Law Enforcement Command of the Islamic Republic of Iran

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Law Enforcement Command of the Islamic Republic of Iran
فرماندهی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Farmândehiye Entezâmiye Jomhuriye Eslâmiye Irân
Official logo
Official logo
The official flag of the Law Enforcement Command of the Islamic Republic of Iran
The official flag of the Law Enforcement Command of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Common nameIranian Police
Abbreviationفراجا
Mottoكُونُواْ قَوَّامِينَ لِلّهِ شُهَدَاء بِالْقِسْط
"Be steadfast witnesses for Allah in equity" [Quran 5:8] (Heraldry slogan)
Agency overview
FormedApril 1, 1991
Preceding agency
Employees60,000 (including conscripts and reserves)[1]
Jurisdictional structure
National agencyIran
Operations jurisdictionIran
Map of Iran with province borders
Size1,648,195 km2
Population86,758,304 (2022)
Constituting instrument
General nature
Operational structure
Minister responsible
Agency executive
Parent agencyGeneral Staff of Armed Forces
Notables
Anniversary
Website
police.ir

The Law Enforcement Command of the Islamic Republic of Iran,[a] previously known as the Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran[4][5] or Disciplinary Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran,[6][7][b] abbreviated as Faraja (فراجا [fæɾɒːˈd͡ʒɒː]), is the uniformed police force in Iran. The force was created in early 1992 by merging the Shahrbani (شهربانی Šahrbâni), Gendarmerie (ژاندارمری Žândârmeri), and Islamic Revolutionary Committees (کمیته انقلاب اسلامی Komite enghlâb-e eslâmi) into a single force. It has more than 60,000 police personnel, including border guard personnel, and is under the direct control of the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei who is the head of state and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.[8] In 2003, some 400 women became the first female members of the police force since the 1979 Iranian Revolution.[9] The Guidance Patrol, commonly called the "morality police", was a vice squad/Islamic religious police in the Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran, established in 2005 with the task of arresting people who violate the Islamic dress code, usually concerning the wearing by women of hijabs covering their hair.[10][11][12]

History[edit]

Seal of the Imperial Iranian Gendarmerie

The Persian Gendarmerie, also called the Government Gendarmerie (ژاندارمری دولتی), was the first modern highway patrol and rural police force in Persia. A paramilitary force, it also played a significant part in politics from its establishment in 1910 during the Qajar dynasty until the advent of the Pahlavi Iran in 1921. It was active for some time in the Pahlavi era. Nazmiyeh (نظمیه) was also a Law Enforcement force in Persia, with police duties inside cities.

Intensely concerned with matters of internal security in the post-1953 environment, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi authorized the development of one of the most extensive systems of law enforcement agencies in the developing world. The Imperial Iranian Gendarmerie (ژاندارمری شاهنشاهی ایران) and the National Police (Shahrbani شهربانی or Nazmiyeh نظمیه) gained in numbers and responsibilities. The secret police organization, SAVAK, gained special notoriety for its excessive zeal in "maintaining" internal security. But as in the regular armed forces, the shah's management style virtually eliminated all coordination among these agencies. He tended to shuffle army personnel back and forth between their ordinary duties and temporary positions in internal security agencies, in order to minimize the possibility of any organized coups against the throne. Added to this list of institutional shortcomings was the agencies' all-important public image, cloaked in mystery and fear.

Seal of the Islamic Republic of Iran Gendarmerie

After the 1979 Revolution, the gendarmerie, which was renamed to the Islamic Republic of Iran Gendarmerie (ژاندارمری جمهوری اسلامی ایران), was numbering nearly 74,000 in 1979, was subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. Its law enforcement responsibilities extended to all rural areas and to small towns and villages of fewer than 5,000 inhabitants. The International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated its manpower at 70,000 in 1986. The Gendarmerie was dissolved in 1990 and its personnel were assigned to the INP.

The National Police of Iran operated with approximately 200,000 men in 1979, a figure that has not fluctuated much since. The National Police was also under the Ministry of Interior, and its responsibilities included all cities with more than 5,000 in population, at least 20 percent of the population. Additionally, the National Police was responsible for passport and immigration procedures, issuance and control of citizens' identification cards, driver and vehicle licensing and registration, and railroad and airport policing. Some of these duties were absorbed into the Ministry of the Pasdaran during the early years of the Revolution, and cooperation between these two branches seemed extensive.

