Latter Day Saint martyrs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Latter Day Saint martyrs are persons who belonged to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) or another church within the Latter Day Saint movement who were killed or otherwise persecuted to the point of premature death on account of their religious beliefs or while performing their religious duties.

Although the term "martyr" is not frequently used in Latter-day Saint terminology, Latter-day Saints recognize a number of prophets, apostles, and other religious persons as recorded in the Bible, including both the Old Testament and New Testament, and Book of Mormon as martyrs within the same religious tradition (albeit at an earlier time) to which they subscribe.[1] For Latter-day Saints, the most notable martyr is Jesus Christ. Other scriptural examples include Abel ("the first martyr"),[2] John the Baptist, James, the brother of John, Stephen whose stoning is recorded in the Book of Acts, Abinadi,[3] women and children of Ammonihah,[4] etc.[5] Latter-day Saints also acknowledge as "Early-day Saint" martyrs those early Christians who were killed for their faith prior to or as a result of the Great Apostasy.

The most notable post-Biblical Latter Day Saint martyrs are Joseph Smith, Jr. and his brother, Hyrum Smith.[6]

Individuals who die "in the Lord's service" are believed to be rewarded with eternal life: "And whoso layeth down his life in my cause, for my name's sake, shall find it again, even life eternal."[7] Joseph F. Smith, LDS Church president, declared: "I beheld that the faithful elders of this dispensation, when they depart from mortal life, continue their labors in the preaching of the gospel ... in the great world of the spirits."[8]

In 1989, following the death of two missionaries in Bolivia, LDS Church apostle L. Tom Perry noted that from 1831 until 1989, "only seventeen LDS missionaries [were] killed by assassins." Also at that time, apostle M. Russell Ballard "indicated that of the 447,969 missionaries who have served since the days of Joseph Smith, only 525—about one-tenth of 1 percent—have lost their lives through accident, illness, or other causes while serving. 'When you contemplate that number,' he said, 'it appears that the safest place to be in the whole world is on a full-time mission.'"[9]

Missionaries who died from illness or accident are not listed. However, depending on the circumstances of their death, they could be deemed "martyrs" for having died while in religious service.[10][11][12][13][14]

Many Mormon pioneers and other early church members who suffered privation and early death on account of their religious beliefs would likely qualify as "martyrs." However, they are too numerous to list here. This list also does not include early Mormon settlers who were killed in encounters with Native Americans during the Mormon settlement of the American West.

List of Latter Day Saint martyrs[edit]

