The Latin Psalters are the translations of the Book of Psalms into the Latin language. They are the premier liturgical resource used in the Liturgy of the Hours of the Latin Rites of the Roman Catholic Church. These translations are typically placed in a separate volume or a section of the breviary called the psalter, in which the psalms are arranged to be prayed at the canonical hours of the day. In the Middle Ages, psalters were often lavish illuminated manuscripts, and in the Romanesque and early Gothic period were the type of book most often chosen to be richly illuminated.
- 1 Versions
- 2 Comparison
- 3 Enumeration
- 4 Divisions
- 5 Schemata
- 6 External links
- 7 Notes
The Latin Church has a diverse selection of more-or-less different full translations of the psalms. Three of these translations, the Romana, Gallicana, and juxta Hebraicum, have been traditionally ascribed to Jerome, the author of the Latin Vulgate. Two other translations, the Pian and Nova Vullgata versions, were made in the 20th century.
Many of these translations are actually quite similar to each other, especially in style: the Roman, Ambrosian, and Mozarabic psalters have relatively few differences between them, such that the same settings can generally be applied to sing all three. The concord among these similar psalters is attributable to their being revisions of a common translation from the Greek Septuagint made in the early 4th century which survives only in patristic quotations; and which had supplanted an earlier, excessively literal, 'Cyprianic' Latin version of late 2nd century date. These surviving revisions all tend to have corrected their source to agree better with the Greek of the 'standard' Septuagint; and differ most at these points. Related too is Jerome's Gallican psalter, which corrects the underlying text to that of the Hexaplar Septuagint. The Nova Vulgata psalter, though stylistically similar to these, diverges rather more from these traditional psalters insofar as it more closely follows the Hebrew Masoretic text. Two of these psalters stand apart as independent translations from the Hebrew: Jerome's juxta Hebraicum and the Pian version.
Versio Vetus Latina
Also called the Psalterium Vetus, the psalter of the Old Latin Bible. Quotations from the Psalms in Latin authors show that a number of related but distinct Old Latin recensions were circulating in the mid-4th century. These had by then substantially replaced the older Latin 'Cyprianic Psalter', a recension found in the works of Cyprian of Carthage that only survived in the 4th-century writings of the Donatists and are all thought to be revisions of a lost common early 3rd-century version. The Cyprianic recension, heavily revised, persisted through to the 6th century and can be found in the quotations of Augustine of Hippo, the Verona Psalter, the Sinai Psalter and 6th-century writers such as Fulgentius of Ruspe and Facundus of Hermiane. A text closely related to that found in the Sinai Psalter formed the basis for three other recensions, the Roman Psalter, the Mozarabe Psalter and the Milan Psalter. These three recensions have continued in liturgical use through the medieval period to the present day in the Ambrosian, the Roman and the Mozarabic rites. Another 4th-century recension current in Gaul (known as the "psautier gaulois" so as not to be confused with the 'Gallican Psalter") is found in the Psalter of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (BNF Lat. 11947).
A 12th-century Latin bible from Monte Cassino (Ms. Cas. 557) preserves, alongside the Roman, Gallican and Iuxta Hebraeos psalters, a fourth complete version of the psalms extensively corrected with reference to the columns of the Hexapla Greek, possibly using a columnar transcription of the Hexapla psalter similar to that surviving in Milan. The underlying Latin text for this manuscript is believed to correspond with an early 3rd-century 'Cyprianic Psalter'.
The Roman Psalter, called also the Versio Romana or Psalterium Romanum, was traditionally identified with Jerome's first revision of the psalms completed in 384; which was thought to have been made from the Versio Vetus Latina, with cursory corrections to bring it more in line with the psalms in the common Greek text of the Septuagint. More recent scholarship rejects this theory. The Roman Psalter is indeed one of five known revised versions of the mid-4th century Old Latin Psalter; but, compared with the four others the revisions in the Roman Psalter are in clumsy Latin and signally fail to follow Jerome's known translational principles, especially in failing to correct harmonised readings. Nevertheless, it is clear from Jerome's correspondence (especially in the long and detailed Epistle 106) that he was familiar with this psalter text, albeit without ever admitting any responsibility for it; and consequently it is assumed that the surviving Versio Romana represents the minimally revised Roman text as Jerome had found it. The Roman version is retained in the Roman Missal and is found in the writings of Pope Gregory the Great, but for the Divine Office, it was, from the 9th century onwards, replaced throughout most of the west by Jerome's so-called "Gallican" version. It lived on in England where it continued to be used until the Norman Conquest and in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome and fragments of it were used in the Offices at St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice from at least 1609 until 1807. It survives to this day in the Divine Office as the solemn chanted text of the Invitatory psalm, Psalm 94, where it is the sole survivor in a liturgy where the Gallican, Pian, or Nova Vulgata translation is otherwise used.
The Versio Gallicana or Psalterium Gallicanum (so called because it became the version most used in Gaul) has traditionally been considered Jerome's second revision, which he made from the Greek of the Hexapla c. 386-391. This became the psalter of the Vulgate bible, and the basis for Gregorian chant. It became the standard psalter used in the canonical hours throughout the West from the time of Charlemagne until it was replaced in the 2nd edition of the Liturgy of the Hours by the Versio Nova Vulgata in 1986. It is still used today in some monasteries and churches and by traditionalist Catholics.
This most influential psalter has a distinctive style which is attributable to its origins as a translation of the Septuagint. Following the Septuagint, it eschews anthropomorphisms. For instance, the term rock is applied to God numerous times in the Hebrew Psalter, but the Latin term petra does not occur as an epithet for God in the gallicana. Instead more abstract words like refugium, "refuge"; locus munitus, "place of strength"; or adiutor, "helper" are used.