Since 1979, both these paramilitary organizations have undergone complete reorganizations. IRP leaders quickly appointed Gendarmerie and police officers loyal to the Revolution to revive and reorganize the two bodies under the Islamic Republic. Between 1979 and 1983, no fewer than seven officers were given top National Police portfolios. Colonel Khalil Samimi, appointed in 1983 by the influential Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri, then Minister of Interior, who was credited with reorganizing the National Police according to the IRP's Islamic guidelines. The Gendarmerie followed a similar path. Seven appointments were made between 1979 and 1986, leading to a full reorganization. In addition to Brigadier General Ahmad Mohagheghi, the commander in the early republican period who was executed in late summer of 1980 and five colonels were purged. Colonel Ali Kuchekzadeh played a major role in reorganizing and strengthening the Gendarmerie after its near collapse in the early revolutionary period. The commander in 1987, Colonel Mohammad Sohrabi, had served in that position since February 1985 and was the first top officer to have risen from the ranks.

As of 1987, the National Police and the Gendarmerie reflected the ideology of the state. Despite their valuable internal security operations, the roles of both bodies were restricted by the rising influence of the Sepah and the Basij. The Gendarmerie was disbanded in 1991, along with the National Police and Islamic Revolution Committees; all three of these organizations being merged into the present-day Law Enforcement Force.

Commanders, officers and officials of the Law Enforcement Force of Islamic Republic of Iran met Ayatollah Khamenei, commander and chief of the armed forces, on 8 May 2016.

The Police–110 unit specializes in rapid-response activities in urban areas and dispersing gatherings deemed dangerous to public order. In 2003, some 400 women became the first female members of the police force since the 1978–79 Revolution.[13]

The current commander is IRGC-born Brigadier General Hossein Ashtari, former first deputy chief of police under Esmail Ahmadi Moqaddam; he relieved his predecessor and was appointed by the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei on March 9, 2015.[citation needed]

Per a decree issued by Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, on 8 December 2021 Law Enforcement Force structure was promoted to that of a General Command in 2021, it was thus renamed "Law Enforcement Command of Islamic Republic of Iran".[14][15]

Provincial Security Council[edit]

The Provincial Security Council is the highest provincial security body and is made up of the justice administration chief as well as the provincial police chief; it has the task to manage matters pertaining to security.[16] The council has a provincial jurisdiction charged of managing police issues, ranging from public security issues[17][18][19] to handling of serious criminal cases.[20]

Top organization[edit]

All issues related to the Law Enforcement Force within the framework of the law are entrusted with the Interior Ministry; but in the areas of war, the authority lies with the Deputy Chief Commander of the Joint Forces.[21] Police top officers are directly appointed by the Supreme Leader. Law Enforcement Force also consists of several different provincial deputies. Provincial commanders rank between Colonel[22] and Brigadier General,[23] while provincial branch heads rank Colonel.

Branches[edit]

The Police-110 unit specializes in rapid-response activities in urban areas and dispersing gatherings deemed dangerous to public order. Marine police have 100 inshore patrols and 50 harbor boats.

Tourism Police in Naghsh-i Jahan Square

The Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran has a number of branches, each with specialized duties:

Guidance Patrol[edit]

Guidance Patrol

The Guidance Patrol, widely known as the "morality police",[28] was a vice squad/Islamic religious police in the Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran, established in 2005 and allegedly dissolved in 2022, with the task of arresting people who violated the Islamic dress code, usually concerning the wearing by women of hijabs covering their hair.[29] On December 3, 2022, the Attorney General of Iran, Mohammad Jafar Montazeri, said in Qom that the police guidance patrol is not under the supervision of the judiciary system and it is closed now from where it was begun first.[clarification needed]

Branch seals[edit]

Budget[edit]

Ghavamin Bank was financed by the police pension fund. It controls FARAJA Cooperation Bonyad.

Chiefs of Law Enforcement Force[edit]

No. Portrait Commander-in-Chief Took office Left office Time in office Previous service
1
Mohammad Sohrabi
Sohrabi, MohammadBrigadier general
Mohammad Sohrabi
1 April 199124 September 19921 yearGendarmerie
2
Reza Seifollahi
Seifollahi, RezaBrigadier general
Reza Seifollahi
24 September 199215 February 19974 yearsIslamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
3
Hedayat Lotfian
Lotfian, HedayatBrigadier general
Hedayat Lotfian
15 February 199727 June 20003 yearsIslamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
4
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
Ghalibaf, Mohammad BagherBrigadier general
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
(born 23 August 1961)
27 June 20004 April 20054 yearsIslamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
-
Ali Abdollahi
Abdollahi, AliBrigadier general
Ali Abdollahi
Acting
4 April 20059 July 20052 monthsIslamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
5
Esmail Ahmadi-Moghaddam
Ahmadi-Moghaddam, EsmailBrigadier general
Esmail Ahmadi-Moghaddam
(born 1961)
9 July 20059 March 20159 years, 9 monthsIslamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
6
Hossein Ashtari
Ashtari, HosseinBrigadier general
Hossein Ashtari
(born 1959)
9 March 20159 January 20237 years, 10 monthsIslamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
7
Ahmad-Reza Radan
Radan, Ahmad-RezaBrigadier general
Ahmad-Reza Radan
(born 1963)
9 January 20231 year, 45 daysIslamic Revolutionary Guard Corps

