|Stylistic origins||Bolero, French and Italian ballads|
|Cultural origins||Cuba, Mexico, Spain, Brazil|
|Typical instruments||Vocal, guitar, piano, orchestra|
The romantic ballad or Latin ballad is a music genre derivative of Bolero that was originated to early of the 1960s in Latin America and Spain.
Some of the best known artists of the Latin ballad are Julio Iglesias, Luis Miguel, Nino Bravo, Roberto Carlos, Raphael and José José among others. Because of its difficulty, the Latin balladeers are often recognized as skilled singers such as the case of Nino Bravo, José José, Luis Miguel or Raphael. In recent decades it has become the dominant musical genre of Latin pop.
Origin and evolution
The Latin or romantic ballad has its origin in the Latin American bolero in the 50s (Lucho Gatica, Leo Marini), but also in the romantic song in Italian (Nicola Di Bari) and French (Charles Aznavour) in the 60s and 70s.
In Mexico, the first ballad that is registered as such is "Sonata de Amor" (Sonata of Love) of Mario Alvarez in 1961. In 1965 the famous bolero singer-songwriter Armando Manzanero, recorded his first ballad, "Pobres besos míos" (My Poor Kisses).
The heyday of the ballad was reached in the mid-70's, where artists such as José José, Camilo Sesto, Raphael, Roberto Carlos, Rocío Dúrcal and others released a big number of hits. The main hits of José José were "El triste" (The Sad One), "La nave del olvido" (The Ship of Forgetfullness), "Te extraño" (I Miss You, also written by Manzanero), "Amar y querer" (To love and To want), or "Gavilán o paloma" (Hawk or Dove), "El pasado" (The Past), "Volcán" (Volcano) or "Lo que no fue no será" (What Never Was Will Never Be). By Roberto Carlos the songs "Amigos" (Friends) or "Detalles" (Details). By Camilo Sesto the hits "Fresa Salvaje" (Wild Strawberry), "Perdóname" (Forgive Me) or "Vivir Así es Morir de Amor" (To Live Like This is to Die of Love). Rocío Dúrcal enjoyed worldwide success and was known as "La Dama de la canción" (The Lady of Song). Her successful ballads include "Costumbres" (Customs), "Amor Eterno" (Eternal Love), "Diferentes" (Different), among many others that were released in Latin America. These songs are widely known today in Latin America.
From the 1990s, globalization and media internationalization processes that integrated contributed to the ballad's spread international spread and further homogenize around a common Latina identity. As part of the Latin Americanization of the United States and the dominant presence in the genre of multinational record labels, Miami has become the main producer of ballads which in turn has fed back trends of migration of performers, producers and musicians Latinos and Spanish to that city .
The ethnomusicologist Daniel Party defines the romantic ballad as "a love song of slow tempo, played by a solo singer accompanied by an orchestra usually" .
The ballad and bolero are often confused and songs can fall in one or the other category without too much presicion. The distinction between them is referring primarily to a more sophisticated and more metaphorical language and subtle bolero, compared with a more direct expression of the ballad.
Party stressed that the romantic ballad derive from "Latin common sensibility" He draws on the research of Jesus Martin-Barbero to highlight that the romantic ballad is an expression of a broader cultural process, called by Martin-Barbero as "emotional integration in Latin America", a phenomenon that would explain a generalization of the ways of feeling and express the emotions of the Latinos, through gestures, sounds, rhythms and cadences common literary devices, linked in turn to the soap opera.
Some Latin balladeers
It is very comun the mixture of the Latin Ballads with others music genres, such as bolero, mariachi or flamenco. Mexicans Pepe Aguilar and Alejandro Fernández have mixed the Latin ballads with mariachi, Alejandro Sanz and David Bisbal with flamenco and other Spanish rhythms, and Luis Miguel or José José with bolero.
- Argentina: Sandro de América, Leonardo Favio, Facundo Cabral, Valeria Lynch, Pimpinela, Palito Ortega, Diego Torres, Leo Dan, Polo, Piero, Axel (cantante)
- Brazil: Roberto Carlos, Nelson Ned
- Chile: Myriam Hernández, Alberto Plaza, Luis Jara, Pablo Herrera
- Colombia: Fausto, Ana y Jaime, Shakira (some of her first songs), Claudia de Colombia, Charlie Zaa
- Cuba: Amaury Gutierrez
- Dominican Repúblic: Angela Carrasco, Sonia Silvestre, Dhario Primero
- Ecuador: Tranzas, Juan Fernando Velasco
- Guatemala: Ricardo Arjona, Shery
- Mexico: José José, Luis Miguel, Angélica María, Armando Manzanero, Marco Antonio Solís, Marco Antonio Muñiz, Emmanuel, Alejandro Fernández, Pepe Aguilar, Manuel Mijares, José María Napoleón, Juan Gabriel, Cristian Castro, Yuridia, Sin Bandera
- Peru: Gianmarco Zignago, Adriana Mezzadri, Tania Libertad
- Puerto Rico: Luis Fonsi (Pop - Ballad), Ricky Martin, Chayanne, José Feliciano
- Spain: Julio Iglesias, Raphael, Luz Casal, Nino Bravo, Camilo Sesto, José Luis Perales, Rocío Dúrcal, David Bisbal, Alejandro Sanz, David Bustamante, Mocedades, Paloma San Basilio
- United States: Marc Anthony
- Uruguay: Gervasio, Natalia Oreiro
- Venezuela: José Luis Rodríguez "El Puma", Franco de Vita, Ricardo Montaner (born in Argentina)
- http://www.buenastareas.com/ensayos/La-Balada/32644.html La Balada - Documentos de Investigación - Nathalie0
- Transnacionalización y la balada latinoamericana (In spanish:Transnationalization and the ballad Latin - American), por Daniel Party, University of Pennsylvania, 2003, pag. 6
- Transnacionalización y la balada latinoamericana (In spanish:Transnationalization and the ballad Latin - American), by Daniel Party, University of Pennsylvania, 2003, pag. 1
- Martín-Barbero, Jesús. "Memory and Form in the Latin American Soap Opera." To Be Continued...: Soap Operas around the World. Ed. Robert Clyde Allen. London: Routledge, 1995. 276-84.
- Radio on line para recordar las baladas de los 60´s, 70´s y 80´s , CRUCERO STEREO, 100% programación musical (In Spanish: Radio on line to remember the ballads of the 60's, 70's and 80's, CRUISE STEREO, 100% music programming)
- http://artistas.consigueme.com/browse.asp?cat=140 Cantantes de Pop Balada (In Spanish: Pop Ballad singers).