Jump to content

Lazarus taxon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The takahē of New Zealand had not been seen since 1898 when it was 'rediscovered' in 1948.

In paleontology, a Lazarus taxon (plural taxa) is a taxon that disappears for one or more periods from the fossil record, only to appear again later. Likewise in conservation biology and ecology, it can refer to species or populations that were thought to be extinct, and are rediscovered.[1] The term Lazarus taxon was coined by Karl W. Flessa and David Jablonski in 1983 and was then expanded by Jablonski in 1986.[2] Paul Wignall and Michael Benton defined Lazarus taxa as, "At times of biotic crisis many taxa go extinct, but others only temporarily disappeared from the fossil record, often for intervals measured in millions of years, before reappearing unchanged".[3] Earlier work also supports the concept though without using the name Lazarus taxon, like work by Christopher R. C. Paul.[4]

The term refers to the story in the Christian biblical Gospel of John, in which Jesus Christ raised Lazarus from the dead.

Potential explanations[edit]

Lazarus taxa are observational artifacts that appear to occur either because of (local) extinction, later resupplied, or as a sampling artifact. The fossil record is inherently sporadic (only a very small fraction of organisms become fossilized, and an even smaller fraction are discovered before destruction) and contains gaps not necessarily caused by extinction, particularly when the number of individuals in a taxon is very low.

After mass extinctions, such as the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the Lazarus effect occurred for many taxa. However, there appears to be no link with the abundance of fossiliferous sites and the proportion of Lazarus taxa, and no missing taxa have been found in potential refuges. Therefore, reappearance of Lazarus taxa probably reflects the rebound after a period of extreme rarity during the aftermath of such extinctions.[5]

Related but distinct concepts[edit]

Lazarus taxa and other ghost lineages reflect the sporadic nature of the fossil record.

An Elvis taxon is a look-alike that has supplanted an extinct taxon through convergent evolution.

A zombie taxon is a taxon that contains specimens that have been collected from strata younger than the extinction of the taxon. Later such fossils turn out to be freed from the original seam and refossilized in a younger sediment. For example, a trilobite that gets eroded out of its Cambrian-aged limestone matrix, and reworked into Miocene-aged siltstone.

A ghost lineage is a pronounced gap in time for the fossil record of a group, indicating that the group continued evolving throughout the gap, without direct fossil evidence from within the gap. Lazarus taxa are a type of ghost lineage where extinction was originally assumed to occur within the gap, only for younger fossils or surviving members of the group to indicate otherwise.

A living fossil is an extant taxon that appears to have changed so little compared with fossil remains, that it is considered identical. Living fossils may occur regularly in the fossil record, such as the lampshell Lingula, though the living species in this genus are not identical to fossil brachiopods.[6]

Other living fossils however are also Lazarus taxa if these have been missing from the fossil record for substantial periods of time, such as applies for coelacanths.

Finally, the term "Lazarus species" is applied to organisms that have been rediscovered as being still alive after having been widely considered extinct for years, without ever having appeared in the fossil record. In this last case, the term Lazarus taxon is applied in neontology.

Reappearing fossil taxa[edit]

From Quaternary (2.6 to 0 million years ago)[edit]

Chacoan peccary
  • Bush dog (Speothos venaticus), last surviving species of the genus Speothos; first described as an extinct taxon in 1842 by Peter Wilhelm Lund, based on fossils uncovered from Brazilian caves; Lund found and described living specimens in 1843 without realizing they were of the same species as the fossils, dubbing the living bush dogs as members of the genus "Icticyon"; this was not corrected until some time in the 20th century.[7]
  • Chacoan peccary (Catagonus wagneri), last surviving species of the genus Catagonus; believed to be the closest living relative to the extinct genus Platygonus. First described as extinct in 1930 as fossils; live specimens found in 1974.[8]
  • False killer whale, first described by the British paleontologist and biologist Richard Owen based on a skull discovered in 1843 found in Stamford, Lincolnshire in England and dated to the Middle Pleistocene around 126,000 years ago. The first carcasses washed up on the shores of Kiel Bay in Denmark in 1861; until this point the species was thought to be extinct.
  • Bulmer's fruit bat (Aproteles bulmerae), originally described from a Pleistocene garbage pile, it was subsequently discovered alive elsewhere in its native New Guinea.[9]
  • The arboreal chinchilla rats (Cuscomys spp.), which were originally described based on a single species (Cuscomys oblativus) known only from archaeological remains discovered in ancient Inca tombs described in 1912 and believed to be extinct for almost a century. A second species (Cuscomys ashaninka) was discovered alive in Peru in 1999, and photographs taken at Machu Picchu in 2009 suggest that C. oblativus is still alive as well.
  • Majorcan midwife toad (Alytes muletensis), in the family Alytidae, described from fossil remains in 1977, discovered alive in 1979.
  • Cymatioa cookae,[10] a small bivalve mollusk of family Galeommatidae; originally documented in 1937 from Pleistocene fossil specimens near Los Angeles, then living specimens discovered in 2018 on the coast of Santa Barbara.[11]
  • Mountain pygmy possum (Burramys parvus), first discovered in the fossil record in 1895; rediscovered alive in 1966.
  • Calliostoma bullatum, a species of deepwater sea snail; originally described in 1844 from fossil specimens in deep-water coral-related sediments from southern Italy, until extant individuals were described in 2019 from deep-water coral reefs off the coast of Mauritania.[12]

