New Lawton City Hall
Location in the state of Oklahoma
|Founded||August 6, 1901|
|Named for||Henry Ware Lawton|
|• Mayor||Fred L. Fitch|
|• City council|
|• City||81.0 sq mi (210 km2)|
|• Land||81.0 sq mi (210 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2)|
|Elevation||1,112 ft (339 m)|
|• Estimate (2013)||97,151|
|• Rank||US: 304th|
|• Density||1,195.4/sq mi (461.5/km2)|
|• Urban||94,457 (US: 312th)|
|• Metro||131,089 (US: 300th)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||1094539|
|Website||City of Lawton|
The city of Lawton (Pawnee: Raaríhtaaruʾ) is the county seat of Comanche County, in the State of Oklahoma. Located in southwestern Oklahoma, about 87 mi (140 km) southwest of Oklahoma City, it is the principal city of the Lawton, Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the 2010 census, Lawton's population was 96,867, making it the fifth-largest city in the state.
Built on former reservation lands of Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Indians, Lawton was founded on August 6, 1901, and was named after Major General Henry Ware Lawton, a Civil War Medal of Honor recipient who was killed in action in the Philippine–American War. Lawton's landscape is typical of the Great Plains, with flat topography and gently rolling hills, while the area north of the city is marked by the Wichita Mountains.
The city's proximity to Fort Sill Military Reservation gave Lawton economic and population stability in the region throughout the 20th century. Although Lawton's economy is still largely dependent on Fort Sill, it has also grown to encompass manufacturing, higher education, health care, and retail. The city's government is run by a council-manager government consisting of a city manager and a city council headed by a mayor. Interstate 44 and three major United States highways serve the city, while Lawton-Fort Sill Regional Airport connects Lawton by air. Recreation can be found at the city's many parks, lakes, museums, and festivals. Notable residents of the city include many musical and literary artists, as well as several professional athletes.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy and workforce
- 5 Arts and culture
- 6 Sports
- 7 Parks and recreation
- 8 Government
- 9 Education
- 10 Media
- 11 Infrastructure
- 12 Notable people
- 13 Sister city
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The land that is present-day Oklahoma was first settled by prehistoric American Indians including the Clovis 11500 BCE, Folsom 10600 BCE and Plainview 10000 BCE cultures. Western explorers came to the region in the 16th century, with Spanish explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado visiting in 1541. Most of the region during this time was settled by the Wichita and Caddo peoples. Around the 1700s, two tribes from the north, the Comanches and Kiowas, migrated to the Oklahoma and Texas region.
For most of the 18th century, the Oklahoma region was under French control as Louisiana. In 1803, the Louisiana Purchase by Thomas Jefferson brought the area under United States control. In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which removed American Indian tribes and relocated them to Indian Territory. The southern part of the territory was originally assigned to the Choctaw and Chickasaw until 1867, when the Medicine Lodge Treaty allotted the southwest portion of the Choctaw and Chickasaw’s lands to the Comanche, Kiowa, and Apache tribes.
Fort Sill was established in 1869 by Major General Philip Sheridan, who was leading a campaign in the Indian Territory to stop raids into Texas by American Indian tribes. In 1874, the Red River War broke out in the region when the Comanche, Kiowa, and Southern Cheyenne left their Indian Territory reservation. Attrition and skirmishes by the US Army finally forced the return of the tribes back to Indian Territory in June 1875.
In 1891, the United States Congress appointed a commission to meet with the tribal leaders and come to an agreement allowing white settlement. Years of controversy and legal maneuvering ensued before President William McKinley issued a proclamation on July 4, 1901, that gave the federal government control over 2,000,000 acres (8,100 km2) of surplus Indian land.
Three 320-acre sites in Kiowa, Caddo and Comanche Counties were selected for county seats, with Lawton designated as the Comanche County seat. The town was named for Major General Henry W. Lawton, a quartermaster at Fort Sill, who had taken part in the pursuit and capture of Geronimo. The city was opened to settlement through an auction of town lots beginning on August 6, 1901, which was completed 60 days later. By September 25, 1901, the Rock Island Railroad expanded to Lawton and was soon joined by the Frisco Line. The first city elections were held October 24, 1901.
