Law enforcement in New York City

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Law enforcement in New York City is carried out by numerous law enforcement agencies. New York City has the highest concentration of law enforcement agencies in the United States.

As with the rest of the US, agencies operate at federal and state levels. However, New York City's unique nature means many more operate at lower levels.

Federal government agencies[edit]

United States Coast Guard

State government agencies[edit]

The Government of New York State operates one of the highest numbers of law enforcement agencies in the United States. While their jurisdiction stretches throughout New York City, many functions are duplicated by municipal agencies.

Government departments[edit]

City government agencies[edit]

Members of city law enforcement agencies receive their powers and privileges from the state Criminal Procedure Law in one of three ways:

  • as police officers, under one of the subdivisions of §1.20,
  • as peace officers, under one of the subdivisions of §2.10, or
  • as special patrolmen, under subdivision 27, §2.10.

Designation as a special patrolman is unique to New York City, and is given by the Commissioner of the NYPD under section 14-106 of the New York City Administrative Code in conjunction with the New York State Criminal Procedure Law. This designation provides special patrolmen the same powers and privileges as peace officers while on-duty only, with five exceptions retaining their authority off-duty as well - school safety officers, parking control specialists, taxi and limousine inspectors, urban park rangers and evidence and property control specialists.

Force Parent department Duties Status Amount of Sworn Personnel
New York City Police Department - General law enforcement within and concerning the city police officers Approx. 36,230
New York City Sheriff's Office New York City Department of Finance Primarily civil law enforcement and the investigation of city tax and deed fraud peace officers Approx. 150
New York City Department of Environmental Protection Police New York City Department of Environmental Protection General law enforcement at areas of the city's water supply system police officers Approx. 200
New York City Department of Investigation - The investigation of city governmental corruption & fraud peace officers -
New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission Enforcement - The enforcement of city taxi licensing regulations and traffic laws concerning livery vehicles peace officers -
New York City Department of Homeless Services Police New York City Department of Homeless Services General law enforcement at NYC-DHS facilities peace officers Approx. 380
New York City Department of Sanitation Police New York City Department of Sanitation Primarily the enforcement of city sanitation laws and health code regulations peace officers Approx. 130
New York City Parks Enforcement Patrol New York City Department of Parks and Recreation General law enforcement at NYC Parks Dept. properties special patrolmen Approx. 85
City University of New York Public Safety Department City University of New York General law enforcement at CUNY campuses and facilities peace officers Approx. 715
New York City Fire Department Fire Marshals New York City Fire Department The investigation of fires and arson within the city police officers Approx. 150
New York City Department of Correction - Primarily general law enforcement in city correctional facilities peace officers Approx. 9500
New York City Department of Probation - Probation enforcement peace officers Approx. 780
New York City Police Department School Safety Division New York City Police Department General law enforcement at NYC public schools peace officer Approx. 5000

Since 1942, correction and probation services have been handled by separate agencies, not the sheriff's office,[1] as opposed to the common U.S. practice of these municipal-level services being carried out by sheriffs.

The New York City Marshals, who are independent public officers enforcing civil debt, are not peace officers. New York City Marshals are regulated by the New York City Department of Investigation. [2]

Private agencies[edit]

Uniquely, for the United States, a number of private companies operate their own public safety departments. Their members are either peace officers or special patrolmen and have Peace Officers powers in New York state:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McKinley, Jesse. "F.Y.I.", The New York Times, November 27, 1994. Accessed January 21, 2008. "Established in 1626, the Sheriff's office in Manhattan and its equivalents in the other boroughs served as a major part of the patchwork of law-enforcement agencies that existed before the city's consolidation in 1898. After that, the new New York City Police Department took over the responsibility for criminal investigations and arrests. As recently as 1942, the Sheriff was also responsible for manning and administering the city's jails, a duty now carried by the Department of Correction. Today, the sheriff's primary duties are enforcing court-ordered judgments and fines, including unpaid parking tickets and littering fines, and collecting judgments from reluctant losers in private lawsuits, said John George, the Sheriff's executive assistant. "
  2. ^ "NYC Marshals Handbook". Website of the City of New York Department of Investigation. City of New York. Retrieved 26 April 2014.