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Law enforcement in New York City

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Law enforcement in New York City is carried out by numerous law enforcement agencies. New York City has the highest concentration of law enforcement agencies in the United States.

As with the rest of the US, agencies operate at federal and state levels. However, New York City's unique nature means many more operate at lower levels.

Federal government agencies

State government agencies

The Government of New York State operates one of the highest numbers of law enforcement agencies in the United States. While their jurisdiction stretches throughout New York City, many functions are duplicated by municipal agencies.

Government departments

Bi-state agencies

Patch Force Parent department Duties Titled as Amount of Personnel
Patch of the NY NJ Port Authority Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department Port Authority of New York and New Jersey General law enforcement concerning PA areas NYS police officers Approx. 2200+
n/a Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor Police Waterfront Commission of New York Harbour General law enforcement concerning Harbour/Waterfront Areas unknown unknown

City government agencies

Powers and Authority

Members of New York city law enforcement agencies receive their powers and authority from New York State Criminal Procedure Law in one of two ways:

  • as police officers, under Article 2, §1.20,
  • as peace officers, under Article 2, §2.10, sub 25 and special patrolman, under Article 2, §2.10 sub 27 (note - all special patrolman are classified as, and have the same powers as, peace officers)

Designation as a special patrolman is unique to New York City, and is granted by the Commissioner of the NYPD under section 14-106 of the New York City Administrative Code in conjunction with the New York State Criminal Procedure Law Article 2 Section 2.10 Sub 27. The exercise of these powers is limited to the employee's geographical area of employment and only while such employee is actually on duty as listed in Chapter 13 subsection (C): Special Patrolman,</ref>. New York City Special Patrolman are appointed in connection with special duties of employment, and such designation confers limited Peace Officer powers upon the employee as listed in Chapter 13 subsection (C).

Privatized Public Safety Officers must complete the New York State POST (Peace Officer Standard of Training) to become certified.

List of Agencies

There are at least sixteen City law enforcement agencies (including the FDNY Fire Marshals) and these are listed in the table below.

Patch Force Parent department Duties Type Amount of Personnel Motto
Patch of the New York City Police Department New York City Police Department (NYPD) - General law enforcement concerning New York City police officers[3] Approx. 36,230 New York's Finest
New York City Department of Environmental Protection Police (DEP Police) New York City Department of Environmental Protection General law enforcement at areas of New York City's water supply system police officers[4] Approx. 200
New York City Fire Department Fire Marshals New York City Fire Department (FDNY) The investigation of fires and arson within New York City police officers[5] Approx. 150
New York City Sheriff's Office New York City Department of Finance Primarily civil law enforcement and the investigation New York City tax and deed fraud peace officers[6] Approx. 150
New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission Enforcement (TLC) New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission The enforcement of New York City taxi licensing regulations and traffic laws concerning livery vehicles peace officers (NYC special patrolmen)[7] Approx. 205 New York's Proudest
New York City Department of Homeless Services Police (NYC DHS Police) New York City Department of Homeless Services General law enforcement at NYC-DHS facilities peace officers (NYC special patrolmen)[8] Approx. 380 Policing With Compassion
New York City Human Resources Administration Police Department (NYC HRA Police) New York City Human Resources Administration General law enforcement in NYC Human Resources Administration facilities peace officers (NYC special patrolmen)[9] Approx. 130 New York's Courageous
New York City Department of Sanitation Police (DSNY Police) New York City Department of Sanitation (DSNY) Primarily the enforcement of city sanitation laws and health code regulations peace officers[10] Approx. 80 New York's Strongest
New York City Parks Enforcement Patrol (NYC PEP) New York City Department of Parks and Recreation General law enforcement at NYC Parks Dept.properties peace officers (NYC special patrolmen)[11] Approx. 85
New York City Department of Probation - Provides supervision for people placed on probation in the Supreme, Criminal, and Family courts. peace officers[12] unknown
City University of New York Public Safety Dept. patch City University of New York Public Safety Dept City University of New York (CUNY) General law enforcement at CUNY campuses and facilities peace officers[13] Approx. 715
New York City Department of Investigation (NYC DOI) - The investigation of city governmental corruption & fraud peace officers[14] unknown
New York City Department of Correction (NYCD) - Primarily general law enforcement within and concerning city correctional facilities peace officers[15] Approx. 9500 New York's Boldest
New York City Police Department School Safety Division New York City Police Department (NYPD) General law enforcement at NYC public schools peace officers (NYC special patrolmen)[16] Approx. 5000
New York City Department of Citywide Administrative Services Police New York City Department of Citywide Administrative Services (DCAS) General law enforcement at all NYC Department of Citywide Administrative Services facilities. peace officers (NYC special patrolmen)[17] Approx. 15
New York City Department of Health and Hospitals Police (NHYP) New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (NYC HHC) Security and law enforcement at NYC HHC facilities peace officers[18] Approx. 1250 New York's Courageous Beneficence, Honor, Fidelity
New York City Business Integrity Commission (BIC) New York City Business Integrity Commission regulate the private catering industry, public wholesale markets businesses, and the shipboard gambling industry peace officers[19] over 60 employees
New York City Administration for Children's Services Police New York City Administration for Children's Services Security and law enforcement at NYC ACS facilities peace officers (NYC special patrolmen)[20] unknown

Since 1942, correction and probation services have been handled by separate agencies, not the sheriff's office.[21]

The New York City Marshals, who are independent public officers enforcing civil debt, are not peace officers. New York City Marshals are regulated by the New York City Department of Investigation.[22]

Public Safety Officers

Some areas of New York City have "Public Safety Officers", which are neither totally private (see below) or city government (see above agencies).

