|c. 1.55 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
|United States||96,070–102,000 (2009)|
|United Kingdom||39,000 (2011)|
|New Zealand||20,000 (2004)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Lithuanians, Kursenieki, Latgalians, Semigallians, Livonians|
Latvians (Latvian: latvieši; Livonian: leţlizt) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to what is modern-day Latvia and the immediate geographical region. They are also known as Letts, although this term is obsolescent. The Latvian people share a common Latvian language.
A Finnic-speaking tribe known as the Livs settled among the Latvians and modulated the name to "Latvis," meaning "forest-clearers," which is how medieval German, Teutonic settlers also referred to these peoples. The Germanic settlers referred to the natives as "Letts" and the nation to "Lettland", naming their colony Livonia or Livland.
The Latin form, Livonia, gradually referred to the whole territory of the modern-day Latvia as well as southern Estonia, which had fallen under minimal Germanic influence. Latvians and Lithuanians are the only surviving members of the Baltic branch of the Indo-European family.
Paternal haplogroups N1c-Tat and R1a are the two most frequent, reaching 39.9% each among ethnic Latvians. N1c-Tat mutation probably originated in South Siberia eight to nine thousand years ago and had spread through the Urals into the Europe where it is currently most common among Finno-Ugric and Baltic people. Balts, however, differ from Finno-Ugrics by the predominance of the N1c-L550 branch of N1c-Tat. Haplogroup R1a is associated with the spread of Indo-European languages.
Latvians share a common language and have a unique culture with traditions, holidays, customs and arts. The culture and religious traditions have been somewhat influenced by Germanic, Scandinavian, and Russian traditions. Latvians have an ancient culture that has been archaeologically dated back to 3,000 B.C. Latvians maintained a considerable connection and trade with their neighbors, and near ethnic cousins the Finno-Ugrians, otherwise known contemporarily as Estonians and eventually Finns as well. The first indications of human inhabitants on the lands of modern Latvia date archaeologically to ~9,000 B.C., suggesting that the first settlers were hunters that stayed almost immediately following the end of the last Ice Age. Colonizers from the south arrived quickly, driving many of the hunters northward and polar ice caps melted further, or east, into modern-day Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. The Roman author Tacitus remarked upon the "Aestii" peoples, thought to be inhabitants of the modern Baltic lands, suggesting that they were abound with formidable, yet peaceful and hospitable people. The Latvian peoples remained relatively undisturbed until Papal intervention via the Germanic, Teutonic Order colonized Kurzeme (Courland in English, Kurland in German), beginning in the first-half of the 13th century. Papal decrees ordered the Teutonic Order to spread the "Word of the Lord" and the Gospel of Christianity throughout "uncivilized", "Pagan lands." Though these attempts to Christianize the population failed, and the Teutonic Order eventually redeployed southward, to the region of what was once known as East Prussia.
South-Eastern Latvia (Latgale), due to having a relatively large ethnic Russian population, has maintained a large Russian influence.
Most of the religious Latvians belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, but in Eastern Latvia (Latgale) the Roman Catholic Church is predominant, a small minority of Latvians belong to the Latvian Orthodox Church and other religious congregations. In the late 18th century, a small but vibrant Herrnhutist movement played a significant part in the development of Latvian literary culture, before it was absorbed into the mainstream Lutheran denomination.
- List of Latvians
- Demographics of Latvia
- Latvian American
- Latvian Australian
- Latvian Brazilian
- Latvian Canadian
- Baltic people in the United Kingdom
- "Detailed Tables - American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- Population by country of birth and nationality, Annual Population Survey, Office of National Statistics, 2010] Archived August 28, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- BNS. "TVNET :: Ārvalstīs - Lielbritānijā pašlaik dzīvo 39 tūkstoši viesstrādnieku no Latvijas". Tvnet.lv. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- "Federal Statistical Office - Foreign population by average-age and average duration of residence". Destatis.de. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2012-01-23.
- "Revista Época Ediусo 214 24/06/2002". Epoca.globo.com. 2002-06-24. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- "CSO Emigration" (PDF). Census Office Ireland. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
- Russians#cite note-gks-1
- State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
- "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 2015-06-28.
- "Gyventojų skaičius metų pradžioje. Požymiai: tautybė - Rodiklių duomenų bazėje". Db1.stat.gov.lt. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- "Statistics Estonia - Population by ethnic nationality, 1 January, years". Stat.ee. 2011-10-13. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
-  Archived December 21, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ru:Латыши#cite note-5
- "Taulukko: Kieli iän ja sukupuolen mukaan maakunnittain 1990 - 2010". Pxweb2.stat.fi. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- Ethnic composition, religion and language skills in the Republic of Kazakhstan
- "Bevolking per nationaliteit, geslacht, leeftijdsgroepen op 1/1/2008" (in Dutch). Statbel.fgov.be. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- Latvijas Republikas un Venecuēlas Bolivāra Republikas attiecības
- (Polish) http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/LUD_ludnosc_stan_str_dem_spo_NSP2011.pdf
- "Lett" at Oxford Dictionaries
- "Lett" at Merriam-Webster Online
- http://www.eva.mpg.de/genetics/pdf/Kasperavicuite.2004.pdf Kasperaviciute et al. 2004 (link broken)
- http://dna2012.gerichtsmedizin.at/files/DNA_in_Forensics_2012.pdf Pamjav H, Nemeth E, Feher T, Volgyi A "Genetic journey of the N1c haplogroup"
- http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005472#pone-0005472-t002 Nelis et al. "Genetic Structure of Europeans: A View from the North–East"
- "Tieslietu ministrijā iesniegtie reliģisko organizāciju pārskati par darbību 2011. gadā" (in Latvian). Retrieved 2012-07-25.