Equipment[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Country Studies. Federal Research Division.
  1. ^ Persian: فرماندهی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران, romanizedFarmândehiye Entezâmiye Jomhuriye Eslâmiye Irân
  2. ^ Persian: نیروی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران, romanizedNiruye Entezâmiye Jomhuriye Eslâmiye Irân, abbreviated as NAJA (ناجا)

References[edit]

  1. ^ فعالیت ٥٠٠هزار نفر از پرسنل نيروي انتظامي برای تامین امنيت ايام نوروز (in Persian). Mehr News Agency. 27 March 2014. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Leader appoints Ashtari as new police chief". Tehran Times. Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  3. ^ روز نیروی انتظامی (in Persian). Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  4. ^ "Police Chief stresses law enforcement forces' good conditions". Archived from the original on 2018-01-12. Retrieved 2014-11-29.
  5. ^ "Photos: Photos: Iranian Police Forces". Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  6. ^ Mohammadi, Majid (13 May 2013). Judicial Reform and Reorganization in 20th Century Iran. ISBN 9781135893422. Archived from the original on 18 December 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  7. ^ "Supreme Leader's Remarks on the Day of Disciplinary Forces". English.irib.ir. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-06-12. Retrieved 2008-07-14.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Text used in this cited section originally came from: Iran (March 2006) profile Archived 2012-01-30 at the Wayback Machine from the Library of Congress Country Studies project.
  10. ^ "UNICEF Iran (Islamic Republic of) – Media centre – Statement by Paul Hulshoff, UNICEF Iran Representative at the opening session of the Seminar on "Police and Justice for Children"". Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  11. ^ "Department of Treasury and State Announce Sanctions of Iranian Security Forces for Human Rights Abuses". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  12. ^ "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  13. ^ "COUNTRY PROFILE: IRAN" (PDF). Lcweb2.loc.gov. May 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  14. ^ "رونمایی از طرح سازمان فرماندهی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران- اخبار پلیس - اخبار اجتماعی تسنیم | Tasnim". Archived from the original on 2021-12-09. Retrieved 2021-12-09.
  15. ^ "Iran's Law Enforcement Shuffle Reflects Concern About Protests". The Washington Institute. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  16. ^ "Tehran officials raise against public flogging". Payvand Iran News. 8 August 2001. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  17. ^ "Film community rallies for Afghan immigrants". Radio Zamaneh. 1 May 2012. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  18. ^ "Iran Report: June 16, 2003". Radio Free Europe. 16 June 2003. Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  19. ^ "IRAN: ANNUAL SURVEY OF VIOLATIONS OF TRADE UNION RIGHTS (2005)". tavaana.org. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  20. ^ "3 Tourists Kidnapped in Iran Are Released". Los Angeles Times. 29 December 2003. Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  21. ^ Fulfilling Promises: A Human Rights Roadmap for Iran's New President (PDF). International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran. 2013. p. 31. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  22. ^ "18 terrorists in southern Iran say they get money for operations". Islamic Republic News Agency. 14 January 2015. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  23. ^ "Commander Underlines Full Security at Iran's Eastern Borders". Farsanews. 26 October 2014. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  24. ^ Niayesh, Umid (27 October 2014). "Iran, Iraq discuss cooperation on border security". Trend. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  25. ^ "Iranian police commander concedes mistakes in 2009 protests". al-Monitor. 2 September 2014. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  26. ^ "Iran police showcase latest anti-riot capabilities". Ashraq al-Awast. 10 October 2014. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  27. ^ "Iran, Iraq to Boost Police Cooperation in Near Future: Police Official". Tasnim News Agency. 18 January 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  28. ^ Ghaedi, Monir (23 September 2022). "Iran's 'morality police:' What do they enforce?". DW.com. Retrieved 25 September 2022. "Gasht-e-Ershad," which translates as "guidance patrols" and is widely known as the "morality police," was a unit of Iran's police forces tasked with enforcing the laws on Islamic dress code in public.
  29. ^ Sharafedin, Bozorgmehr (20 April 2016). "Rouhani clashes with Iranian police over undercover hijab agents". Reuters. Retrieved 12 August 2016.

External links[edit]