  1. The Times Square Alliance has its own Public Safety Officers (PSOs) who act as the 'eyes and ears' for local police.[23] They are unarmed and their motto is: New York's Most Helpful.
  2. The Flatiron 23rd Street Partnership BID has its own Public Safety Officers who act as ambassadors for the area. They patrol in uniform, during the daytime, seven days a week, regardless of weather.[24]

Private agencies

Unique to New York City, a number of private communities and/or entities operate their own public safety agencies, they are New York State Peace Officers with limited authority in New York city).

Patch Force Parent department Duties Title Amount of Personnel
Bay Terrace Public Safety Department Cord Meyer Development LLC - Bay Terrace Shopping Centre Public Safety at Bay Terrace Public Safety -
Big Six Towers Public Safety Department Mitchell-Lama cooperative housing company Public Safety duties at Big Six Towers Public Safety 8
Co-op City Department of Public Safety (CCPD) Co-op City Primarily public safety of residents and visitors in Co-op City special patrolmen Approx. 100+
NY - Hunts Point Public Safety Hunts Point Department of Public Safety (HPPS) Hunts Point Cooperative Market Public Safety at Hunts Point Cooperative Market, protect the people and property of the market, including facilities, storefronts, railways special patrolmen Approx. 20
Morningside Heights Housing Corporation Department of Public Safety (MHHC PSD) Morningside Gardens Ensure the security of all Morningside Gardens residents as well as the protection of Corporation property. Public Safety -
New York Racing Association Peace Officers New York Racing Association responsible for enforcing NYS laws as well as NYRA rules and regulations both on and around NYRA facilities per NYS law special police officers -
Parkchester Department of Public Safety (PDPS) Parkchester, Bronx Public safety of residents and visitors, and commercial buildings in Parkchester Public Safety Approx. 65
Roosevelt Island Public Safety Department (RIPSD) Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation Public safety duties at Roosevelt Island, and the Manhattan and Roosevelt Islands stations of the Roosevelt Island Tramway Public Safety 40
Sea Gate Police Department (SGPD) Seagate Home Association SGPD protect property, citizens and enforce state and city laws inside the community of Sea Gate, Brooklyn public safety officers Approx. 10
Peter Cooper Village Stuyvesant Town Public Safety (PCVST) Stuyvesant Town–Peter Cooper Village PCVST PSD protect property, citizens and enforce state and city laws inside the community public safety officers n/a
Starrett City Department of Public Safety Starrett City Public Safety of residents and property of Spring Creek Towers. public safety officers - 10

Prosecuting attorneys

In New York State, each county has an elected district attorney who is responsible for the prosecution of violations of New York state laws. Federal law in the city of New York is prosecuted by the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York or the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York.

Office Office holder Jurisdiction Duties
Bronx County District Attorney's Office Darcel Clark The Bronx Prosecution of violations of New York state laws
Kings County District Attorney's Office Eric Gonzalez Brooklyn Prosecution of violations of New York state laws
New York County District Attorney's Office Cyrus Vance Jr. Manhattan Prosecution of violations of New York state laws
Queens County District Attorney's Office John M. Ryan Queens, New York Prosecution of violations of New York state laws
Richmond County District Attorney's Office Michael McMahon Staten Island Prosecution of violations of New York state laws
Special Narcotics Prosecutor for the City of New York Bridget G. Brennan New York, Bronx, Kings, Queens, Richmond Prosecution of violations of New York state narcotics laws
U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York Geoffrey Berman New York, Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, Sullivan Prosecution of violations of U.S. federal laws
U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of New York Richard P. Donoghue Kings, Queens, Richmond, Nassau, Suffolk Prosecution of violations of U.S. federal laws

Disbanded agencies

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.usmarshals.gov/district/ny-e/index.html
  2. ^ "Investigations Division - New York State Attorney General". ag.ny.gov.
  3. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 1, §1.30, ss 34(d)
  4. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 1, §1.30, ss 34(o)
  5. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 1, §1.30, ss 34(i)
  6. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 2 and ss 5
  7. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 27
  8. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 27
  9. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 27
  10. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 59
  11. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 27
  12. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 24
  13. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 79
  14. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 38
  15. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 25
  16. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 27
  17. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 27
  18. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 40
  19. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 82
  20. ^ New York State Criminal Procedure Law, Article 2, §2.10, ss 27
  21. ^ McKinley, Jesse. "F.Y.I.", The New York Times, November 27, 1994. Accessed January 21, 2008. "Established in 1626, the Sheriff's office in Manhattan and its equivalents in the other boroughs served as a major part of the patchwork of law-enforcement agencies that existed before the city's consolidation in 1898. After that, the new New York City Police Department took over the responsibility for criminal investigations and arrests. As recently as 1942, the Sheriff was also responsible for manning and administering the city's jails, a duty now carried by the Department of Correction. Today, the sheriff's primary duties are enforcing court-ordered judgments and fines, including unpaid parking tickets and littering fines, and collecting judgments from reluctant losers in private lawsuits, said John George, the Sheriff's executive assistant. "
  22. ^ "NYC Marshals Handbook". Website of the City of New York Department of Investigation. City of New York. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
  23. ^ https://www.timessquarenyc.org/about-the-alliance/public-safety-sanitation/public-safety-department
  24. ^ https://www.flatirondistrict.nyc/bid-programs/public-safety