Death date Location Name Church Cause of death Age at death
January 7, 1832 Pomfret, Vermont Joseph B. Brackenbury (missionary) Church of Christ Poisoning 43
November 5, 1833 Battle near the Blue, Jackson, Missouri Andrew Barber Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Shot in battle [November 4th] by Robert Patten - died the next day[15] 17
October 25, 1838 Battle of Crooked River, Missouri Gideon Carter Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Killed in battle
October 25, 1838 Battle of Crooked River, Missouri Patrick O'Banion Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Killed in battle by John Lockhart
October 25, 1838 Battle of Crooked River, Missouri David W. Patten (apostle)[16] Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Killed in battle 39
December 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Hiram Abbott Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre; died in December 1838 from wounds[17][18][19][20][21] 25
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Elias Benner Sr. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre[22][23][24][25] 43
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri John Byers Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre[26][27][28]
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Alexander Campbell Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre[29][30][31][32]
October 31, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Simon Cox Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre; mortally wounded and lived until the next morning[33][34][35][36][37]
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Josiah Fuller Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre[38][39][40][41][42] 35
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Austin Hammer Sr. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre[43][44][45][46][47] 34
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri John Lee Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre[48][49][50]
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Benjamin Franklin Lewis Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre; shot by Mr. Rockholt, lived a few hours[51][52][53][54][55] 35
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Thomas White McBride (justice of the peace) Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre; shot in chest by Jacob Rogers with his own gun; head and body hacked with a corn knife[56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63] 62[64]
November 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Charles Merrick (from Kirtland Camp) Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre; died 25 November 1838 from wounds[65][66][67][68][69] 9
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Levi Newton Merrick (from Kirtland Camp) Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre[70][71][72][73][74] 30
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri William Napier Sr. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre[75][76][77][78] 43
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri George Spencer Richards (from Kirtland Camp) Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre[79][80][81][82][83] 15
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Sardius Washington Smith (from Kirtland Camp) Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre; top of skull blown off from musket shot by William Reynolds[84][85][86][87][88][89] 10
October 30, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri Warren Smith (from Kirtland Camp) Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre[90][91][92][93][94][95] 44
October 31, 1838 Haun's Mill, Missouri John York Jr. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Massacre; mortally wounded and died the next day[96][97][98][99][100] 62
May 27, 1840 Nauvoo, Illinois Edward Partridge (bishop) Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Persecution[101] 46
June 27, 1844 Carthage Jail, Illinois Joseph Smith, Jr. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Mob assassination 38
June 27, 1844 Carthage Jail, Illinois Hyrum Smith Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Mob assassination 44
July 30, 1844 Nauvoo, Illinois Samuel Harrison Smith (one of Eight Witnesses) Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Attributed to internal injuries sustained while fleeing a mob on horseback on the day his brothers were murdered[102][103] 36
July 9, 1856 St. James Township, Beaver Island, Michigan James Strang (president of the church) Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite) Shot on June 16, 1856 by Thomas Bedford, a member who Strang had had flogged for adultery; Strang died in Voree, Wisconsin 43
May 13, 1857 near Van Buren, Arkansas Parley P. Pratt (apostle) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Shot and stabbed by Hector McLean, the ex-husband of one of Pratt's plural wives 50
July 21, 1879 Varnell, Georgia Joseph Standing (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Mob murder 24
August 10, 1884 Cane Creek, Tennessee William S. Berry (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Mob assassination 46
August 10, 1884 Cane Creek, Tennessee John H. Gibbs (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Mob assassination 32
August 10, 1884 Cane Creek, Tennessee W. Martin Conder The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Mob assassination 20
August 10, 1884 Cane Creek, Tennessee John Riley Hutson The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Mob assassination 27
May 4, 1912 Diaz, Galeana, Chihuahua, Mexico James D. Harvey The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Shot and killed 49
August 27, 1912 Colonia Pacheco, Mexico Joshua Stevens The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Killed by Mexican rebels
1915 San Marcos, Hidalgo, Mexico Rafael Monroy (branch president)[104] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Execution by Liberation Army of the South
1915 San Marcos, Hidalgo, Mexico Vicente Morales[104] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Execution by Liberation Army of the South
October 27, 1942 Plötzensee Prison, Germany Helmuth Hübener The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Executed for anti-Nazi activities 17[105]
August 20, 1972 Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico Joel LeBaron (president of the church) Church of the Firstborn of the Fulness of Times Shot and killed by Daniel Jordan on the orders of Ervil LeBaron, Joel's brother and a rival fundamentalist Mormon leader 49
October 1974 Austin, Texas Gary Darley (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Murder by an unidentified individual (Robert Elmer Kleason was convicted for the crime but his conviction was later overturned); presumably dismembered with chainsaw[106] 20
October 1974 Austin, Texas Mark Fischer (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Murder by an unidentified individual (Robert Elmer Kleason was convicted for the crime but his conviction was later overturned); presumably dismembered with chainsaw[106] 19
May 10, 1977 Murray, Utah Rulon C. Allred (head of church) Apostolic United Brethren Shot and killed by Rena Chynoweth and another woman on orders of Ervil LeBaron, a rival fundamentalist Mormon 71
December 15, 1979 North Charleston, South Carolina Elizabeth King (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Found beaten and shot to death in a car in a parking lot 66
December 15, 1979 North Charleston, South Carolina Ruth Teuscher (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Found beaten and shot to death in a car in a parking lot 65
February 1987 Lisbon, Portugal Roger Hunt (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Shot and killed by a security guard who thought he had stolen a car 19
May 24, 1989 La Paz, Bolivia Todd Ray Wilson (missionary)[9][107] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Assassination in terrorist attack by Zarate Willka Armed Forces of Liberation 20
May 24, 1989 La Paz, Bolivia Jeffrey Brent Ball (missionary)[9][107] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Assassination in terrorist attack by Zarate Willka Armed Forces of Liberation 20
May 27, 1990 Dublin, Ireland Gale Stanley Critchfield (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Stabbed to death 20
August 22, 1990 Huancayo, Peru Manuel Antonio Hidalgo (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Assassination in terrorist attack by Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement 22
August 22, 1990 Huancayo, Peru Cristian Andreani Ugarte (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Assassination in terrorist attack by Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement 21
March 6, 1991 Tarma, Peru Oscar Zapata (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Shot and killed after getting off a bus 20
October 17, 1998 Ufa, Russia José Manuel Mackintosh (missionary) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Stabbed outside the lobby of a building where he and his companion had been visiting Church members 20
January 2, 2006 Chesapeake, Virginia Morgan W. Young (missionary)[108] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Fatal shooting 21

