|Main ingredients||Potatoes, flour, chicken egg, cooking oil|
|Cookbook: Potato pancake Media: Potato pancake|
Potato pancakes are shallow-fried pancakes of grated or ground potato, flour and egg, often flavored with grated garlic or onion and seasoning. Potato pancakes may be topped with a variety of condiments, ranging from the savory (such as sour cream or cottage cheese) to the sweet (such as apple sauce or sugar), or they may be served ungarnished. Potato pancakes are sometimes made from mashed potatoes to produce pancake-shaped croquettes.
Variations and traditions
Potato pancakes are associated with cuisines of many European and Middle Eastern century-old traditions including Austrian (as Kartoffelpuffer or "Erdäpfelpuffer"), Belarusian (as дранікі draniki), Bulgarian (as patatnik), Czech (as bramborák or cmunda), German (as Kartoffelpuffer or Reibekuchen), Hungarian (as tócsni and other names), Iranian (as kotlet or cutlet), Jewish (as latkes or latkas, Yiddish: לאַטקעס, Hebrew: לביבה levivah, plural לביבות levivot), Latvian (as kartupeļu pankūkas), Lithuanian (as bulviniai blynai), Luxembourg (Gromperekichelcher), Polish (as placki ziemniaczane), Russian (as драники draniki), Slovak (as zemiakové placky, haruľa or nálečníky), Ukrainian (as деруни deruny) and any other cuisines which have adopted similar dishes. It is the national dish of Belarus. In Germany, potato pancakes are eaten either salty (as a side dish) or sweet with apple sauce, blueberries, sugar and cinnamon; they are a very common menu item during outdoor markets and festivals in colder seasons. In Swiss cuisine, the Rösti differs insofar as it never contains egg or flour. It is a traditional favorite in southern Indiana during holiday festivities.
Britain and Ireland
In the North-East of England (particularly County Durham), there is a popular dish known as tattie fish, because the pancake resembles a deep fried piece of fish. The pancake consists of flour, eggs, shredded potatoes and onions. Some people add tomato or cheese to the mix, depending on taste. The British also brought the potato pancake to Zimbabwe, Africa when Zimbabwe was a colony of Britain. They are still eaten today, where they are affordable.
The Swedish version of unbound potato pancakes is called rårakor. When prepared with a batter of wheat flour, milk, egg, and shredded potatoes and fried like thin pancakes, they are called raggmunk, the word "ragg" means crispy and "munk" derives from the Swedish "munkpanna", which is literally translated as donutpan. Both kinds are enjoyed with fried pork and lingonberry jam.
Polish placki ziemniaczane
Potato pancakes, literally translated in Polish as placki ziemniaczane, are often served in Poland topped with meat sauce, pork crisps or goulash, as well as sour cream, apple sauce, mushroom sauce, and cottage or sheep's cheese or even fruit syrup. Placki ziemniaczane was a food staple at the 17th-century Polish monasteries according to written recipe from Stoczek Warmiński with one onion, two eggs and a spoonful of wheat flour per each kilogram of potatoes, served only with salt and pepper. In the 19th century, especially in times of economic difficulty during the foreign partitions, potato pancakes often replaced missing bread among the peasants. The lower-quality crops given to field laborers were sometimes turned by them quickly into pancakes to improve taste and prolong freshness. Also, their popularity is closely associated with the historic presence of one of the largest Jewish communities in the world flourishing in Poland.
The largest potato pancake (possibly in the world) measuring 2 meters and 2 centimeters was made during the annual two-day celebrations of Świt Plinzy (Plinza Dawn festival) in Rzechta, Poland (see photo). The tongue-in-cheek games in Rzechta include the throwing of bad potato pancake, with the record of 29 meters.
Czech potato pancake is called bramborák (from 'brambor', potato) and it is made of grated potatoes with egg, breadcrumbs or flour and seasoning (salt, pepper, most importantly garlic and marjoram; sometimes ground, cracked or whole caraway seeds) and is served as it is. Some regional versions blend in dough, sauerkraut, and/or sliced smoked meat. The same potato dough is used also as coating of fried pork chop called kaplický řízek.
Latkes (לאַטקע) are potato pancakes that Ashkenazi Jews have prepared as part of the Hanukkah festival since the mid-1800s., but the connection actually goes back to at least the Middle Ages.
Latkes need not necessarily be made from potatoes. Prior to the introduction of the potato to the Old World, latkes were, and in some places still are, made from a variety of other vegetables, cheeses, legumes, or starches, depending on the available local ingredients and foods of the various places where Jews lived. Numerous modern recipes call for the addition of ingredients such as onions and carrots.
The word latke itself is derived (via Yiddish) from the Russian word 'ladka', 'oladka', a diminutive from 'oladya' (оладья), "small pancake". The word leviva (לביבה), the Hebrew name for latke, refers in the Book of Samuel to a dumpling made from kneaded dough, as part of the story of Amnon and Tamar. Some interpreters have noted that the homonym levav (לבב) means "heart," and the verbal form of l-v-v occurs in the Song of Songs as well. In the lexicon of Ashkenazi Jews from Udmurtia and Tatarstan there are recorded versions of the kosher-style appellation of latkes (draniki, dranki, krezliki, kremzliki, kakorki, etc.) during the eight-day Hanukkah holiday.
Iranian kuku sib zamini
A dish in the Iranian province of Gilān, made by the Gilak people, is kuku sib-zamini (Gilaki: کوکو سیب زمینی, 'potato kuku'). Potato kuku is flavored with shredded potatoes, onion, saffron, sometimes garlic chives and sometimes cinnamon. Frequently, potato kuku is cooked as smaller patties, but it is also cooked in a larger pancake-style or baked. This dish and has been compared to the latke, rösti, and tortilla Española (Spanish omelette).
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- Korosten, a town in Ukraine that has hosted an annual potato pancake festival
- Latke-Hamantash Debate
- "Mashed potato pancake recipe". All-about-potatoes.com. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
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- "News Quiz: Special Holiday Edition". 2011 Southern Indiana Current Magazine. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
- "Recipe for ''rårakor'' on chef2chef.net". Recipes.chef2chef.net. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
- Krzysztof Kucharski, "Nie wszyscy pewnie wiedzą.." (Not everybody knows). Gazeta Wrocławska, Poland, 2008-08-22. (Polish)
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- Krzysztof Kucharski, "Nie wszyscy pewnie wiedzą.." str. 3 (Not everybody knows, p. 3). Gazeta Wrocławska, Poland, 2008-08-22. (Polish)
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- Altyntsev A.V., "The Concept of Love in Ashkenazim of Udmurtia and Tatarstan", Nauka Udmurtii. 2013. № 4 (66), p. 131. (Алтынцев А.В., "Чувство любви в понимании евреев-ашкенази Удмуртии и Татарстана". Наука Удмуртии. 2013. №4. С. 131: Комментарии.) (Russian)
- "Kuku-ye Sibzamini (Potato Patties)". Vida Vitality, Bad Assing it All The Way. VidaVitality.com. March 25, 2014. Retrieved October 13, 2014.