This psalter retains many Hebraisms by way of the Greek, the most noticeable being the redundant demonstrative. The relative pronoun is indeclinable in Hebrew, and so is accompanied by a redundant demonstrative. This use is reproduced in the Latin, although Latin has no need for it. For instance, Ps 18:4(19:3), quorum non audiantur voces eorum, which means, "whose voices, their voices, be not heard". Also Ps 32(33):12, Beata gens cujus est Dominus Deus ejus, "blessed is the nation whose God, its God, is the Lord". Ps 121(122):3, civitas, cujus participatio ejus in idipsum, "a city whose share, its share, is compact".
Another Hebraism is the use of the conditional "if" to mean the negative "not". Examples include Ps 88:36(89:34), si David mentiar, "if I lie to David", which means, "I will not lie to David". Ps 94(95):11, Si introibunt in requiem meam, "if they shall enter into my rest", which means, "they shall not enter into my rest. Ps 131(132):3, Si introiero in tabernaculum domus meae, "If I shall enter into the tabernacle of my house", which means, "I shall not enter into the tabernacle of my house". Ps 130(131) has a double negative, Si non humiliter sentiebam sed exaltavi animam meam, "If I was not humbly minded but exalted my soul", which is equivalent to "I was humbly minded and did not exalt my soul".
Hebrew has only two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, while Latin also has a third, the neuter. Hebrew's lack of a neuter gender sometimes shows up in very idiosyncratic phrasing in the Gallican Psalter, for instance Ps. 26(27):4, unam petii a Domino, hanc requiram, "One thing I have asked of the Lord, this will I seek after", where "thing" is rendered feminine in the verse. A native speaker of Latin would have used a neuter instead: Unum petii a Domino, hoc requiram.
Classical Latin occasionally employs a dangling nominative for rhetorical flourish, but this construction is especially common in the Gallicana. Ps. 17(18):31 has, Deus meus, impolluta via ejus, "my God, his way is undefiled" to mean, "the way of my God is undefiled". Likewise Ps. 125(126):1 has, In convertendo Dominus captivitatem Sion, facti sumus sicut consolati for "The Lord, in bringing back the captivity of Zion, we became like men comforted", instead of, Cum converteret Dominus captivitatem Sion, facti sumus sicut consolati, meaning, "When the Lord brought back the captivity of Zion, we became like men comforted".
Versio juxta Hebraicum
This version was the last made by Jerome. It is often informally called the "Hebrew Psalter" despite being written in Latin. Rather than just revise the Gallicana, he translated these psalms anew from the Hebrew, using pre-Masoretic manuscripts ca. 392. This psalter is found in a few of the oldest surviving manuscripts of the Vulgate. It was found in Spanish manuscripts of the Vulgate long after the Gallicanum supplanted it elsewhere. It is not clear that it was ever used in the liturgy.
Despite evident textual enhancements, this version still retains many hebraisms, as in the case with conditional 'if', Jerome renders Ps 94(95):11, ut non introirent requiem meam correctly, but in Ps 131(132):3-5, Si intravero... si adsedero... si dedero... donec inveniam locum, that is in the same way as in his earlier translation.
Under Pius XII in 1945, a new translation of the psalms, the Versio Piana, Psalterium Vaticanum or simply Novum Psalterium, was published by the Pontifical Biblical Institute. One of its merits was that it was made from a reconstructed Hebrew text based largely on the Masoretic. Its Latin adopted a classical rather than a biblical style. This version is sometimes called the Bea psalter after its author, Augustin Bea. Its use in the liturgy was widely encouraged but not required. It was adopted by some religious orders (e.g. Carmelites and Franciscans) for use in their liturgy. However, the translation proved less popular amongst communities who sang the office with Gregorian Plainchant, as the antiphons for the office used the old translation and it was not possible to incorporate the new translation into the antiphons without significantly changing the ancient plainchant.
Versio Nova Vulgata
In 1969, a new psalter was published which translated the Masoretic text while keeping much of the poetry and style of the Gallican psalter. It has proved to be a popular alternative to Jerome's Gallicana. While it is based on the Gallican, it shows the influence of other versions, e.g., in Psalm 95 it follows the Piana in translating מְרִיבָה and מסה as the proper names Meriba and Massa rather than as common nouns meaning exasperation and temptation; likewise מצער is transliterated as the proper name Misar rather than as a common adjective meaning "small" in Psalm 42. The 1969 psalter deviates from the previous versions in that it follows the Masoretic numbering of the psalms, rather than the Septuagint enumeration. It is the psalter used in the edition of the Roman Office published in 1986.