From Neogene (23 to 2.6 million years ago)[edit]

Monito del monte
  • Nightcap oak (Eidothea hardeniana and Eidothea zoexylocarya), representing a genus previously known only from fossils 15 to 20 million years old,[13] were recognized in 2000 and 1995,[14] respectively.
  • Gracilidris, a genus of dolichoderine ants thought to have gone extinct 15–20 million years ago was found in Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina and redescribed in 2006.[15]
  • Laotian rock rat (Laonastes aenigmamus), a member of a family (Diatomyidae) thought to have gone extinct 11 million years ago; found in 1996.[16]
  • Monito del monte (Dromiciops), sole surviving member of the order Microbiotheria; first described in 1894, thought to have gone extinct 11 million years ago.
  • Submyotodon, a genus of bat originally known from a single fossil species (S. petersbuchensis) described in 2003 from the Miocene of Germany, about 11 to 16 million years ago. In 2015, a phylogenetic analysis of bats from Taiwan and China found three species previously classified in Myotis (M. caliginosus, M. latirostris, and M. moupinensis) to be wholly distinct from any other member of Myotis, and instead more closely allied to the fossil Submyotodon, and thus reclassified them in Submyotodon, making the genus extant once more.[17][18]
  • Dawn redwood (Metasequoia), a genus of conifer, described as a fossil in 1941, rediscovered alive in 1944.
  • Wollemi pine (Wollemia), a genus of coniferous tree in the family Araucariaceae; previously known only from fossils from 2 to 90 million years ago, rediscovered in 1994.[19]

From Cretaceous (145 to 66 million years ago)[edit]

Coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae
  • Coelacanth (Latimeria), a member of a subclass (Actinistia) thought to have gone extinct 66 million years ago; live specimens found in 1938.[20]
  • Alavesia, a genus of Atelestid fly, originally discovered as a fossil in amber over 100 million years old in 1999, living species found in Namibia in 2010.

From Devonian (419 to 359 million years ago)[edit]

  • Monoplacophora, a class of molluscs believed to have gone extinct in the middle Devonian Period (c. 380 million years ago) until living members were discovered in deep water off Costa Rica in 1952.[21]

From Cambrian (539 to 485 million years ago)[edit]

  • Schinderhannes bartelsi, an extinct Devonian member of the order Radiodonta. The discovery of its fossils in Devonian was astonishing because previously, radiodonts were known only from the Cambrian, 100 million years earlier.[22]

Reappearing IUCN red list species[edit]


Café marron


  • Judean date palm, found as a seed dated from between 155 BC to 64 AD, replanted in 2005.
  • Montreal melon, a common plant in the 19th century that disappeared, but was rediscovered after a couple of generations in 1996.