The United States' entry into World War I accelerated growth at Fort Sill and Lawton. The availability of 5 million US gallons (19,000 m3) of water from Lake Lawtonka, just north of Fort Sill, provided the motivation for the War Department to establish a major cantonment named Camp Doniphan, which was active until 1922. Following World War II, Lawton enjoyed steady population growth, with the population increasing from 18,055 to 34,757 from 1940 to 1950. By the 1960s, it had reached 61,697.
Lawton underwent tremendous growth during the late 1940s and 1950s, leading city officials to seek additional water sources to supplement existing water from Lake Lawtonka. In the late 1950s, the city purchased large parcels of land along East Cache Creek in northern Comanche County for the construction of a man-made lake with a dam built in 1959 on the creek just north of U.S. 277 west of Elgin. Lake Ellsworth, named for a former Lawton mayor and soft-drink bottler C.R. Ellsworth, was dedicated in the early 1960s, and not only offered additional water resources, but also recreational opportunities and flood control along Cache Creek.
In 1966, the Lawton City Council annexed several miles of land on the city's east, northeast, west, and northwest borders, expanding east beyond the East Cache Creek area and west to 82nd Street. On March 1, 1964, the north section of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike was completed, connecting Lawton directly to Oklahoma City. The south section of the turnpike leading to the Texas border was completed on April 23, 1964. Urban renewal efforts in the 1970s transformed downtown Lawton. A number of buildings dating back to the city's founding were demolished to build an enclosed shopping mall.
On June 23, 1998, the city expanded when Lawton annexed neighboring Fort Sill. With the advent of the Base Realignment and Closure of 2005 increasing the size of Fort Sill, Lawton is expected to see continued population and economic growth over the course of the next 20 years.
Lawton is located at  Lawton is located about 84 mi (135 km) southwest of Oklahoma City. Other surrounding cities include Wichita Falls about 47 mi (76 km) to the south, Duncan about 33 mi (53 km) to the east, and Altus about 56 mi (90 km) to the west.(34.604444, −98.395833). The city has a total area of 75.1 sq mi (195 km2), all of it land.
Lawton lies in an area typical of the Great Plains, with prairie, few trees, and flat topography with gently rolling hills. The region north of the city consists of the Wichita Mountains, including Mount Scott and Mount Pinchot, the area's highest peaks. The area consists mostly of Permian Post Oak Conglomerate limestone on the northern sections of the city. In the south sections of the city, Permian Garber sandstone is commonly found with some Hennessey Group shale. Area creeks including East Cache Creek contain deposits of Quaternary alluvium. To the northwest, the Wichita Mountains consist primarily of Wichita Granite Group from the Cambrian era.
Lawton lies in a dry subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with frequent variations in weather daily, except during the constantly hot and dry summer months. Frequent strong winds, usually from the south or south-southeast during the summer, help to lessen the hotter weather. Northerly winds during the winter can occasionally intensify cold periods.
The average mean temperature for the southwest Oklahoma is 61.9 °F (16.6 °C). The summers can be extremely hot; Lawton averages 21 days with temperatures 100 °F (37.8 °C) and above. The winter months are typically mild, though periods of extreme cold can occur. Lawton averages eight days that fail to rise above freezing. The city receives about 31.6 inches (800 mm) of precipitation and less than 3 in (80 mm) of snow annually.
Lawton is located squarely in area known as Tornado Alley and is prone to severe weather from late April through early June. Most notably, an F4 tornado in 1957, and an F3 tornado in 1979 struck the southern region of the city.
|Climate data for Lawton, Oklahoma. (Elevation 1,150ft)|
|Record high °F (°C)||85
|Average high °F (°C)||51.8
|Average low °F (°C)||27.1
|Record low °F (°C)||−11
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.19
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||1.4
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||4.2||4.3||6.2||6.1||7.8||7.3||4.7||5.6||6.3||5.7||4.9||4.3||67.4|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.3||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.7|
|Source: The Western Regional Climate Center|
|U.S. Decennial Census
As of the census of 2010, 96,867 people, 34,901 households, and 22,508 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,195.4 people per square mile (461.5/km²). The 39,409 housing units averaged 486.3 per square mile (187.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 60.3% White, 21.4% African American, 4.7% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 3.4% from other races, and 4.9% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 12.6% (7.8% Mexican, 2.8% Puerto Rican, 0.3% Panamanian).