Below is a comparison of Jerome's two versions of the psalm Venite exsultemus with the Roman, Mozarabic and Ambrosian versions as well as the two 20th century versions, which illustrates some of the distinctions noted above:
|Versio Ambrosiana||Versio Mozarabica||Versio Romana||Versio Gallicana||Versio juxta Hebraicum||Versio Piana||Versio Nova Vulgata|
|Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94 (95)|
|Venite, exultemus Domino: jubilemus Deo salutari nostro. Præveniamus faciem ejus in confessione: et in psalmis jubilemus illi. Quoniam Deus magnus Dominus: et Rex magnus super omnes deos.||Venite, exultemus in domino, iubilemus deo saluatori nostro. Preoccupemus faciem eius in confessione, et in psalmis iubilemus ei. Quoniam deus magnus dominus, rex magnus super omnem terram.||Venite, exsultemus Domino; iubilemus Deo salutari nostro. Præoccupemus faciem eius in confessione, et in psalmis iubilemus ei. Quoniam Deus magnus Dominus, et rex magnus super omnes deos.||Venite, exsultemus Domino; jubilemus Deo salutari nostro; præoccupemus faciem ejus in confessione, et in psalmis jubilemus ei: quoniam Deus magnus Dominus, et rex magnus super omnes deos.||venite laudemus Dominum iubilemus petrae Iesu nostro praeoccupemus vultum eius in actione gratiarum in canticis iubilemus ei quoniam fortis et magnus Dominus et rex magnus super omnes deos||Venite, exsultemus Domino, Acclamemus Petrae salutis nostrae: Accedamus in conspectum eius cum laudibus, Cum canticis exsultemus ei. Nam Deus magnus est Dominus, Et Rex magnus super omnes deos.||Venite, exsultemus Domino; iubilemus Deo salutari nostro. Praeoccupemus faciem eius in confessione et in psalmis iubilemus ei. Quoniam Deus magnus Dominus, et rex magnus super omnes deos.|
|Quoniam in manu ejus sunt omnes fines terræ: et altitudines montium ipsius sunt. Quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud, et aridam fundaverunt manus ejus.||Quoniam non repellet dominus plebem suam, quia in manu eius sunt omnes fines terre, et altitudines montium ipse conspicit. Quoniam ipsius est mare et ipse fecit illud, et arida manus eius fundaberunt.||Quoniam non repellet Dominus plebem suam, quia in manu eius sunt omnes fines terræ, et altitudines montium ipse conspicit; quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud: et aridam fundaverunt manus eius.||Quia in manu ejus sunt omnes fines terræ, et altitudines montium ipsius sunt; quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud, et siccam manus ejus formaverunt.||in cuius manu fundamenta terrae et excelsa montium ipsius sunt cuius est mare ipse enim fecit illud et siccam manus eius plasmaverunt||In manu eius sunt profunda terrae, Et altitudines montium ipsius sunt. Ipsius est mare: nam ipse fecit illud, Et terra sicca, quam formaverunt manus eius:||Quia in manu eius sunt profunda terrae, et altitudines montium ipsius sunt. Quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud, et siccam manus eius formaverunt.|
|Venite, adoremus et procidamus ante eum: et ploremus coram Domino qui fecit nos. Quia ipse est Dominus Deus noster: nos autem populus ejus et oves manus ejus.||Venite adoremus et procidamus ante deum, et ploremus coram domino qui fecit nos. Quoniam ipse est dominus deus noster, nos autem populus eius e oues gregis eius.||Venite, adoremus, et procidamus ante Deum, ploremus coram Domino qui fecit nos, quia ipse est Dominus Deus noster, nos autem populus eius et oves pascuæ eius.||Venite, adoremus, et procidamus, et ploremus ante Dominum qui fecit nos: quia ipse est Dominus Deus noster, et nos populus pascuæ ejus, et oves manus ejus.||venite adoremus et curvemur flectamus genua ante faciem Domini factoris nostri quia ipse est Deus noster et nos populus pascuae eius et grex manus eius||Venite, adoremus et procidamus, Et genua flectamus Domino qui fecit nos. Nam ipse est Deus noster, Nos autem populus pascuae eius et oves manus eius.||Venite, adoremus et procidamus et genua flectamus ante Dominum, qui fecit nos, quia ipse est Deus noster, et nos populus pascuae eius et oves manus eius.|
|Hodie si vocem ejus audieritis, nolite obdurare corda vestra: sicut in exacerbatatione. Secundum diem tentationis in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt et viderunt opera mea.||Odie si uocem eius audieritis nolite obdurare corda vestra, sicut in exacerbatione, secundum diem temtationis in deserto. Vbi temtaberunt me patres uestri prouaberunt et uiderunt opera mea.||Hodie si vocem eius audieritis "nolite obdurare corda vestra, sicut in exacerbatione secundum diem tentationis in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt et viderunt opera mea.||Hodie si vocem ejus audieritis, nolite obdurare corda vestra sicut in irritatione, secundum diem tentationis in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt me, et viderunt opera mea.||hodie si vocem eius audieritis nolite indurare corda vestra sicut in contradictione sicut in die temptationis in deserto ubi temptaverunt me patres vestri probaverunt me et viderunt opus meum||Utinam hodie vocem eius audiatis: “Nolite obdurare corda vestra ut in Meriba, Ut die Massa in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri, Probaverunt me, etsi viderunt opera mea.||Utinam hodie vocem eius audiatis: “Nolite obdurare corda vestra, sicut in Meriba, secundum diem Massa in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt me, etsi viderunt opera mea.|
|Quadraginta annis infensus fui generationi huic: et dixi: Semper hi errant corde. Ipsi autem non cognoverunt vias meas: quibus juravi in ira mea, si introibunt in requiem meam.||Quadraginta annis proximus fui generationi huic, et dixi semper errant corde. Propter quod hodio habui hanc generationem, et ipsi non cognoberunt uias meas. Quibus iurabi in ira mea, si introibunt in requiem meam.||Quadraginta annis proximus fui generationi huic, et dixi: Semper hi errant corde. Ipsi vero non cognoverunt vias meas, quibus iuravi in ira mea: Si introibunt in requiem meam".||Quadraginta annis offensus fui generationi illi, et dixi: Semper hi errant corde. Et isti non cognoverunt vias meas: ut juravi in ira mea: Si introibunt in requiem meam.||quadraginta annis displicuit mihi generatio illa et dixi populus errans corde est et non cognoscens vias meas et iuravi in furore meo ut non introirent in requiem meam||Quadraginta annos taeduit me generationis illius, Et dixi: Populus errans corde sunt, Et non noverunt vias meas. Ideo iuravi in ira mea: Non introibunt in requiem meam”.||Quadraginta annis taeduit me generationis illius et dixi: Populus errantium corde sunt isti. Et ipsi non cognoverunt vias meas; ideo iuravi in ira mea: Non introibunt in requiem meam”.|
The enumeration of the psalms differs in the Nova Vulgata from that used in the earlier versions. The earlier versions take their enumeration from the Greek Septuagint. The Versio Nova Vulgata takes its enumeration from the Hebrew Masoretic Text.
|Old enumeration used by the Vulgate and other early versions; taken from the Septuagint||New enumeration used by the Versio Nova Vulgata and most modern English bibles; taken from the Masoretic Text|
- Psalms 9 and 10 in the Nova Vulgata are together as Psalm 9 in the older versions
- Psalms 114 and 115 in the Nova Vulgata are Psalm 113 in the older versions
- Psalms 114 and 115 in the older versions appear as Psalm 116 in the Nova Vulgata
- Psalms 146 and 147 in the older versions form Psalm 147 in the Nova Vulgata
- Psalms 10-112 and 116-145 (132 out of the 150) in the older versions are numbered lower by one than the same psalm in the Nova Vulgata.