  • Lord Howe Island stick insect (Dryococelus australis); a species of stick insect in the family Phasmatodae; thought to be extinct by 1920, rediscovered in 2001.
  • Canterbury knobbed weevil (Hadramphus tuberculatus), in the family Curculionidae; first discovered in 1877, last seen in 1922 until it was rediscovered in 2004.
  • The cloaked bee (Pharohylaeus lactiferus); a bee in the subfamily Hylaeinae which had not been found since 1923 and was rediscovered in 2018.[25]
  • Lestes patricia, a species of damselfly discovered in 1924. Only a single male specimen was collected during the discovery. The species was left unseen until 2020 where a colony of them was rediscovered.
  • Megachile pluto, the world's largest bee. Not seen after 1858, when it was first collected, until it was rediscovered in 1981.[26]
  • Dinosaur ant (Nothomyrmecia macrops), a rare genus of ants consisting of a single species, discovered in 1931, not seen again until 1977.
  • Petasida ephippigera, a species of grasshopper in the family Pyrgomorphidae; thought to be extinct from 1900 until 1971, when a single male specimen was spotted, followed by a breeding pair shortly afterwards.
  • Schizodactylus inexspectatus, a dune-inhabiting cricket from Turkey, known from a single specimen seen in 1901 and presumed extinct until it was found again in 2005.
  • Bone skipper fly (Thyreophora cynophila), in the family Piophilidae; first described (1794) and last seen in Central Europe (1850), before being photographed in Spain in 2009.[27]
  • Pitt Island longhorn beetle (Xylotoles costatus), is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae; last seen on Pitt Island in 1910, and found again on a nearby island in the Chatham Islands in 1987.[28]




  • Batman River Loach, a loach species not seen since 1970s. Rediscovered in 2021.[29]
  • Black kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kawamurae), a Japanese species of salmon in the family Salmonidae; believed extinct in 1940 after attempts at conservation seemingly failed. The species was rediscovered in Lake Saiko in 2010, having survived after prior conservation efforts had introduced it there.



Atelopus nahumae


Gilbert's potoroo
  • Attenborough's long-beaked echidna (Zaglossus attenboroughi), echidna species found in Cyclops Mountains of Papua New Guinea; formerly last seen in 1962 and believed to be possibly extinct, until it was recorded again in November 2023.[32]
  • Bavarian pine vole (Microtus bavaricus), is a vole in the family Cricetidae; believed extinct in the 1960s, until it was rediscovered in 2000.
  • Black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), a North American species presumed extinct in 1979 until it was rediscovered in 1981. A captive breeding program of the discovered ferrets successfully reintroduced the species into the wild.
  • Brazilian arboreal mouse (Rhagomys rufescens), a South American rodent species of the family Cricetidae; first described in 1886, was believed to be extinct for over one hundred years.
  • Bouvier's red colobus (Piliocolobus bouvieri), a species of colobus monkey rediscovered in 2015.
  • Onychogalea fraenata (Bridled nail-tail wallaby, bridled nail-tailed wallaby, bridled nailtail wallaby, bridled wallaby, merrin or flashjack), a vulnerable species of macropod; thought to be extinct since the last confirmed sighting in 1937, but rediscovered in 1973.
  • Caspian horse (Khazar horse), thought to be descended from Mesopotamian horses; remains dating back to 3400 BCE, but it was rediscovered in the 1960s.