Of the 34,901 households, 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.5% were not families. Of all households, 29.4% were made up of individuals, and 2.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.08.
In the city, the population was distributed as 24.9% under the age of 18, 15.3% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $41,566, and for a family was $50,507. Males had a median income of $36,440 versus $31,825 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,655. About 16.6% of families and 19.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.5% of those under age 18 and 4.9% of those age 65 or over.
In 2010, the Lawton MSA had a violent crime rate of 771.7 incidents per 100,000 people, compared to a rate of 479.5 in Oklahoma as a whole and 403.6 nationwide. The property crime rate for 2010 was 4,964.6 incidents per 100,000 people, compared to an average of 3,415.5 in Oklahoma and 2,941.9 nationally. In 2013, Lawton was ranked the eighth-most dangerous city in the United States for women.
Economy and workforce
Lawton is primarily centered on government, manufacturing, and retail trade industries. Lawton MSA ranks fourth in Oklahoma with a gross domestic product of $4.2 billion produced in 2008, with a majority ($2.1 billion) in the government sector. Fort Sill is the largest employer in Lawton, with over 5,000 full-time employees. In the private sector, the largest employer is Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company with 2,400 full-time employees. Major employers in the Lawton area also include: Lawton Public Schools, Comanche County Memorial Hospital, City of Lawton, Cameron University, and Assurant Solutions. Lawton includes two major industrial parks. One is located in the southwest region of town, while the second is located near the Lawton-Fort Sill Regional Airport.
At present, the city of Lawton is undertaking the Downtown Revitalization Project. Its goal is to redesign the areas between Elmer Thomas Park at the north through Central Mall to the south to be more visually appealing and pedestrian friendly to encourage business growth in the area.
Lawton had 35,374 employed civilians as of the 2010 Census, and of them, 49.1% were female. Of the civilian workers, 21,842 (61.7%) were private for-profit wage and salary workers. Of the for-profit wage and salary workers, 659 (1.9% of the total Lawton civilian workforce) were employees of their own corporations. The nonprofit sector had 2,571 (7.3%) private nonprofit wage and salary workers. The government sector included 4,713 (13.3%) federal workers, 2,545 (7.2%) state government workers, and 2,160 (6.1%) local government workers. In addition, the city had 1,634 (4.6%) self-employed workers and unpaid family workers.
Arts and culture
Events and festivals
Lawton is home to many annual attractions, including the annual Prince of Peace Easter passion play held in the Holy City in the Wichita Mountain Refuge each year on Palm Sunday and continues to Easter Eve. It continues to be one of the longest-running Easter passion plays in the nation and was the basis for the 1949 movie The Prince of Peace. In May, Lawton Arts for All, Inc hosts the Arts for All Festival. The festival accommodates several judged art competitions, as well as live entertainment. The festival is typically held at Shepler Park. In late September, Lawton hosts The International Festival. Founded in 1979, the event showcases the many different culture, arts, and music of the community. i
Lawton has three museums open to the public. The Museum of the Great Plains is dedicated to natural history and early settlement of the Great Plains. Outdoor exhibits include a replica of the Red River Trading Post, the original Blue Beaver schoolhouse, and Elgin Train Depot with a Frisco locomotive. The Fort Sill Museum, located on the current military base of the same name, includes the old Fort Sill corral and several period buildings, including the old post guardhouse, chapel, and barracks, as well as several artillery pieces. The old fort is also listed as a National Historic Landmark. The Comanche National Museum and Cultural Center, operated by the Comanche Nation Tribe, focuses on exhibits and art relating to the Comanche culture past and present. The museum also hosts traveling American Indian exhibitions from the Smithsonian Institution, Michigan State University Museum, and Chicago's Field Museum.
Lawton is home to Cameron University, which is a NCAA Division II school in the Lone Star Conference. Noted for winning the NAIA Football National Championship in 1987, the school currently does not have a football program. However, Cameron remains competitive in 10 varsity sports, including Men's and Women's Basketball, Baseball, and Softball.
Lawton was the former home to the Lawton-Fort Sill Cavalry. The Cavalry moved in 2007 from Oklahoma City to Lawton, where they won two Continental Basketball Association championships and a Premier Basketball League championship. In 2011, the Cavalry ceased operations in their second year in the PBL.