- Psalms 1-8 and 148-150, 11 psalms in total, are numbered the same in both the old versions and the new one.
Apart from the schemata described below, it was customary in medieval psalters to divide the text of the psalms in numerical sequence into sections or divisions, the start of which were typically marked by a much larger and more decorated initial letter than for the other psalms. The "B" of Psalm 1, Beatus Vir, usually was the most enlarged and decorated, and often those two words occupied a full page, the rounded shape of the letter being very suitable for decoration. These are often referred to as "Beatus initials". In Early Medieval psalters a three-fold division with decorated letters at Psalms 1, 51, 101 was typical, but by the Gothic period French psalters were often divided into eight sections, and English ones into ten, at Psalms 1, 26, 38, 51, 52, 68, 80, 97, 101 and 109.
A scheme (Latin schema, plural schemata) is an arrangement of all or most of the psalms for distribution to the various canonical hours. In addition to the psalms proper, these schemata typically include psalm-like canticles from other books of the Bible. Historically, these schemata have distributed the entire 150 psalms with added canticles over a period of one week, although the 1971 Liturgy of the Hours omits a few psalms and some verses and distributes the remainder over a 4-week cycle. Some of the more important schemes are detailed below.
In addition to the psalms, the schema lists canticles, that is, biblical texts from outside of the book of Psalms that are chanted as if they were psalms.
In addition to the psalter, the schema uses an ordinary which includes the texts that are to be chanted every day. These include the Invitatory, normally psalm 94(95), and the canticles Benedictus Dominus, Magnificat, and Nunc dimittis.
Schema of St. Benedict
The following canticles are used in this schema:
- Audite, caeli; Deut 32: 1-65
- Benedicite omnia; Dan 3:57-75, 56
- Benedictus Dominus; Lk 1: 68-79
- Cantabo Domino; Exod 15: 1-18
- Cantemus domino; Exod 15: 1-22
- Confitebor tibi; Is. 12: 1-6
- Domine, audivi; Hab 3: 2-33
- Ego dixi; Is 38: 10-20
- Exultat cor meum; 1 Sam 2:1-16
- Magnificat; Lk 1:46-55
- Nunc dimittis; Lk 2:29-32
The schema is:
|Matins, Nocturn I||20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25||32; 33; 34; 36i; 36ii; 37||45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 51||59; 60; 61; 65; 67i; 67ii||73; 74; 76; 77i; 77ii; 78||85; 86; 88i; 88ii; 92; 93||101; 102; 103i; 104i; 104ii|
|Matins, Nocturn II||26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31||38; 39; 40; 41; 43; 44||52; 53; 54; 55; 57; 58||68i; 68ii; 69; 70; 71; 72||79; 80; 81; 82; 83; 84||95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 100||105i; 105ii; 106i; 106ii; 107, 108|
|Lauds||66; 50; 117; 62; Benedicite omnia; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 5; 35; Confitebor tibi; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 42; 56; Ego dixi; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 63; 64; Exsultavit cor meum; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 87; 89; Cantemus Domino; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 75; 91; Domine, audivi; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 142; 62; Audite, caeli; 148; 149; 150|
|Prime||118i; 118ii; 118iii; 118iv||1; 2; 6;||7; 8; 9i;||9ii; 10; 11||12; 13; 14||15; 16; 17i||17ii; 18; 19|
|Terce||118v; 118vi; 118vii||118xiv; 118xv; 118xvi||119; 120; 121||119; 120; 121||119; 120; 121||119; 120; 121||119; 120; 121|
|Sext||118viii; 118ix; 118x||118 xvii; 118xviii; 118 xix||122; 123; 124||122; 123; 124||122; 123; 124||122; 123; 124||122; 123; 124|
|None||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii||118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||125; 126; 127||125; 126; 127||125; 126; 127||125; 126; 127||125; 126; 127|
|Vespers||109; 110; 111; 112||113; 114; 115/116; 128||129; 130; 131; 132||134; 135; 136; 137||138i; 138ii; 139; 140||141; 143i; 143ii; 144i||144ii; 145; 146; 147;|
|Compline||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;|
Psalm 3 and 94 were recited at the beginning of Matins every day.
Schema of Pope Pius V
As commissioned by the Council of Trent, St. Pius V published a reform of the Roman Breviary in 1568 for use by the churches of the Roman rite. The scheme used in this breviary differs in some details from the Scheme of St. Benedict, but follows its overall pattern. Some obvious differences are that Sunday had three nocturns, while the other days had but one; Lauds and the daytime hours had less variation in the Psalmody; and Compline added Psalm 30. In addition, while St. Benedict made heavy use of "divided" Psalms, the Roman rite divided only Psalm 118.
|Matins, Nocturn I||1; 2; 3; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14||26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37||38; 39; 40; 41; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 51||52; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 60; 61; 63; 65; 67||68; 69; 70; 71; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79||80; 81; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 93; 95; 96||97; 98; 99; 100; 101; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 108|
|Matins, Nocturn 2||15; 16; 17|
|Matins, Nocturn 3||18; 19; 20|
|Lauds||92; 99; 62; 66; Benedicite omnia; 148; 149; 150||50; 5; 62; 66; Confitebor tibi; 148; 149; 150||50; 42; 62; 66; Ego dixi; 148; 149; 150||50; 64; 62; 66; Exultavit cor meum; 148; 149; 150||50; 89; 62; 66; Cantemus Domino; 148; 149; 150||50; 142; 62; 66; Domine, audivi; 148; 149; 150||50; 91; 62; 66; Audite, caeli; 148; 149; 150|
|Prime||53; 117; 118i; 118ii; 118iii; 118iv||53; 23; 118i; 118ii||53; 24; 118i; 118ii||53; 25; 118i; 118ii||53; 22; 118i; 118ii||53; 21; 118i; 118ii||53; 118i; 118ii|
|Terce||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x|
|Sext||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi|
|None||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii|
|Vespers||109; 110; 111; 112; 113||114; 115; 116; 119; 120||121; 122; 123; 124; 125||126; 127; 128; 129; 130||131; 132; 134; 135; 136||137; 138; 139; 140; 141||143; 144; 45; 146; 147|
|Compline||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133|
Psalm 94 was recited at the beginning of each day.
