Law of Jante
The Law of Jante (Danish: Janteloven, IPA: [ˈjand̥əˌloʋˀən]; Norwegian Bokmål: Janteloven, Nynorsk: Jantelova, IPA: [ˈjɑntəˌlɔːvən]; Icelandic: Jantelögin; Swedish: Jantelagen, IPA: [ˈjantɛˌlɑːɡɛn]) is the description of a pattern of group behaviour towards individuals within Scandinavian communities that negatively portrays and criticises individual success and achievement as unworthy and inappropriate. The Jante Law as a concept was created by the Dano-Norwegian author Aksel Sandemose, who, in his novel A Fugitive Crosses His Tracks (En flyktning krysser sitt spor, 1933, English translation published in the USA in 1936), identified the Law of Jante as ten rules. Sandemose's novel portrays the small Danish town Jante (modelled upon his native town Nykøbing Mors as it was at the beginning of the 20th century, but typical of all small towns and communities), where nobody is anonymous.
Generally used colloquially in Denmark and the rest of the Nordic countries as a sociological term to negatively describe a condescending attitude towards individuality and success, the term refers to a mentality that de-emphasises individual effort and places all emphasis on the collective, while discouraging those who stand out as achievers.
There are ten rules in the law as defined by Sandemose, all expressive of variations on a single theme and usually referred to as a homogeneous unit: You are not to think you're anyone special or that you're better than us.
The ten rules state:
- You're not to think you are anything special.
- You're not to think you are as good as we are.
- You're not to think you are smarter than we are.
- You're not to convince yourself that you are better than we are.
- You're not to think you know more than we do.
- You're not to think you are more important than we are.
- You're not to think you are good at anything.
- You're not to laugh at us.
- You're not to think anyone cares about you.
- You're not to think you can teach us anything.
These ten principles or commandments are often claimed to form the "Jante's Shield" of the Scandinavian people.
In the book, the Janters who transgress this unwritten 'law' are regarded with suspicion and some hostility, as it goes against the town's communal desire to preserve harmony, social stability and uniformity.
An eleventh rule recognised in the novel as 'the penal code of Jante' is:
- Perhaps you don't think we know a few things about you?
Sandemose wrote about the working class in the town of Jante, a group of people of the same social position. He expressly stated in later books that the social norms of Jante were universal and not intended to depict any particular town or country. It should be understood that Sandemose was seeking to formulate and describe attitudes that had already been part of the Danish and Norwegian psyche for centuries. Today, however, it is common in Scandinavia to claim the Law of Jante as something quintessentially Danish, Norwegian or Swedish.
Later, the meaning of the Law of Jante was extended to refer to personal criticism of people who want to break out of their social groups and reach a higher position in society in general.
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- Tall poppy syndrome
- Crab-bucket syndrome
- Danish culture
- Norwegian culture
- Swedish culture
- German culture
- Prussian virtues
- Social model
- Scott, Mark (18 December 2003). "Signs of Cracks in the Law of Jante". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
Taken from a book by the Danish author Aksel Sandemose, the concept suggests that the culture within Scandinavian countries discourages people from promoting their own achievements over those of others.
- Translator note, En flygtning krydser sit spor, 2nd ed.
- Adleswärd, Viveka (2 November 2003). "Avundsjukan har urgamla anor" [Jealousy has ancient ancestry]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Andersen, Steen (6 July 1992). "Den løbske Jantelov" [The Runaway Jante Law]. Morsø Folkeblad. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Edwards, William L. (June 15, 2016). "Is Scandinavian 'Socialism' Really A Cause Of Happiness?". Investors Business Daily. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- Sandemose, Aksel (1933). En flyktning krysser sitt spor. Oslo: Aschehoug (Repr. 2005). ISBN 82-03-18914-8
- Sandemose, Aksel (1936). A fugitive crosses his tracks. translated by Eugene Gay-Tifft. New York: A.A. Knopf.
- Koldau, Linda Maria (2013): Jante Universitet. (Jante University). Vol. 1: Den skønne facade (The Beautiful Facade); Vol. 2: Uddannelseskatastrofen (Educational Disaster); Vol. 3: Totalitære strukturer (Totalitarian Structures). Hamburg: Tredition. ISBN 978-3-8495-0351-2 (Vol. 1); ISBN 978-3-8495-0350-5 (Vol. 2); ISBN 978-3-8495-0266-9 (Vol. 3). In Danish language.
- Koldau, Linda Maria (2013): Educational Disaster. The Destruction of Our Universities: The Danish Case. (abridged English version of Jante Universitet containing the most important analyses and a chapter on Jante Law mentality in Danish education). Hamburg: Tredition (forthcoming). ISBN 978-3-8495-4936-7. In English language.
- Steffen, Juliane (2011): "Hjem til Jante" (Home to Jante), concise analysis of the mechanisms of Jante Law at Danish universities, published in: Linda Maria Koldau: Jante Universitet. Vol. 2: Uddannelseskatastrofen. Hamburg: Tredition, 2013, pp. 464–466. ISBN 978-3-8495-0350-5 (Vol. 2). In Danish language.
Andersen, Steen: Nye forbindelser. Pejlinger i Aksel Sandemoses forfatterskab. Vordingborg: Attika, 2015. ISBN 978-87-7528-8700. In Danish Language.