Le Marron Inconnu

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Le Marron Inconnu
(Nèg Mawon)
The Unknown Slave
(Maroon Man)
Le Marron Inconnu, Haiti 2012.jpg
LocationPlace du Marron Inconnu, Champ de Mars, HT6110 Port-au-Prince, Haiti[1]
DesignerCreated by Haitian sculptor Albert Mangonès
Height3.60 metres (11.8 ft) and 2.40 metres (7.9 ft) tall
Completion date22 September 1967[2][3]
Dedicated toAbolishment of slavery and freedom of all black people

Le Marron Inconnu de Saint-Domingue,[4] shortened as Le Marron Inconnu (French pronunciation: ​[lə ma.ʁɔ̃ ɛ̃.kɔ.ny], "The Unknown Slave"), also called Le Nègre Marron or Nèg Mawon (Haitian Creole pronunciation: [nɛɡ ma.ʁɔ̃], "Maroon Man"),[5][6] is a bronze statue of a runaway slave; standing in the center of Port-au-Prince, the capital of Haiti, it commemorates the abolishment of slavery. Designed and executed by Haitian sculptor and architect Albert Mangonès (1917–2002), it was completed on 22 September 1967. The sculpture serves as a reminder of the call to rebellion in the colony of Saint-Domingue against slave-holding France in 1791. Situated across from the National Palace,[7] it has become the nation's iconic symbol of freedom,[1][8] and is viewed across the world as a symbol for the freedom of black people.[9]


Mangonès completed the statue on 22 September 1967.[2] It measures 3.60 metres long by 2.40 metres high.[10] It depicts in bronze a near-naked fugitive black man, kneeling on one knee, his torso arched, his opposite leg stretched back, and a broken chain on his left ankle. He holds a conch shell at his lips with his left hand, his head tilted upward to blow it, while the other hand holds a machete on the ground by his right ankle.[5][6][10]

Mangonès chose a passage from 1 Maccabees 14:3-9 of the Jerusalem Bible to be set in copper letters on one of the two concrete panels that protect the "eternal flame" of freedom in the square surrounding the statue.[10]

Recognized usage[edit]

In 1989, the United Nations adopted the statue as a central icon on postage stamps commemorating Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that states, "No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms."[1][8][11][12]



  1. ^ a b c Comité National Pour La Mémoire et l'Histoire de l'Esclavage - Statue du Marron Inconnu (in French)
  2. ^ a b Alphonse, Roberson, ed. (15 May 2012). "Le Marron inconnu vandalisé et la flamme éternelle éteinte". Le Nouvelliste. Retrieved 9 March 2016. (in French)
  3. ^ Press, ed. (1 January 2010). "1979-2009 - Les 30 années de l'ISPAN" (PDF). Bulletin de l’Ispan (UNESCO). p. 6. Retrieved 9 March 2016. (in French)
  4. ^ Roberts, Neil (2015). "Freedom as Marronage". University of Chicago. p. 12. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  5. ^ a b Bell, Beverly, ed. (2013). Fault Lines: Views across Haiti's Divide. p. 32. ISBN 9780801452123. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  6. ^ a b Mukherjee, Jola Dr, ed. (20 March 2010). "History May Be Haiti's Greatest Resource". Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  7. ^ Philippe R. Girard (2 November 2011). The Slaves Who Defeated Napoleon: Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian War of Independence, 1801-1804. University of Alabama Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-8173-1732-4.
  8. ^ a b Press (Obituaries, PASSINGS), ed. (27 April 2002). "Albert Mangones, 85; His Bronze Sculpture Became Haitian Symbol". LA Times. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  9. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Haiti - Haiti's Landmarks". Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
  10. ^ a b c Lorraine, Mangones (ed.). "Le Marron Inconnu (The Unknown Runaway Slave)". Directions. 4 (1): 62. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  11. ^ United Nations - The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  12. ^ Mangonès, Fréderick, ed. (8 July 2014). "Le Marron Inconnu d'Albert Mangonès". Le Nouvelliste. Retrieved 9 March 2016. (in French)

External links[edit]