Schema of Pope Pius X
In 1911, Pope Pius X reformed the Roman Breviary, re-arranging the psalms so that there was less repetition and so that each day of the week had approximately the same amount of psalm-chanting.
The following canticles are used in this schema:
- Audite verbum Domini; Jer 31: 10-14
- Auscultate, caeli; Deut 32: 1-18
- Benedicite omnia; Dan 3: 57-88
- Benedictus Dominus; Lk 1: 68-79
- Benedictus es; 1 Chr 29:10-13
- Cantabo Domino; Exod 15: 1-18
- Domine, audivi; Hab 3: 2-19
- Ego dixi; Is 38: 10-20
- Exultat cor meum; 1 Sam 2: 1-10
- Gratias ago tibi; Is 12: 1-6
- Incipite Domino; Judt 16:2, 16-20
- Magnificat; Lk 1:46-55
- Magnus es; Tob 13:1-10
- Miserere nostri; Eccli 36: 1-16
- Nunc dimittis; Lk 2:29-32
- Vere tu es; Is 45: 15-26
The schema is:
|Matins, Nocturn I||1; 2; 3;||13; 14; 16;||34i; 34ii; 34iii||44i; 44ii; 45||61; 65i; 65ii||77i; 77ii; 77iii||104i; 104ii; 104iii|
|Matins, Nocturn II||8; 9i; 9ii||17i; 17ii; 17iii||36i; 36ii; 36iii||47; 48i; 48ii;||67i; 67ii; 67iii||77iv; 77v; 77vi||105i; 105ii; 105iii|
|Matins, Nocturn III||9iii; 9iv; 10||19; 20; 29||37i; 37ii; 38||49i; 49ii; 50||68i; 68ii; 68iii||78; 80; 82||106i; 106ii; 106iii|
|Lauds I||92; 99; 62; Benedicite omnia; 148;||46; 5; 28; Benedictus es; 116||95; 42; 66; Magnus es; 134||96; 64; 100; Incipite Domino; 145||97; 89; 35; Audite verbum Domini; 146||98; 142; 84; Vere tu es; 147||149; 91; 63; Miserere nostri; 150|
|Lauds II||50; 117; 62; Benedictus es; "148;||50; 5; 28; Gratias ago tibi; 116;||50; 42; 66; Ego dixi; 134;||50; 64; 100; Exultat cor meum; 145;||50; 89; 35; Cantabo Domino; 146;||50; 142; 84; Domine, audivi; 147;||50; 91; 63; Ascultate, caeli; 150;|
|Prime||117; 118i; 118ii;||23; 18i; 18ii;||24i; 24ii; 24iii;||25; 51; 52||22; 71i; 71ii||21i; 21ii; 21iii||93i; 93ii; 107|
|Terce||118iii; 118iv; 118v||26i; 26ii; 27||39i; 39ii; 39iii||53; 54i; 54ii||72i; 72ii; 72iii||79i; 79ii; 81||101i; 101ii; 101iii|
|Sext||118vi; 118vii; 118viii||30i; 30ii; 30iii;||40; 41i; 41ii||55; 56; 57||73i; 73ii; 73iii||83i; 83ii; 86||103i; 103ii; 103iii|
|None||118ix; 118x; 118xi||31; 32i; 32ii||43i; 43ii; 43iii||58i; 58ii; 59||74; 75i; 75ii||88i; 88ii; 88iii||108i; 108ii; 108iii|
|Vespers||109; 110; 111; 112; 113;||114; 115; 119; 120; 121;||122; 123; 124; 125; 126;||127; 128; 129; 130; 131;||132; 135i; 135ii; 136; 137||138i; 138ii; 139; 140; 141||143i; 143ii; 144i; 144ii; 144iii|
|Compline||4; 90; 133;||6; 7i; 7ii||11; 12; 15;||33i; 33ii; 60||69; 70i; 70ii||76i; 76ii; 85||87; 102i; 102ii|
Psalm 94 (the Invitiatory) was recited every day at the beginning of Matins. With Lauds, there are two schemes. Lauds I were celebrated on all Sundays and ferias, except from Septuagesima until Palm Sunday inclusive, and on feasts celebrated at any time of the year. Lauds II, having a more penitential character, were used on the Sundays and ferias of Advent until the vigil of Christmas and from Septuagesima until Monday of Holy Week inclusive. They were also used on vigils of the second and third class outside of Paschaltide. When Lauds II were said, the omitted psalm was said as a fourth psalm at Prime, in order to include all 150 psalms each week during penitential seasons; on Sundays with Lauds II, the scheme became 92, 99, 118i, and 118ii. On feasts which used the Sunday psalms, 53, 118i, and 118ii were said at Prime. On Sundays after Epiphany and Pentecost, the Athanasian Creed was said fourth at Prime; it was omitted if a commemoration of a Double feast or of an octave occurred.
