Lative case

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In grammar, lative (/ˈltɪv/; abbreviated LAT) is a grammatical case which indicates motion to a location.[1] It corresponds to the English prepositions "to" and "into". The lative case belongs to the group of the general local cases together with the locative and separative case. The term derives from the Latin lat-, the fourth principle part of ferre, "to bring, carry".

The lative case is typical of the Uralic languages and it was one of the Proto-Uralic cases. It still exists in many Uralic languages, e.g., Finnish, Erzya, Moksha, and Meadow Mari.

It is also found in the Dido languages, such as Tsez, Bezhta, and Khwarshi, as well as in the South Caucasian languages, such as Laz or Lazuri (see Laz grammar).

Finnish[edit]

In Finnish, the lative case is largely obsolete. It still occurs in various adverbs: alas "down", kauas/kauemmas "(moving) far away/farther off", pois "(going) away", and rannemmas "towards and closer to the shore". The lative suffix is usually -s.[1]

In modern Finnish, it has been superseded by a more complicated system of locative cases and enclitics, and the original -s has merged with another lative or locative suffix and turned into the modern inessive, elative, illative and translative suffixes.

Meadow Mari[edit]

In Meadow Mari, the usage of the lative is restricted compared to that of the illative case. Whereas the illative can be used freely in connection with verbs indicating motion into/to/towards something, the lative occurs typically with only a smaller number of such verbs. Some examples of these are кодаш "to remain, to stay", шинчаш "to sit down", шочаш "to be born", сакаш "to hang up, to hang on", пышташ "to put, to place", кушкаш "to grow (intransitive)". In many cases, both the illative and the lative cases can be used with a verb. Note that some of the verbs, such as шочаш or кушкаш, do not indicate motion towards a place.[2]

Ковам

kova-m

grandmother-POSS.1SG

Тойметсола

Tojmetsola

Toymetsola

ялеш

jal-eš

village-LAT

кресаньык

kresan’õk

peasant

ешеш

ješ-eš

family-LAT

шочын.

šoč-õn

be.born-PST

Ковам Тойметсола ялеш кресаньык ешеш шочын.

kova-m Tojmetsola jal-eš kresan’õk ješ-eš šoč-õn

grandmother-POSS.1SG Toymetsola village-LAT peasant family-LAT be.born-PST

"My grandmother was born in the village of Toymetsola into a peasant family."

Сумкатым

sumka-t-õm

bag-POSS.2SG-ACC

пӱкенеш

püken-eš

chair-LAT

пыште

põšte

put.IMP

да

da

and

диванеш

divan-eš

couch-LAT

шич.

šič

sit.IMP

Сумкатым пӱкенеш пыште да диванеш шич.

sumka-t-õm püken-eš põšte da divan-eš šič

bag-POSS.2SG-ACC chair-LAT put.IMP and couch-LAT sit.IMP

"Put your bag on the chair and sit down on the couch."

The lative case in Meadow Mari can also fulfill a few auxiliary functions. It can indicate the cause for an action or under what circumstances the action takes place:[2]

Йоча-влак

joča-vlak

child-PL

йӱреш

jür-eš

rain-LAT

нӧреныт.

nör-en-õt

soak-PST-3PL

Йоча-влак йӱреш нӧреныт.

joča-vlak jür-eš nör-en-õt

child-PL rain-LAT soak-PST-3PL

"The children got soaked in the rain."

A noun in the lative can express a period of time in which something (repeatedly) takes place:[2]

Тый

tõj

you.SG

кечеш

keč-eš

day-LAT

мыняр

mõn’ar

how.many

гана

gana

time

кочкат?

kočk-at?

eat-2SG

Тый кечеш мыняр гана кочкат?

tõj keč-eš mõn’ar gana kočk-at?

you.SG day-LAT how.many time eat-2SG

"How many times a day do you eat?"

A noun in the lative can be used to indicate how someone or something is regarded, for what they are held:[2]

Ивук

Ivuk

Ivuk

пийжым

pij-ž-õm

dog-POSS.3SG-ACC

эн

en

most

сай

saj

good

йолташеш

joltaš-eš

friend-LAT

шотла.