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Patch, Robert C. (1992), "Martyrs", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 862–863, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 
  2. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 138:40
  3. ^ Mosiah 12:1-17
  4. ^ Alma 14:1-11
  5. ^ "Topical Guide", Standard Works, LDS Church  |contribution= ignored (help)
  6. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 135:1
  7. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 98:13
  8. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 138:57
  9. ^ a b c "News of the Church: Church Honors Missionaries Who Died in South America", Ensign, August 1989 
  10. ^ Booth, J. Wilford (September 1909), "Four Heroes Far Away", Improvement Era, 12 (11): 897–907 . Concerning Adolf Haag, John Alexander Clark, Edgar D. Simmons, and Emil J. Huber.
  11. ^ "2 Mormon missionaries die in natural gas leak in Romania", Deseret News, 31 January 2010 
  12. ^ "Mormon missionary shot, killed in Jamaica", Deseret News, 17 January 2011 
  13. ^ "LDS Missionary from Dominican Republic killed in Colombia", Deseret News, 1 September 2013 
  14. ^ "Dr. B" (4 October 2010). "Partial List of LDS Missionary Deaths". Prepare Ye The Way of The Lord (mormonmission.blogspot.com). 
  15. ^ Daniel Stanton statement, circa 1842 https://eadview.lds.org/findingaid/002028768/
  16. ^ Wilson, Lycurgus A. (1904), Life of David W. Patten, the First Apostolic Martyr, Salt Lake City: Deseret News, OCLC 15512846 
  17. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  18. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,268,320,412,486,488,491,723
  19. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  20. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  21. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  22. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,136,268,418,488,491,723
  23. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  24. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  25. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  26. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp268,488,491
  27. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  28. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  29. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,268,488,491,723
  30. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  31. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  32. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  33. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  34. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp30-31,268,320,488,723
  35. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  36. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  37. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  38. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  39. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,268,320,451,488,491,723
  40. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  41. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  42. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  43. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  44. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp268,320,488,491,723
  45. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  46. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  47. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  48. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  49. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp268,320,488,491
  50. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149
  51. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  52. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,268,275-276,320,488,491,722-723
  53. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  54. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  55. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  56. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  57. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,90,117,260,267,275,282,320,409,417,467,474,487-88,491,539,542,722-23
  58. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  59. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  60. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  61. ^ http://churchhistorycatalog.lds.org/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=chl&indx=1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=CHL_PUBLIC&frbg=&tb=t&vl%28freeText0%29=James+McBride&scp.scps=scope%3A%28ALEPH-PCAX%29%2Cscope%3A%28PEAD%29%2Cscope%3A%28PLIBRARY%29%2Cscope%3A%28PARCHIVES%29&vl%2826212266UI1%29=all_items&vl%281UIStartWith0%29=contains
  62. ^ Nathan Kinsman Knight autobiographical sketch https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2444797
  63. ^ https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE1959378
  64. ^ James McBride autobiography https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE1959378
  65. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  66. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,260,268,275,320,457,488,491,505,537,539,722-23
  67. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  68. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  69. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  70. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  71. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,268,320,441,488,491,505,722-23
  72. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  73. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  74. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  75. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,268,296,320,488,491,506,723
  76. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  77. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  78. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  79. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  80. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,268,488,491,723
  81. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  82. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  83. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  84. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  85. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,90,117,260,268,275,320,408,452,487-88,491,537-38,723
  86. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  87. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  88. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  89. ^ Nathan Kinsman Knight autobiographical sketch https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2444797
  90. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  91. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,90,117,268,320,408,487-88,491,537-39,723
  92. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  93. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  94. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  95. ^ Nathan Kinsman Knight autobiographical sketch https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2444797
  96. ^ David Lewis autobiography, 1854 Call Number MS 13716 https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE2445325
  97. ^ Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833–1838 Missouri Conflict, Edited by Clark V. Johnson, 1992, http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/rsc/id/44782/pp31,267,320,488,491,558,723
  98. ^ 1886 History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, p. 149 http://cdm.sos.mo.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mocohist/id/62024/rec/74
  99. ^ Joyce, Burr, The Haun’s Mill Massacre, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 September 1887
  100. ^ Joseph Young affadavit of Haun's Mill massacre http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll24/id/26184\
  101. ^ Smith, Joseph, Jr. (December 15, 1855), "History of Joseph Smith", Millennial Star, Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 17 (50): 789, Bishop Edward Partridge died at Nauvoo, age 46 years. He lost his life in consequence of the Missouri persecutions, and he is one of that number whose blood will be required at their hands.  |contribution= ignored (help)
  102. ^ LaRene Porter Gaunt and Robert A. Smith, "Samuel H. Smith: Faithful Brother of Joseph and Hyrum," Ensign, August 2008, pp. 44–51.
  103. ^ The sole remaining Smith brother, William, later charged that Brigham Young had arranged for Samuel to be poisoned to prevent his accession to the presidency of the church. Jon Krakauer (2003). Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith (New York: Doubleday) p. 194; D. Michael Quinn (1994). The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power (Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books) pp. 152–153; William Smith, "Mormonism: A Letter from William Smith, Brother of Joseph the Prophet", New York Tribune, 1857-05-19. William Smith's accusations did not lead to police investigations into the death of Samuel Smith.
  104. ^ a b Grover, Mark L. (1996), "Execution in Mexico: The Deaths of Rafael Monroy and Vicente Morales" (PDF), BYU Studies, 35 (3) 
  105. ^ Hübener was the youngest person sentenced to death by Volksgerichtshof.
  106. ^ a b Driggs, Ken. (2000), Evil Among Us: The Texas Mormon Missionary Murders, Signature Books, ISBN 978-1-56085-138-7 
  107. ^ a b "Bolivia tragedy plays role in conversions", Church News, 9 September 1989 
  108. ^ "Mormon Missionary Shot Dead in Virginia", FoxNews.com (AP), 3 January 2006 

References[edit]