  • Zyzomys pedunculatus (known by a variety of names, including central rock rat, central thick-tailed rock-rat, Macdonnell Range rock-rat, Australian native mouse, rat à grosse queue or rata coligorda), a single species of rodent in the family Muridae; thought to be extinct in 1990 and 1994, until a reappearance in 2001 and in 2002, then the species went unrecorded until 2013.
  • Cuban solenodon (Atopogale cubana), thought to have been extinct until a live specimen was found in 2003.
  • Dinagat bushy-tailed cloud rat, assumed extinct after discovery in 1974, but rediscovered in 2012.
  • Eastern black crested gibbon
  • Fernandina rice rat (Nesoryzomys fernandinae), thought extinct in 1996 (last seen 1980) but found again in the late 1990s.
  • Gilbert's potoroo (Potorous gilbertii), extremely rare Australian mammal presumed extinct from the 19th century until 1994.
  • Gould's mouse (Pseudomys gouldii)
  • Humboldt marten (Martes caurina humboldtensis), subspecies of the Pacific marten thought to be extinct until rediscovered in 1996 on remote camera traps in the Six Rivers National Forest in northern California.
  • Julia Creek dunnart (Sminthopsis douglasi), thought to be extinct until it was rediscovered in the 1990s.
  • Miller's langur (Presbytis canicrus), presumed extinct 2004, rediscovered 2012.
  • Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri), thought to be extinct until 1965.
  • Machu Picchu arboreal chinchilla rat (Cuscomys oblativus), believed extinct since the 1400s or 1500s, but rediscovered in 2009 near Machu Picchu in Peru.
  • Mahogany glider (Petaurus gracilis), described in 1883 and not formally recorded between 1886 and 1989.[33] An expedition by the Queensland Museum in 1989 found a living population.[34]
  • New Guinea big-eared bat (Pharotis imogene), previously, the species was believed to have been extinct since 1890, when it was last spotted. In 2012, researchers realised that a female bat collected near Kamali was a member of this species.[35]
  • New Holland mouse (Pseudomys novaehollandiae), described by George Waterhouse in 1843, it was re-discovered in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, north of Sydney, in 1967.
  • Philippine naked-backed fruit bat (Dobsonia chapmani), in 1996 the species was declared extinct by the IUCN, as none had been sighted since 1964, but the bat was rediscovered in 2000.[36]
  • Pinatubo volcano mouse (Apomys sacobianus)
  • Roosevelt's muntjac (Muntiacus rooseveltorum), it was re-discovered in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve in Vietnam's Thanh Hoa province in 2014.
  • San Quintin kangaroo rat (Dipodoys gravipes), previously seen in 1986, feared extinct until rediscovery in 2017.[37]
  • Santiago Galápagos mouse (Nesoryzomys swarthi), thought extinct and last recorded in 1906, but was rediscovered in 1997.
  • Short-footed Luzon tree rat (Carpomys melanurus), believed extinct since 1896, but rediscovered in 2008 on Mount Pulag in northern Luzon.
  • Tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), the mainland Australian subspecies was presumed extinct from 1925 until genetically matched with invasive wallabies in New Zealand in 1998.
  • Vietnam mouse-deer (Tragulus versicolor), last known from a specimen acquired from hunters in 1990, not seen again for nearly 30 years until multiple individuals were sighted with camera-trap photographs in a 2019 survey of prospective habitat.
  • Woolly flying squirrel (Eupetaurus cinereus), known only from pelts collected in Pakistan in the late 19th century, until live specimens were collected in the 1990s.
  • Wimmer's shrew (Crocidura wimmeri), believed extinct since 1976, but rediscovered in 2012 in Côte d'Ivoire.
  • Yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Lagothrix flavicauda), first described from furs in 1812, live specimens not discovered until 1926.


