LeLoup was founded in 1870 after the Santa Fe Railroad laid tracks through the area. The town was originally named Ferguson after Robert Ferguson, the original owner of the town site. The town was renamed LeLoup after a French traveler got off at Ferguson and mistook a coyote for a wolf and began shouting "le loup". The town then voted to change the name to LeLoup.
LeLoup had a post office from September 1870 until 1954; the name of the post office was changed from Ferguson in 1879.