Schema of Pope Paul VI
In 1971 with the release of a new edition of the Divine Office under Pope Paul VI, the Liturgia Horarum, a new schema was introduced which distributed 147 of the 150 psalms across a four-week cycle. In addition to the three omitted psalms, some 59 verses of other psalms are removed along with parts of two verses. These omissions are intended to make the psalms easier to understand so that the Divine Office can better be prayed by the laity. The reduced psalmody resulting from dividing the psalter over 4 weeks instead of 1 is also intended to ease lay participation.
Although the psalter of the 2000 edition of the Liturgy of the Hours uses the translation of the Nova Vulgata, the numeration used is that of the older editions of the Vulgate, with the new numeration in parenthesis where it differs. For instance, the psalm beginning Dominus pascit me is numbered 22(23), and Venite exsultemus is numbered 94(95).
Because some of the psalms are so much longer than others, the longer psalms are divided into divisios, that is parts to be chanted separately. This follows the Benedictine practice and was introduced into the Roman Office widely by Pope Pius X. In the Pius V schema only Ps. 118 was divided into parts, and it was said throughout Prime, Terce, Sext, and None every day. These parts are labelled with Roman numerals. In particular, psalm 118(119) was divided into 22 parts, one for each letter of the Hebrew alphabet, which are labelled 118(119)i – 118(119)xxii. Most of the longer psalms were divided into 3 parts, labelled i – iii.
The psalmody of each of the hours of the day except compline contains three psalms or parts of psalms. Lauds contains a canticle of the Old Testament in place of the second psalm, and Vespers contains a canticle of the New Testament in place of the third psalm.
There are 34 canticles in the psalter and 3 in the ordinary. The three canticles in the ordinary are from the gospels. The 26 psalter canticles for Lauds are from the Old Testament. The 8 psalter canticles for Vespers are from the New Testament excluding the gospels. The texts of the canticles and the references given below are from the Nova Vulgata.
- Alleluia; Ap 19, 1-2. 5-7.
- Audite caeli quae loquor; Deut 32, 1-12
- Audite qui longe estis; Is 33,13-16
- Audite verbum Domini gentes; Jer 31:10-14
- Benedicite Dominum omnes electi; Tob 13, 8-11. 13-14ab. 15-16ab.
- Benedicite omnia opera Domini Domino; Dan 3,57-88. 56
- Benedictus Dominus; Lc 1, 68-79
- Benedictus Deus et Pater; Eph 1, 3-10
- Benedictus Deus vivens in aevum; Tob 13,2-8
- Benedictus es Domine Deus Israel; 1 Chr 29, 10-13
- Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum I; Dan 3,26. 27. 39. 34-41
- Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum II; Dan 3,52-57
- Cantate Domino canticum novum; Is 42, 10-16
- Cantemus Domino; Ex 15,1-4b. 8-13. 17-18
- Christus Iesus; Phil 2,6-11
- Christus passus est pro vobis; 1 Petr 2,21-24
- Confitebor tibi Domine; Is 12,1-6
- Deducant oculi mei lacrimam; Ier 14,17-21
- Deus patrum meorum; Sap 9,1-6. 9-11
- Dignus es; Ap 4,11; 5,9.10.12
- Domine audivi auditionem tuam; Hab 3,2-4. 13a. 15-19
- Ecce Dominus Deus in virtute venit; Is 40,10-17
- Ego dixi In dimidio dierum meorum; Is 38,10-14. 17-20
- Erit in novissimis diebus; Is 2,2-5
- Exsultavit cor meum in Domino; 1 Sam 2,1-10
- Gaudens gaudebo in Domino; Is 61,10 – 62,5
- Gratias agamus Deo Patri; Col 1,12-20
- Gratias agimus tibi; Ap 11,17-18; 12, 10b-12a
- Incipite Deo meo in tympanis; Iudt 16,1-2. 13-15
- Laetamini; Is 66,10-14a
- Magna et mirabilia; Ap 15,3-4
- Magnificat; Lc 1,46-55
- Miserere nostri Deus omnium et respice nos; Sir 36,1-7. 13-16
- Nunc dimittis; Lc 2,29-32
- Tollam quippe vos de gentibus; Ez 36,24-28
- Urbs fortis nobis in salutem; Is 26,1-4. 7-9. 12
- Vere tu es Deus absconditus; Is 45,15-25
The first week of the psalter is used for the first week of Advent, the week beginning with the first Sunday falling on or after December 25, the weeks beginning on the first and fifth Sundays of Lent, the fifth week of Easter, and the 1st, 5th, 9th, 13th, 17th, 21st, 25th, 29th, and 33rd weeks of Ordinary Time.
|Day||Office of Reading||Lauds||Hora media||Vespers||Compline|
|Sunday Vigil||140(141); 141(142); Christus Jesus||4; 133(134)|
|Sunday||1; 2; 3;||62(63); Benedicite omnia; 149||117(118)i; 117(118)ii; 117(118)iii;||109(110); 113A(114); Alleluia||90(91)|
|Monday||6; 9A(9)i; 9A(9)ii;||5; Benedictus es Domine Deus Israel; 28(29)||18B(19B); 7i; 7ii||10(11); 14(15); Benedictus Deus et Pater||85(86)|
|Tuesday||9B(10)i; 9B(10)ii; 11(12)||23(24); Benedictus Deus vivens; 32(33)||118(119)i; 12(13); 13(14)||19(20); 20(21); Dignus es||142(143)|
|Wednesday||17(18)i; 17(18)ii; 17(18)iii||35(36); Incipite; 46(47)||118(119)ii; 16(17)i; 16(17)ii||26(27)i; 26(27)ii; Gratias agamus Deo||30(31),2-6; 129(130)|
|Thursday||17(18)iv; 17(18)v; 17(18)vi||56(57); Audite verbum; 47(48)||118(119)iii; 24(25)i; 24(25)ii||29(30); 31(32); Gratias agimus tibi||15(16)|
|Friday||34(35)i; 34(35)ii; 34(35)iii||50(51); Vere tu es; 99(100)||118(119)iv; 25(26); 27(28)||40(41); 45(46); Magna et mirabilia||87(88)|
|Saturday||130(131); 131(132)i-ii; but during Adv/Xmas, Lent/Eastertide: 104(105)i-iii||118(119)xix; Cantemus Domino; 116(117)||118(119)v; 33(34)i; 33(34)ii|
The second week of the psalter is used for the second week of Advent, the week beginning with the first Sunday falling on or after January 1, the weeks beginning on the second and sixth Sundays of Lent, the second and sixth weeks of Easter, and the 2nd, 6th, 10th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 26th, 30th, and 34th weeks of Ordinary Time.