Arakan forest turtle




Because its definition is ambiguous, some, like R. B. Rickards and A. J. Wright, reject the very concept of the Lazarus taxon. Rickards and Wright have questioned the usefulness of the concept, writing in "Lazarus taxa, refugia and relict faunas: evidence from graptolites" that anyone could argue that any gap in the fossil record could potentially be considered a Lazarus effect because the duration required for the Lazarus effect is not defined.[46] They have argued that accurate plotting of biodiversity changes and species abundance through time, coupled with an appraisal of their palaeobiogeography, is more important than using this title to categorize species.[46]

Communication and education[edit]

The lack of public engagement around environmental issues has led conservationists to attempt newer communication strategies. One of them is the focus on positive messages, of which Lazarus species are an important part.[47] One conservation outreach project that has focused exclusively on species rediscoveries is the Lost & Found project which aims to tell the stories of species once thought extinct but that were subsequently rediscovered.[48]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ryan, Gerard; Baker, Christopher (November 2016). "A general method for assessing the risks and benefits of secrecy in conserving 'Lazarus species'". Biological Conservation. 203: 186–187. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.09.022.
  2. ^ Jablonski, David (1986). "Background and Mass Extinctions: The Alternation of Macroevolutionary Regimes". Science. 231 (4734): 129–133. Bibcode:1986Sci...231..129J. doi:10.1126/science.231.4734.129. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17842630. S2CID 206572747.
  3. ^ Wignall, P. B.; Benton, M. J. (1999). "Lazarus taxa and fossil abundance at times of biotic crisis". Journal of the Geological Society. 156 (3): 453–456. Bibcode:1999JGSoc.156..453W. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.156.3.0453. S2CID 130746408.
  4. ^ Donovan, S. K.; Paul, C. R. C. (1998). The adequacy of the fossil record. Chichester: John Wiley. ISBN 0471969885. OCLC 38281286.
  5. ^ Wignall, P. B.; Benton, M. J. (1999). "Lazarus Taxa and Fossil Abundance at Times of Biotic Crisis". Journal of the Geological Society. 156 (3): 453–456. Bibcode:1999JGSoc.156..453W. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.156.3.0453. S2CID 130746408.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ Emig, Christian C. (2008). "On the history of the names Lingula, anatina, and on the confusion of the forms assigned them among the Brachiopoda" (PDF). Carnets de Géologie (Article 2008/08). doi:10.4267/2042/20044. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  7. ^ "3 Animals That Came Back From the Dead - Lazarus Taxa" on YouTube. Ben G Thomas. 25 February 2018; 0:32
  8. ^ Naish, Darren (24 November 2008). "New, obscure, and nearly extinct rodents of South America, and... when fossils come alive". Tetrapod Zoology. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2008.
  9. ^ Lost & Found. "Lost & Found - Once upon a time, there was an adventurer". lostandfoundnature.com. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  10. ^ "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Cymatioa cookae (Willett, 1937)". www.marinespecies.org. Retrieved 3 January 2023.
  11. ^ Valentich-Scott, P; Goddard, JHR (7 November 2022). "A fossil species found living off southern California, with notes on the genus Cymatioa (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Galeommatoidea)". ZooKeys (1128): 53–62. Bibcode:2022ZooK.1128...53V. doi:10.3897/zookeys.1128.95139. PMC 9836502. PMID 36762233.
  12. ^ Freiwald, André; Lavaleye, Marc; Heugten, Bart Van; Beuck, Lydia; Hoffman, Leon (4 June 2019). "Last snails standing since the Early Pleistocene, a tale of Calliostomatidae (Gastropoda) living in deep-water coral habitats in the north-eastern Atlantic". Zootaxa. 4613 (1): 93–110. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4613.1.4. ISSN 1175-5334. PMID 31716426.
  13. ^ Weston, Peter H.; Kooyman, Robert M. "Botany and Ecology of the 'Nightcap Oak', Eidothea hardeniana". Australian Plants Online. Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  14. ^ Approved NSW & National Recovery Plan: Eidothea Hardeniana, Nightcap Oak (PDF). Hurstville: Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW). 2004. pp. 1, 3. ISBN 0-7313-6781-2.
  15. ^ Wild, Alexander L.; Cuezzo, Fabiana (2006). "Rediscovery of a fossil dolichoderine ant lineage (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) and a description of a new genus from South America" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1142: 57–68. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1142.1.4.
  16. ^ Anita Srikameswaran (15 June 2006). "Retired professor tracks down rodent thought to be extinct". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 29 April 2015. Dr. Dawson and her colleagues... determined that the rock rats belonged to a family called Diatomyidae, whose members were thought to have died off more than 11 million years ago.
  17. ^ Ziegler, Reinhard (2003). "Bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia) from Middle Miocene karstic fissure fillings of Petersbuch near Eichstätt, Southern Franconian Alb (Bavaria)". Geobios. 36 (4): 447–490. Bibcode:2003Geobi..36..447Z. doi:10.1016/S0016-6995(03)00043-3.