Parks and recreation
Lawton is home to 80 parks and recreation areas in varying sizes, including the largest Elmer Thomas Park. Along with the park system, the city is near three major lakes, Lake Lawtonka, Lake Ellsworth, and Elmer Thomas Lake, where boating, swimming, camping, and fishing are permitted. The Lawton branch of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) offers a wide variety of recreational programs to members, and the Lawton Country Club maintains an 18-hole, par 71 golf course. Recreation can also be found in many amateur leagues, including: adult softball, youth baseball, soccer, softball, and volleyball.
Northwest of the city is the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge, managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service to preserve the natural fauna of southwest Oklahoma. The refuge includes a Visitor Center, several camping areas, hiking trails, and many lakes for the public to explore.
|Mayor||Fred L. Fitch|
|Ward 1||Bob Morford|
|Ward 2||Keith Jackson|
|Ward 3||Rosemary Bellino-Hall|
|Ward 4||Jay Burk|
|Ward 5||Dwight Tanner, Jr|
|Ward 6||Richard Zarle|
|Ward 7||Stanley Haywood|
|Ward 8||Doug Wells|
Lawton uses the council-manager model of municipal government. The city's primary authority resides in the City Council, which approves ordinances, resolutions, and contracts. The city is divided into eight wards, with each ward electing a single city council representative for a three-year term. The mayor, who is elected every three years, presides and sets the agenda of the City Council, but is primarily ceremonial as a head of government. The administrative day-to-day operation of the city is headed by the City Manager, who is appointed by the City Council. As of March 2013, the Mayor of Lawton was Fred L. Fitch and the City Manager was Bryan Long.
At the federal level, Lawton lies in Oklahoma 4th Congressional District, represented by Tom Cole. In the State Senate, Lawton is in District 31 (Don Barrington) and 32 (Randy Bass). In the House, District 62 (T.W. Shannon), 63 (Don Armes), and 64 (Ann Coody) cover the city.
Cameron University is the largest four-year, state-funded university in southwest Oklahoma, offering more than 50 degree programs in areas of Business, Education, Liberal Arts, and Science and Technology. Founded in 1909, Cameron has an average fall enrollment of 6,000 students with 70 endowed faculty positions. Other colleges in Lawton include Comanche Nation College. Founded in 2004, the college provides lower-division programs and educational opportunities in higher education for the Comanche Nation and the public.
Lawton is also served by the Great Plains Technology Center, which is part of the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education system. Great Plains provides occupational education, training, and development opportunities to area residents.
Primary and secondary schools
Lawton Public Schools serves most of the city of Lawton. The district operates two prekindergarten centers, 24 elementary schools, four middle schools, and three high schools – Eisenhower, Lawton, and MacArthur. In 2008, Lawton Public Schools had an enrollment of about 16,000 students with about 1,000 teachers. Two independent districts, Bishop and Flower Mound, serve portions of Lawton. Bishop operates a single PK-6 elementary campus and Flower Mound has a PK-8 campus. Secondary students living in these districts attend Lawton Public Schools. A small portion of far-west Lawton is served by Cache Public Schools.
Other schools in Lawton include St. Mary's Catholic School, which has both elementary and middle schools. St. Mary's has served the greater Lawton area and the Fort Sill community for over 100 years and offers accredited Catholic education for grades pre-K through eighth grade. Trinity Christian Academy, Lawton Academy of Arts & Science, and Lawton Christian School are three other private schools. Trinity Christian Academy offers classes from K-3 through the eighth grade. Lawton Academy of Arts & Science, and Lawton Christian has the city's only two private independent high schools. Lawton Christian, founded in 1976, offers education from prekindergarten through the 12th grade, and has a student body of 426 students.
The Lawton Constitution, the only daily newspaper published in Lawton, has a circulation of 30,000. In addition, the Fort Sill newspaper, The Cannoneer, is published weekly primarily for military personnel, as well as the newspaper The Cameron Collegian, whose main audience is Cameron University students. Additionally, Okie Magazine is a monthly magazine that focuses on news and entertainment in the Southwest Oklahoma area.
