Lattice truss bridge
Interior structure of a covered bridge utilizing a plank-lattice structure
|Carries||Pedestrians, livestock, vehicles|
|Span range||short to medium|
|Material||wood planks and beams or steel angles and beams, appropriate decking material|
A lattice bridge is a form of truss bridge that uses a large number of small and closely spaced diagonal elements that form a lattice. Bridges of this type were patented in the 19th century by architect Ithiel Town, and are sometimes called Town lattice trusses.
Originally a design to allow a substantial bridge to be made from planks employing lower–skilled labor, rather than heavy timbers and more expensive carpenters, this type of bridge has also been constructed using a large number of relatively light iron or steel members. The individual elements are more easily handled by the construction workers, but the bridge also requires substantial support during construction. A simple lattice truss will transform the applied loads into a thrust, as the bridge will tend to change length under load. This is resisted by pinning the lattice members to the top and bottom chords, which are more substantial than the lattice members, but which may also be fabricated from relatively small elements rather than large beams.
The Belfast truss is a cross between the Town's lattice truss and the bowstring truss. It was developed in Ireland as a wide-span shallow rise roof truss for industrial structures. McTear & Co of Belfast, Ireland began fabricating these trusses in wood starting around 1866. By 1899, spans of 24 meters had been achieved, and in the 20th century, shipyards and airplane hangars demanded ever greater clear spans.
Wood lattice truss bridges
- Bartonsville Covered Bridge
- Brown Covered Bridge
- Burt Henry Covered Bridge
- Cornish-Windsor Covered Bridge
- Euharlee Covered Bridge
- Kingsley Covered Bridge
- Poole's Mill Covered Bridge
- Root Road Covered Bridge
- Waterford Covered Bridge
- Watson Mill Covered Bridge
- Windsor Mills Covered Bridge
- Worrall Covered Bridge
- Frankenfield Covered Bridge
- Zehnder's Holz Brucke
Iron or steel lattice truss bridges
- Bennerley Viaduct
- Bridge in Brown Township
- Dowery Dell Viaduct, also known as Hunnington or Frankley Viaduct
- Kew Railway Bridge
- Norwottuck Rail Trail Bridge
- Willow Creek Bridge (1913), in Pierce County, Nebraska
- Upper Slate Run Bridge (1890), a 'quintangular' lattice truss in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania
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- J. R. Gilfillan, S. G. Gilbert, The Historic Belfast Timber Truss - A Way to Promote Sustainable Roof Construction, 2002.
- J. A. L. Waddell, Bridge Engineering Vol. 1, Wiley, New York, 1916; page 23.