šotl-a

consider-3SG

Ивук пийжым эн сай йолташеш шотла.

Ivuk pij-ž-õm en saj joltaš-eš šotl-a

Ivuk dog-POSS.3SG-ACC most good friend-LAT consider-3SG

"Ivuk considers his dog his best friend."

A noun in the lative can express by what means something is transferred, relocated, or undergoes a change.[2]

Йошкар-Олашке

Joškar-Ola-ške

Yoshkar-Ola-ILL

автобусеш

avtobus-eš

bus-LAT

толынна.

tol-õn-na

come-PST-1PL

Йошкар-Олашке автобусеш толынна.

Joškar-Ola-ške avtobus-eš tol-õn-na

Yoshkar-Ola-ILL bus-LAT come-PST-1PL

"We came to Yoshkar-Ola by bus."

Тулеш

tul-eš

fire-LAT

кӱктымӧ

kükt-õmö

bake-PASS

пареҥге

pareŋge

potato

пеш

peš

very

тамле.

tamle

tasty

Тулеш кӱктымӧ пареҥге пеш тамле.

tul-eš kükt-õmö pareŋge peš tamle

fire-LAT bake-PASS potato very tasty

"Potatoes cooked in fire are very tasty."

Tsez[edit]

In the Northeast Caucasian languages, such as Tsez, the lative also takes up the functions of the dative case in marking the recipient or beneficent of an action. By some linguists, they are still regarded as two separate cases in those languages although the suffixes are exactly the same for both cases. Other linguists list them separately only for the purpose of separating syntactic cases from locative cases. An example with the ditransitive verb "show" (literally: "make see") is given below:

Кидбā

kidb-ā

girl:OBL-ERG

ужихъор

uži-qo-r

boy-POSS-DAT/LAT

кIетIу

kʼetʼu

cat:[III]:ABS

биквархо.

b-ikʷa-r-xo

III-see-CAUS-PRES

Кидбā ужихъор кIетIу биквархо.

kidb-ā uži-qo-r kʼetʼu b-ikʷa-r-xo

girl:OBL-ERG boy-POSS-DAT/LAT cat:[III]:ABS III-see-CAUS-PRES

"The girl shows the cat to the boy."

The dative/lative is also used to indicate possession, as in the example below; there is no such verb for "to have":

Кидбехъор

kidbe-qo-r

girl:OBL-POSS-DAT/LAT

кIетIу

kʼetʼu

cat:ABS

зовси.

zow-si

be:PST-PST

Кидбехъор кIетIу зовси.

kidbe-qo-r kʼetʼu zow-si

girl:OBL-POSS-DAT/LAT cat:ABS be:PST-PST

"The girl had a cat."

The dative/lative case usually occurs, as in the examples above, in combination with another suffix as poss-lative case; it should not be regarded as a separate case, as many of the locative cases in Tsez are constructed analytically. They are actually a combination of two case suffixes. See Tsez language#Locative case suffixes for further details.

Verbs of perception or emotion (like "see", "know", "love", "want") also require the logical subject to stand in the dative/lative case, note that in this example the "pure" dative/lative without its POSS-suffix is used.

ГIалир

ʻAli-r

Ali-DAT/LAT

ПатIи

Patʼi

Fatima:[II]:ABS

йетих.

y-eti-x

II-love-PRES

ГIалир ПатIи йетих.

ʻAli-r Patʼi y-eti-x

Ali-DAT/LAT Fatima:[II]:ABS II-love-PRES

"Ali loves Fatima."

Further reading[edit]

  • Anhava, Jaakko (2015). "Criteria For Case Forms in Finnish and Hungarian Grammars". journal.fi. Helsinki: Finnish Scholarly Journals Online.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish Grammar - Adverbial Cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e Riese, Timothy; Bradley, Jeremy; Schötschel, Monika; Yefremova, Tatiana (2019). Mari (марий йылме): An Essential Grammar for International Learners. [Draft version]. University of Vienna [published online at grammar.mari-language.com]. p. 89-91. CC-BY-SA icon.svg Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license.