Radio stations in Lawton include, two AM Stations, KXCA 1050 and KKRX 1380, and 15 FM stations, including, NPR affiliate KCCU 89.3, KFXI 92.1, KZCD 94.1, KMGZ 95.3, KJMZ 97.9, KLAW 101.3, and KVRW 107.3
Lawton is located in the Wichita Falls and Lawton media market, which encompasses 154,450 households with television, making it the 149th-largest in the nation according to Nelson Media Research in 2009-2010. KSWO-TV channel 7, an ABC affiliate, is the only broadcast television station in the Lawton area that provides local news. All other major stations, including KFDX-TV 3 (NBC), KAUZ-TV (CBS), and KJTL-TV (Fox) are based in Wichita Falls.
Lawton is primarily served by Interstate 44, designated as the H. E. Bailey Turnpike. It connects the city to Oklahoma City to the northeast and to Wichita Falls, Texas, to the south. The city is also connected by US Highway 62, which connects to the regional towns of Altus to the west and Anadarko to the north. Other major thoroughfares include US Highway 277 and 281, which parallels the H. E. Bailey Turnpike to Wichita Falls to the south and leads to regional towns of Anadarko and Chickasha, respectively, to the north, and OK-7, which connects Lawton to Duncan.
Lawton Area Transit System (LATS) provides public transit for both Lawton and Fort Sill. Founded in 2002, LATS had a ridership of 427,088 in 2009, and provides five major routes throughout the city.
By air, Lawton is served by the Lawton-Fort Sill Regional Airport (LAW, KLAW). At present, it offers daily American Eagle flights to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, and is also used for military transport.
Lawton has three major hospitals in the area. The largest, Comanche County Memorial Hospital, is a 283-bed nonprofit hospital that employs 250 physicians. Southwestern Medical Center is a 199-bed hospital with a staff of 150 physicians. In addition, the US Public Health Lawton Indian Hospital is located in the city to provide health services for the large American Indian population. It has 26 beds with a staff of 23 physicians.
Notable musicians from Lawton include country singers Bryan White, Kelly Willis, and Leon Russell, and Grammy nominated jazz trombonist Conrad Herwig. Notable authors include Pulitzer Prize-winning author N. Scott Momaday, poet Don Blanding, Hugo Award-winning science fiction writer C. J. Cherryh christian fiction author Cheryl Wolverton and animator Stephen Hillenburg.
Among the prominent political leaders from Lawton are: US Senator Thomas Gore, US Representatives Scott Ferris, L. M. Gensman, Elmer Thomas, Speaker of the Oklahoma House of Representatives T.W. Shannon, Democratic State Senator Randy Bass and former US Ambassador to Czechoslovakia Julian Niemczyk (born on Fort Sill).
Gregory A. Miller, an attorney and a Republican member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from St. Charles Parish, was born at Fort Sill in 1962, where his father, Ralph R. Miller, was stationed. Ralph Miller was a state representative from St. Charles Parish from 1968 to 1980 and 1982 to 1992.
Other notable residents
Other notable Lawton residents include WWII Comanche code talker Charles Chibitty, Academy Award-winning actress Joan Crawford, WWII ace Robert S. Johnson, three-time NBA champion Stacey King, former NBA All-Star Michael Ray Richardson, Miss America 2007 Lauren Nelson, infamous University of Oklahoma quarterback Charles Thompson, NFL Pro Bowlers Will Shields Jammal Brown, 2006 contender, champion boxer Grady Brewer, Buffalo Bisons manager Marty Brown (baseball), and IFBB professional bodybuilder Vickie Gates.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-08-30.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-08-30.
- American Fact Finder. "Geographic Identifiers". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- Geographic Names Information System (December 18, 1979). "Lawton". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- "AISRI Dictionary Database Search--prototype version. "River", Southband Pawnee". American Indian Studies Research Institute. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
- National Association of Counties. "Places in Comanche County, OK". Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- Savage, Cynthia, "Lawton," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. "Lawton" (accessed June 17, 2010).
- US Census Bureau. "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Oklahoma's 2010 Census Population Totals". Retrieved 2010-04-03.
- Lawton Ft. Sill Economic Development Team. "Major Employers". Retrieved 2010-05-15.
- "Gross Domestic Product by Metropolitan Area". Retrieved 2010-05-19.
- Oklahoma Department of Libraries. "Oklahoma Almanac 2005 - Oklahoma History" (PDF). pp. 687–691. Retrieved 2011-04-25.
- Kappler, Charles (1903). Indian Affairs: Laws and treaties, Volume 2. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 755.