  18. ^ Ruedi, Manuel; Csorba, Gábor; Lin, Liang-Kong; Chou, C-H (20 February 2015). "Molecular phylogeny and morphological revision of Myotis bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Taiwan and adjacent China". Zootaxa. 3920 (2): 301–342. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3920.2.6. PMID 25781252.
  19. ^ "Wollemia nobilis W.G.Jones, K.D.Hill & J.M.Allen". Kew Gardens. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  20. ^ "Coelacanths, Coelacanth Pictures, Coelacanth Facts – National Geographic". National Geographic. 10 May 2011. Archived from the original on 14 January 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  21. ^ Lemche, Henning (1957). "A new living deep-sea mollusc of the Cambro-Devonian class Monoplacophora". Nature. 179 (4556). London: 413–416. Bibcode:1957Natur.179..413L. doi:10.1038/179413a0. S2CID 4173823.
  22. ^ Gabriele Kühl; Derek E. G. Briggs & Jes Rust (2009). "A great-appendage arthropod with a radial mouth from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany". Science. 323 (5915): 771–773. Bibcode:2009Sci...323..771K. doi:10.1126/science.1166586. PMID 19197061. S2CID 47555807.
  23. ^ Platt, John R. (17 November 2011). "Amazing Neptune's Cup Sponge Rediscovered in Singapore". Extinction Countdown blog. Scientific American. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
  24. ^ "APNewsBreak: Idaho Scientists Find Fabled Worm," The New York Times, 27 April 2010.
  25. ^ Dorey, James B. (25 February 2021). "Missing for almost 100 years: the rare and potentially threatened bee, Pharohylaeus lactiferus (Hymenoptera, Colletidae)". Journal of Hymenoptera Research. 81: 165–180. doi:10.3897/jhr.81.59365. ISSN 1314-2607. S2CID 233952830.
  26. ^ Messer, A. C. (1984). "Chalicodoma pluto: The World's Largest Bee Rediscovered Living Communally in Termite Nests (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 57 (1): 165–168. JSTOR 25084498.
  27. ^ Miguel Carles-Tolrá, Pablo C. Rodríguez & Julio Verdú (2010). "Thyreophora cynophila (Panzer, 1794): collected in Spain 160 years after it was thought to be extinct (Diptera: Piophilidae: Thyreophorini)". Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.) 46: 1–7.
  28. ^ Emberson, R. M.; Early, J. W.; Marris, J. W. M.; Syrett, P. (1996). Research into the status and distribution of Chatham Islands endangered invertebrates (PDF). Wellington, N.Z.: Dept. of Conservation. pp. 1–27. ISBN 978-0-478-01833-2. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  29. ^ Batman loach returns: fish feared extinct found in Turkey
  30. ^ a b Castaño, Alberto (23 July 2018). "La desaparición de las ranas arlequín en Colombia y la carrera por conservarlas" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 July 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  31. ^ "If the frogs should win". theecologist.org. 11 January 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2023.
  32. ^ "First-ever images prove 'lost echidna' not extinct". 10 November 2023. Retrieved 25 November 2023.
  33. ^ Jackson, Stephen M (28 July 2011). "Petaurus gracilis (Diprotodontia: Petauridae)". Mammalian Species. 43 (882): 141–148. doi:10.1644/882.1. S2CID 35166232.
  34. ^ van Dyck, Steve (June 1991). "Raising an old glider's ghost". Wildlife Australia. 50 (3): 32–35.
  35. ^ Gates, Sara (4 June 2014). "Presumed Extinct Bat Found in Papua New Guinea After 120 Years". Huffington Post. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  36. ^ Posa, Mary Rose C. (March 2008). "Hope for threatened tropical biodiversity: lessons from the Philippines". BioScience. 58 (3): 231–240. doi:10.1641/b580309 – via Gale.
  37. ^ Fessenden, Marissa. "This Kangaroo Rat Was Just Spotted For the First Time in 30 years". Smithsonian. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  38. ^ De Vosjoli, Phillipe; Repashy, Allen; Fast, Frank (2003). Rhacodactylus: The Complete Guide to their Selection and Care. Advanced Vivarium Inc. ISBN 978-0-9742971-0-1.
  39. ^ "Not seen for 100 years, a rare Galápagos tortoise was considered all but extinct – until now". USA TODAY. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  40. ^ Smethurst, Annika (25 June 2023). "Earless dragon rediscovery like finding the Tasmanian tiger". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  41. ^ Gehrman, Elizabeth (2012). Rare Birds: The Extraordinary Tale of the Bermuda Petrel and the Man Who Brought It Back from Extinction. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-1076-1.
  42. ^ BirdLife International. "Brave efforts pay off in doubly-successful project to restore colonies of Chinese Crested Tern". BirdLife. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  43. ^ Ghost Bird 2009.[full citation needed]
  44. ^ "Scientists Rediscover Venezuelan Bird Not Seen in 60 Years".
  45. ^ Briggs, Helen (13 June 2019). "The snail that 'came back from the dead'". BBC News.
  46. ^ a b RICKARDS, R. B.; WRIGHT, A. J. (2002). "Lazarus taxa, refugia and relict faunas: evidence from graptolites". Journal of the Geological Society. 159 (1): 1–4. Bibcode:2002JGSoc.159....1R. doi:10.1144/0016-764901058. S2CID 84293885.
  47. ^ Veríssimo, Diogo. "Will optimistic stories get people to care about nature?". The Conversation. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
  48. ^ "'Lost & Found': Telling the stories of rediscovered species". news.mongabay.com. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.