|Day||Office of Reading||Lauds||Hora media||Vespers||Compline|
|Sunday Vigil||118(119)xiv; 15(16); Christus Jesus;||4; 133(134)|
|Sunday||103(104)i; 103(104)ii; 103(104)iii||117(118); Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum II; 150||22(23); 75(76)i; 75(76)ii||109(110); 113B(115); Alleluia;||90(91)|
|Monday||30(31)i; 30(31)ii; 30(31)iii||41(42); Miserere nostri; 18(19)A||118(119)vi; 39(40)i; 39(40)ii||44(45)i; 44(45)ii; Benedictus Deus et Pater;||85(86)|
|Tuesday||36(37)i; 36(37)ii; 36(37)iii||42(43); Ego dixi; 64(65)||118(119)vii; 52(53); 53(54)||48(49)i; 48(49)ii; Dignus es;||142(143)|
|Wednesday||38(39)i; 38(39)ii; 51(52);||76(77); Exsultavit cor meo in Dominum; 96(97)||118(119)viii; 54(55)i; 54(55)ii||61(62); 66(67); Gratias agamus Deo;||30(31),2-6; 129(130)|
|Thursday||43(44)i; 43(44)ii; 43(44)iii||79(80); Confitebor tibi Domine; 80(81)||118(119)ix; 55(56); 56(57)||71(72)i; 71(72)ii; Gratias agimus tibi;||15(16)|
|Friday||37(38)i; 37(38)ii; 37(38)iii||50(51); Domine audivi auditionem tuam; 147(147B)||118(119)x; 58(59); 59(60)||114(116A); 120(121); Magna et mirabilia;||87(88)|
|Saturday||135(136)i-iii; but during Adv/Xmas, Lent/Eastertide: 105(106)i-iii||91(92); Audite caeli; 8||118(119)xi; 60(61); 63(64)|
The third week of the psalter is used for the third week of Advent, the week beginning on the third Sunday of Lent, the third and seventh weeks of Easter, and the 3rd, 7th, 11th, 15th, 19th, 23rd, 27th, and 31st weeks of Ordinary Time.
|Day||Office of Reading||Lauds||Hora media||Vespers||Compline|
|Sunday Vigil||112(113); 115(116B); Christus Jesus;||4; 133(134)|
|Sunday||144(145)i; 144(145)ii; 144(145)iii||92(93); Benedicite omnia; 148||117(118)i; 117(118)ii; 117(118)iii||109(110); 110(111); Alleluia;||90(91)|
|Monday||49(50)i; 49(50)ii; 49(50)iii||83(84); Erit in novissimis diebus; 95(96)||118(119)xii; 70(71)i; 70(71)ii||122(123); 123(124); Benedictus Deus et Pater;||85(86)|
|Tuesday||67(68)i; 67(68)ii; 67(68)iii||84(85); Urbs fortis; 66(67)||118(119)xiii; 73(74)i; 73(74)ii||124(125); 130(131); Dignus es;||142(143)|
|Wednesday||88(89)i; 88(89)ii; 88(89)iii||85(86); Audite qui longe estis; 97(98)||118(119)xiv; 69(70); 74(75)||125(126); 126(127); Gratias agamus Deo;||30(31),2-6; 129(130)|
|Thursday||88(89)iv; 88(89)v; 89(90)||86(87); Ecce Dominus Deus in virtute venit; 98(99)||118(119)xv; 78(79); 79(80)||131(132)i; 131(132)ii; Gratias agimus tibi;||15(16)|
|Friday||68(69)i; 68(69)ii; 68(69)iii||50(51); Deducant oculi mei lacrimam; 99(100)||21(22)i; 21(22)ii; 21(22)iii||134(135)i; 134(135)ii; Magna et mirabilia;||87(88)|
|Saturday||106(107)i; 106(107)ii; 106(107)iii||118(119)xix; Deus patrum meorum; 116(117)||118(119)xvi; 33(34)i; 33(34)ii|
The fourth week of the psalter is used for the fourth week of Advent, the days of Lent from Ash Wednesday until the following Saturday, the week beginning on the fourth Sunday of Lent, the fourth week of Easter, and the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th, 24th, 28th, and 32nd weeks of Ordinary Time. If Christmas Day does not fall on a Saturday or Sunday, the fourth week of the psalter is used during Christmastide until the first Sunday of Christmas.
