Latino-Faliscan languages

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Latino-Faliscan
Latinian
Geographic
distribution
Originally Latium in Italy, at maximum extent as a living language, throughout the Roman Empire, especially in western regions.
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Subdivisions
Glottologlati1262[1]
Linguistic Landscape of Central Italy.png
Latino-Faliscan languages and dialects in different shades of blue.

The Latino-Faliscan or Latino-Venetic languages are a group of languages spoken by the Latino-Faliscan people of Italy, belonging to the Italic languages, and are a group of the Indo-European languages.

Latin and Faliscan belong to the group as well as two others often considered to be archaic Latin dialects: Lanuvian and Praenestine.

Latin eventually incorporated ideas from itself and the other languages of the area, and replaced Faliscan as the power of Ancient Rome grew. All of the other languages, except Latin, went extinct as Latin gained more followers. Vulgar Latin eventually developed into Classical Latin during the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin also developed into the numerous Romance languages such as Italian and others, which are now spoken by more than 800 million people worldwide, largely due to the influence of the French, Spanish and Portuguese Empires.

Linguistic description[edit]

Latin and Faliscan have several innovations with Italic:

  • The late Indo-European sequences /*ə, *eu/ evolve into a, ou.
  • The Indo-European syllabic liquids /*l̥, *r̥/ develop an epenthetic vowel o giving in Italic ol, or.
  • The Indo-European syllabic nasals /*m̥, *n̥/ develop an epenthetic vowel e giving em, en.
  • Fricativisation of aspirated stops of Indo-European at the beginning of the word /*bʰ, *dʰ, *gʰ/ into f, f, h.
  • Assimilation of the sequence /*kʷ...p/ into kʷ...kʷ (Proto-Indo-European *penkʷe 'five' > Latin quinque)

Some differences are that Latin and Faliscan retain the Indo-European labiovelars /*kʷ, *gʷ/ as qu-, gu- (they would later become velars + semivocal), while in Osco-Umbrian, they become labial p, b. In addition, Latin presents the evolution of ou into ū (Latin lūna < Proto-Italic *lousna < PIE *leuk-sna 'luminosa').

Phonology[edit]

The consonant inventory of Proto-Latino-Faliscan would be basically identical to that of archaic Latin:

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-
velar
Glottal
Plosives voiceless *p *t *k *kʷ
voiced *b *d *g *gʷ
Fricative *f *s *h
Sonorants *r, *l *j *w
Nasal *m *n

The /kʷ/ sound still had to exist in archaic Latin when the alphabet was developed where the minimum pair comes from: quī /kʷī/ ("who", nominative) - cuī /ku.ī/ ("to whom", dative). Note that in other positions no attempt is made to distinguish between diphthongs and hiatuses: persdere ("to persuade") is a diphthong but sua ("his"/"her") is a hiatus. For reasons of symmetry, it is quite possible that many sequences of gu in archaic Latin will in fact represent a voiced labiovelar /gʷ/.


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Villar, Francisco (1997). Gli Indoeuropei e le origini dell'Europa [Indo-Europeans and the origins of Europe] (in Italian). Bologna, Il Mulino. ISBN 88-15-05708-0.
  • Vineis, Edoardo (1995). "X. Latin". In Giacolone Ramat, Anna; Ramat, Paolo (eds.). Las lenguas indoeuropeas [The Indo-European languages] (in Spanish). Madrid: Cátedra. pp. 349–421. ISBN 84-376-1348-5.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Latino-Faliscan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bakkum, Gabriël C. L. M. 2009. The Latin Dialect of the Ager Faliscus: 150 Years of Scholarship. Part 1. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Baldi, Philip. 2002. The foundations of Latin. Berlin: de Gruyter.
  • Clackson, James, and Geoffrey Horrocks. 2007. The Blackwell history of the Latin language. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Giacomelli, Roberto. 1979. "Written and spoken language in latin-faliscan and greek-messapic." Journal of Indo-European Studies 7 no. 3–4: 149-75.
  • Mercado, Angelo. 2012. Italic Verse: A Study of the Poetic Remains of Old Latin, Faliscan, and Sabellic. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck.
  • Palmer, Leonard R. 1961. The Latin language. London: Faber and Faber.
  • Joseph, Brian D., and Rex E. Wallace. 1991. "Is faliscan a local latin patois?" Diachronica: International Journal for Historical Linguistics/Revue Internationale Pour La Linguistique Historiqu 8, no. 2: 159-86.