- Fort Sill, Globalsecurity.org (accessed May 23, 2010).
- Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, 187 U.S. 553 (1903).
- Kappler, Charles (1904). Indian Affairs: Laws and treaties, Volume 1. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 1012.
- The California Military Museum. "Major-General Henry Ware Lawton, U.S. Volunteers". Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- Kutchta, Howard (2001). Lawton, a centennial history, 1901-2001. Bell Books. p. 7,8.
- Kutchta, p.10
- Kutchta, p.15
- Kutchta p. 28
- "Historical Census Population; City by County 1890 to 2000" (PDF). Oklahoma Department of Commerce. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
- Kutchta, p.72
- Official State Highway Map (Map) (1954 ed.). Oklahoma Department of Transportation.
- Official State Highway Map (Map) (1975 ed.). Oklahoma Department of Transportation.
- Oklahoma Turnpike Authority. "History". Retrieved 2011-09-27.
- Kutchta, p.100
- "U.S. Gazetteer Files". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
- Official State Highway Map (Map) (2009 ed.). Oklahoma Department of Transportation.
- "Oklahoma's Climate: an Overview" (PDF). University of Oklahoma. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
- US Fish and Wildlife Service. "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 2010-05-28.
- Oklahoma Geological Survey. "Reconnaissance of the Water Resources of the Lawton Quadrangle, Southwestern Oklahoma" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-26.
- "Climatography of the United States NO. 20 1971−2000: Lawton, OK" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- Rodger Edwards, Storm Prediction Center. "Tornado Climatology". Retrieved 2010-05-29.
- National Weather Service - Norman. "Comanche County, OK Tornadoes (1875–2009)". Retrieved 2010-05-28.
- "Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Information". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved August 30, 2014.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Table 6 Violent Crime in United States 2010". Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Table 1 Crime in the United States 2010". Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Table 5 Crime in the United States 2010". Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- Lawton women react to national ranking. KSWO (Posted: Apr 30, 2012)
- Lawton Ft. Sill Economic Development Team. "Lawton Municipal Airport". Retrieved 2010-05-15.
- City of Lawton Oklahoma. "Downtown Revitalization Plan". Retrieved 2010-05-15.
- City of Lawton Oklahoma. "Downtown Lawton Actions" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-15.
- "S2408 - Class of Worker by Sex and Median Earnings in the Past 12 Months (In 2010 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) for the Civilian Employed Population 16 Years and Over - Lawton, Oklahoma". US Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- The Holy City of the Wichitas. "About Us". Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- The Internet Movie Database. "The Lawton Story". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Arts for All Lawton. "AFA Festival". Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- Kutchta, p.98
- City of Lawton Oklahoma. "International Festival". Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- Museum of the Great Plains. "Museum of the Great Plains Educators". Retrieved 2011-04-07.
- Museum of the Great Plains. "Museum of the Great Plains Outdoor Exhibits". Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- Fort Sill Historical Landmark Museum. "Museum History". Retrieved 2010-11-11.
- National Park Service. "National Historic Landmarks Program - Fort Sill". Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- Comanche Nation Museum. "About the Museum". Retrieved 2011-04-05.
- National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics. "Championship Records" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- Cameron Office of Sports Information. "Sports Information". Retrieved 2011-04-03.
- "CBA Cavalry finds a home; Lawton steps up". The Daily Oklahoman. 2007-07-10.
- Nick Livingston (2010-04-29). "Consistency key to Cavalry's title success". The Lawton Constitution.
- KSWO. "Lawton-Fort Sill Cavs suspend operations". Retrieved 2011-04-26.[dead link]
- City of Lawton Oklahoma. "Parks & Grounds". Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- City of Lawton Oklahoma. "Lakes Division". Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- Lawton Family YMCA. "LFY Our Cause". Retrieved 2011-09-27.
- Lawton Country Club. "Course Information". Retrieved 2011-04-27.
- City of Lawton Oklahoma. "Sports&Aquatics". Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- US Fish & Wildlife Service. "Frequently Asked Questions - Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge". Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- City of Lawton Oklahoma. "Mayor/Council". Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- Lawton, Oklahoma, Municipal Code art. C-2-2 (accessed 2011-03-30)
- Lawton, Oklahoma, Municipal Code art. C-3-2(accessed 2011-03-30)
- "Long begins tenure as new city manager". The Lawton Constitution. 2013-03-10.