|Day||Office of Reading||Lauds||Hora media||Vespers||Compline|
|Sunday Vigil||121(122); 129(130); Christus Jesus;||4; 133(134)|
|Sunday||23(24); 65(66)i; 65(66)ii||117(118); Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum II; 150||22(23); 75(76)i; 75(76)ii||109(110); 111(112); Alleluia;||90(91)|
|Monday||72(73)i; 72(73)ii; 72(73)iii||89(90); Cantate Domino; 134(135),1-12||118(119)vii; 81(82); 119(120)||135(136)i; 135(136)ii; Benedictus Deus et Pater;||85(86)|
|Tuesday||101(102)i; 101(102)ii; 101(102)iii||100(101); Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum I; 143(144),1-10||118(119)xviii; 87(88)i; 87(88)ii||136(137); 137(138); Dignus es;||142(143)|
|Wednesday||102(103)i; 102(103)ii; 102(103)iii||107(108); Gaudens gaudebo in Domino; 145(146)||118(119)xix; 93(94)i; 93(94)ii||138(139)i; 138(139)ii; Gratias agamus Deo;||30(31),2-6; 129(130)|
|Thursday||43(44)i; 43(44)ii; 43(44)iii||142(143); Laetamini; 146(147A)||118(119)xx; 127(128); 128(129)||143(144)i; 143(144)ii; Gratias agimus tibi;||15(16)|
|Friday||54(55)i-iii; but during Adv/Xmas, Lent/Eastertide: 77(78)i-iii||50(51); Benedicite Dominum; 147(147B)||118(119)xxi; 132(133); 139(140)||144(145)i; 144(145)ii; Magna et mirabilia;||87(88)|
|Saturday||49(50)i-iii; but during Adv/Xmas, Lent/Eastertide: 77(78)iv-vi||91(92); Tollam quippe vos de gentibus; 8||118(119)xxii; 44(45)i; 44(45)ii|
Missing psalms and verses
The psalms missing from this schema are 57(58), 82(83), and 108(109). The missing verses are:
- 34(35),3a-3b. 4-8. 20-21. 24-26
- 58(59),6-9. 12-16
- 78(79),6-7. 12
Although the Invitatory, i.e. psalm 94(95), is missing from the psalter, it is present in the ordinary and is thus chanted every day. Psalms 77(78), 104(105), and 105(106) are sung only during Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter.
- Schema A is a one-week distribution which substantially follows the Rule of St Benedict and was produced for use in Benedictine monasteries.
- Schema B ("Fueglister") is a one-week scheme repeats no psalms & that omits three psalms(52,69,107 LXX) that are largely or entirely repeated in other psalms
- Schema C (Scheyern) is a two-week distribution
- Schema D (Waddell) is a two-week distribution
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2008)
- Breviarium Ambrosianum Latin text
- Psalterium Romanum Latin text
- Psalterium Gallicanum Latin text
- Psalterium juxta Hebraicum Latin text
- Psalterium Mozarabicum Latin text
- Psalterium Pianum Latin text
- Psalterium Neo-Vulgatum Latin text
- Liturgia Horarum Online A very nice, practical and versatile version to pray the psalter on line.
- Theo Keller's comparison of the psalm De profundis, giving the Roman, Gallican, Pian, and Neo-vulgate versions of psalm 129.
- Fr. John Zuhlsdorf's comparison of the psalm Beatus vir, giving the Roman, Gallican, Neo-vulgate, Pian, and Ambrosian versions of psalm 1.
- Theo Keller's tables of historical psalter schemas. Includes the four choices of the Psalterium Monasticum above
- Norris, Oliver (2017). "Tracing Fortunatianus's Psalter". In Dorfbauer, Lukas J. Fortunatianus ridivivus. CSEL. p. 284.
- Norris, Oliver (2017). "Tracing Fortunatianus's Psalter". In Dorfbauer, Lukas J. Fortunatianus ridivivus. CSEL. p. 283.
- "Breviary", The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1917
- Goins, Scott (2014). "Jerome's Psalters". In Brown, William P. Oxford Handbook to the Psalms. Oxford University Press. p. 188.
- Norris, Oliver (2017). "Tracing Fortunatianus's Psalter". In Dorfbauer, Lukas J. Fortunatianus ridivivus. CSEL. p. 285.
- Giulio Cattin, Musica e Liturgia a San Marco, Edizione Fondazione Levi, p. 57-59
- A Grammar of the Vulgate, W.E. Plater and H.J. White, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1926
- Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio, Praenotanda, IN PSALTERIO, Editio typica altera
- Article, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1915
- Prefaces of the Stuttgart Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgata, American Bible Society, ISBN 3-438-05303-9
- The New Latin Psalter, by Augustin Bea, explains in detail the criteria and the reasons for his version
- Depippo, Gregory. "Compendium of the Reforms of the Roman Breviary 1568-1961, Part 8.2 The reforms of Pius XII and Cardinal Bea". New Liturgical Movement. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- Liturgia Horarum iuxta ritum Romanum, Editio typica altera, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1986
- From Breviarium Ambrosianum
- From Liber Hymnarius, 1993, ISBN 2-85274-076-1
- From the Clementine Psalter
- From the juxta hebraicum in the Stuttgart edition
- From Biblia Vulgata, 1999, ISBN 84-7914-021-6
- From the Editio Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum at the Vatican website
- McKendrick, Scott, Lowden, John and Doyle, Kathleen, (eds), Royal Manuscripts, The Genius of Illumination, p. 269, 2011, British Library, 9780712358156
- "'Psalter Schemas' by Theo Keller". kellerbook.com. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- Article on the Breviary, Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913
- The Roman breviary: reformed by order of the Holy oecumenical council of Trent: published by order of Pope St. Pius V. William Blackwood and Sons. 1908. pp. 1–213.
- "Pre-Pius X Psalter (up to 1911)". http://www.gregorianbooks.com/gregorian/www/www.kellerbook.com/SCHEMA~1.HTM. January 14, 2018. External link in
- Cormier, Hyacinthus (1909). Breviarium Juxta Ritum S. Ordinis Praedicatorum (PDF). Roma. pp. 1–153.
- The Hours of the Divine Office in English and Latin: a bilingual edition of the Roman Breviary text, in three volumes, Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minn., 1964
- Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio
- The canticle Christus passus est pro nobis is chanted instead of the canticle Alleluia during Lent
- The psalms in this column are chanted at one of the three Little Hours. If more than one of the Little Hours are prayed, then the psalms at the other two hours are taken from the Complementary Psalmody; at Terce, these are 119(120), 120(121), and 121(122); at Sext they are 122(123), 123(124), and 124(125); at None they are 125(126), 126(127), and 127(128).
- Church, Catholic (1 January 1981). "Psalterium Monasticum: The Monastic Psalter". Abbaye Saint-Pierre de Solesmes. Retrieved 12 April 2018 – via Google Books.