul of Mérencourt (1214–1225)
- Gerold of Lausanne (1225–1238)
- vacant (1238–1240); Jacques de Vitry appointed but never served
- Robert of Nantes (1240–1254)
- Jacques Pantaléon (1255–1261), future Pope Urban IV of Rome
- William II of Agen (1261–1270)
- Thomas Agni of Cosenza (1271–1277)
- John of Vercelli (1278–1279)
- Elijah (1279–1287)
- Nicholas of Hanapes (fr) (1288–1294)
Acre lost in 1291; see in exile moved to Cyprus, then Rome after 1374; titular patriarchs until 1847.
- Landolfo (1295–1304)
- Antony Bek (1306–1311), also Prince-Bishop of Durham in England from 1284 to 1310
- Pierre Pleinecassagne (1314–1318)
- Pierre (1314–1318)
The Franciscan Custodian of the Holy Land held the title from 1342 to 1830 under the Papal bull Gratiam agimus by Pope Clement VI. The bull declared the Franciscans as the official custodians of the Holy Places in the name of the Catholic Church, "unless someone was specifically appointed in the honorary office".
- Raymond Bequin (Raimondo Beguin), O.P. (1324–1329 Died
- Peter Paludanus (Pierre de Palude or Pietro de la Palude), O.P. (1329–1342 Died)
- Élie de Nabinal, O.F.M. (1342)
- Pierre de Casa, O. Carm. (1342–1348)
- Emanuele de Nabinal, O.F.M. (1345)
- Guillaume Amici (Lamy) (1349–1360)
- Philippe de Cabassole (1361–1368)
- Guglielmo Militis, O.P. (1369–1371)
- Guilherme Audibert de la Garde (1371–1374)
- Philippe d'Alençon de Valois (1375–1378)
- Guglielmo da Urbino, O.F.M. (1379–?)
During the Western Schism, the Patriarch was appointed by both Popes resulting in overlapping appointments.
- Named by the Pope of Rome:
- Named by the Pope of Avignon:
- Francisco Clemente Pérez Capera (1419–1429)
- Leonardo Delfino (patriarch), O.F.M. (1430–1434)
- Biagio Molino (1434–1447 Died)
- Lorenzo Zanni (Lorenzo Zane) (1458–1460)
- Louis de Haricuria (1460–1479)
- Bartolomeo della Rovere, O.F.M. (1480–1494)
- Giovanni Antonio Sangiorgio (1500–1503)
- Bernardino López de Carvajal y Sande (1503–1511 Resigned)
- Rodrigo de Carvajal (1523–1539)
- Alessandro Farnese (1539–1550)
- Cristoforo Spiriti (1550–1556 Died)
- Antonio Elio (Antonius Helius) (1558–1576)
- Gian Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce (1576–1584), future Pope Innocent IX of Rome
- Scipione Gonzaga (1585–1588)
- Fabio Blondus de Montealto (Fabio Biondi) (1588–1618)
- Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri (1618–1621)
- Diofebo Farnese (1621–1622 Died)
- Alfonso Manzanedo de Quiñones (1622–1627 Died)
- Domenico de' Marini (patriarch) (1627–1635 Died)
- Giovanni Battista Colonna (1636–1637 Died)
- Tegrimus Tegrimi (1638–1641 Died)
- Aegidius Ursinus de Vivere (1641–1647 Died)
- Camillo Massimo (1653–1671)
- Egidio Colonna (patriarch), O.S.B. (1671–1686 Died)
- Bandino Panciatichi (1689–1690)
- Niccolo Pietro Bargellini (1690–1694 Died)
- Francesco Martelli (1698–1706)
- Muzio Gaeta (1708–1728)
- Vincent Louis Gotti (1728–1729)
- Pompeo Aldrovandi (1729–1734)
- Tommaso Cervini (1734–1751)
- Tommaso de Moncada (1751–1762)
- Giorgio Maria Lascaris (1762–1795)
- vacant (1795–1800)
- Michele di Pietro (1800–1821)
- Francesco Maria Fenzi (1816–1829)
- Paolo Augusto Foscolo (1830–1847), later Latin Patriarch of Alexandria, 1847–1860
Restoration of resident Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem in 1847.
Latin patriarchate hierarchy re-established in 1889.
- vacant (1905–1906)
- Filippo Camassei (1906–1919)
- Luigi Barlassina (1920–1947)
- Alberto Gori (1949–1970)
- Giacomo Giuseppe Beltritti (1970–1987)
- Michel Sabbah (1987–2008)
- Fouad Twal (2008–2016)
- vacant (24 Jun 2016 – 6 November 2020)
- Pierbattista Pizzaballa (6 November 2020 – present)
- Catholic Church in Israel
- Catholic Church in Palestine
- Catholic Church in the Middle East
- List of Catholic dioceses in the Holy Land and Cyprus
- List of parishes of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem
- Our Lady of Palestine
- Custody of the Holy Land
- Latin Church in the Middle East
- Pope appoints Archbishop Pizzaballa Patriarch of Jerusalem.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-11-19. Retrieved 2009-05-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Statement regarding the Separation Wall by heads of Churches in Jerusalem.
- Pope Names Arch. Fouad Twal Patriarch of Jerusalem - Vatican Radio 21/6/08 Archived 2012-09-11 at archive.today
- Jerusalem Post, May 8, 2009 - Depths of despair
- "Patriarchal See of Jerusalem" GCatholic.org. Gabriel Chow. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- The Bull of Clement VI (1342)[permanent dead link]
- "Patriarch Raymond Bequin, O.P." Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 25, 2016
- "Patriarch Pierre de Palude, O.P." Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 25, 2016
- "Patriarch Biaggio Molino". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- "Patriarch Lorenzo Zanni (Zane)". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- "Patriarch Cristoforo Spiriti". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- Gauchat, Patritius (Patrice). HIERARCHIA CATHOLICA MEDII ET RECENTIORIS AEVI Vol IV. p. 203. Archived from the original on 2018-10-04. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
- Catholic-hierarchy.org: "Patriarch Fabio Biondi (Blondus de Montealto)" retrieved February 14, 2016
- "Patriarch Alfonso Manzanedo de Quiñones". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved December 27, 2016
- Patriarch Tegrimus Tegrimi. Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved January 4, 2017
- Patriarch Aegidius Ursinus de Vivere. Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved December 25, 2016
- Ritzler, Remigius; Sefrin, Pirminus. HIERARCHIA CATHOLICA MEDII ET RECENTIORIS AEVI Vol V. p. 220.
- Patriarch Muzio Gaeta (Sr.). Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved December 17, 2016
- Crux Catholic Media: "Pope's potential masterstroke takes charge in the Holy Land" by John L. Allen Jr. September 22, 2016