- Comanche County of Oklahoma. "Board of Commissioners". Retrieved 2010-05-15.
- "2002 Congressional Districts". Oklahoma House of Senate. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
- "Senate District 31" (PDF). Oklahoma Senate. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
- "Senate District 32" (PDF). Oklahoma Senate. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
- "Stillwater Lawton Enid House Districts Map" (PDF). Oklahoma House of Representatives. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
- Cameron University. "Academic Information". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Cameron University. "CU Fast Facts". Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- Comanche Nation College. "Mission Purpose". Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Comanche Nation College. "History and the Comanche Nation College" (PDF). p. 3.
- Great Plain Technology Center. "About GPTC". Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- Lawton Public Schools. "Schools". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- National Center for Educational Statistics. "District details for Lawton". Retrieved 2011-04-04.
- Comanche County Oklahoma. "School Districts". Retrieved 2011-04-27.
- St. Mary's Catholic School of Lawton. "Home". Retrieved 2011-04-25.
- Trinity Christian Academy. "Student Application". Retrieved 2011-04-04.
- Lawton Christian Schools. "About Us". Retrieved 2010-05-14.
- Lawton Fort Sill Chamber of Commerce. "City Services". Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- MondoTimes. "Okie Magazine". Retrieved 2010-11-11.
- Nelson Media. "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- KSWO-TV. "About KSWO-TV". Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- Official State Highway Map (Map) (2010 ed.). Oklahoma Department of Transportation.
- "2010 Directory of Public Transportation in Oklahoma" (PDF). Oklahoma Department of Transportation. pp. 20–21. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Lawton Area Transit System. "RIDE LATS". Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- Lawton Metropolitan Area Airport Authority. "American/American Eagle Airlines". Retrieved 2011-04-03.
- AirNav. "Lawton-Fort Sill Regional Airport". Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- "About US". Comanche County Memorial Hospital. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- Capella Healthcare. "Lawton, Ok". Retrieved 2011-04-27.
- Indian Health Services. "Lawton Service Unit". Retrieved 2011-04-03.
- Bryan White. "About Bryan White". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- The Internet Movie Database. "Kelly Willis (I)". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Country Music Television. "Leon Russell". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Conrad Herwig. "Press Materials". Retrieved 2011-04-25.
- Chancellor, Jennifer (February 16, 2010). "In his element: Drozd in tune as a master teacher" (PDF). Tulsa World (Tulsa Oklahoma). Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Oklahoma State Digital Library. "MOMADAY, N. SCOTT". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Goins, Charles; Goble, Danney and Morris, John W. (2006). Historical Atlas of Oklahoma. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 232.
- Oklahoma State Digital Library. "CHERRY, CAROLINE JANICE". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "Gore, Thomas Pryor". Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "Ferris, Scott". Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "Gensman, Lorraine Michael". Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "Thomas, John William Elmer". Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Michael McNutt (January 9, 2013). "T.W. Shannon, of Lawton, officially takes Oklahoma House speaker's post". The Oklahoman. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- Oklahoma State Senate. "Senator Randy Bass - District 32". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- The Notable Names Database. "Julian M. Niemczyk". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- "Mary Sparacello, St. Charles Parish-based 56th Louisiana House district draws trio of hopefuls, September 28, 2011". New Orleans Times-Picayune. Retrieved August 26, 2013.
- Holley, Joe (July 26, 2005). "Comanche Code Talker Charles Chibitty Dies". The Washington Post (Washington DC). Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. "CRAWFORD, JOAN". Retrieved 2011-04-03.
- Air University. "Robert S. Johnson". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Basketball Reference. "Stacey King NBA & ABA Statistics". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- "Where is Micheal Ray Richardson?". 2011-08-17.
- The Internet Movie Database. "Lauren Nelson". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- "SPORTS PEOPLE: FOOTBALL; Thompson Released". The New York Times (New York City, NY). February 16, 1989. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
- Nebraska Athletics Official Web Site. "Retired Jersey: #75". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- Pro Football Reference. "Jammal Brown". Retrieved 2011-03-20.
- BoxRec. "Grady Brewer". Retrieved 2011-03-20.
- City of Lawton Oklahoma. "About Lawton". Retrieved 2010-05-30.