Le marteau sans maître

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Le marteau sans maître (The hammer without a master) is a composition by the French composer Pierre Boulez. First performed in 1955, it sets the surrealist poetry of René Char for contralto and six instrumentalists.


Before Le Marteau, Boulez had established a reputation as the composer of modernist and serialist works such as Structures I, Polyphonie X, as well as his infamously "unplayable" Second Piano Sonata (Jameux 1989b, 21). Le Marteau was first written as a six-movement composition between 1953 and 1954, and was published in that form in the latter year, "imprimée pour le festival de musique, 1954, Donaueschingen" (though in the end it was not performed there) in a photographic reproduction of the composer's manuscript by Universal Edition, given the catalog number UE 12362. In 1955, Boulez revised the order of these movements, and interpolated three newly composed ones (Mosch 2004, 44–45). The original, six-movement form lacked the two "Bel édifice" settings and the third commentaire on "Bourreaux de solitude". In addition, the movements were grouped in two closed cycles: first the three "Artisanat furieux" movements, then the three "Bourreaux de solitude" ones, otherwise in the order of the final score. The first movement, though fundamentally the same composition, was originally scored as a duet for vibraphone and guitar—the flute and viola were added only in the revision—and numerous less significant alterations were made to playing techniques and notation in the other movements (Siegele 1979, 8–9).

It received its première in 1955 at the 29th Festival of the International Society for Contemporary Music in Baden-Baden (Jameux 1989b, 21). Boulez's work was chosen to represent France at this festival. The French members of the committee were against this, but Heinrich Strobel, then director of the Baden-Baden Sudwestfunk Orchestra, scheduled to give all of the concerts at the festival, threatened to withdraw if it was not (Jameux 1989b, 21). The first performance was given on June 18, 1955 conducted by Hans Rosbaud, with Sybilla Plate as the solo singer (Steinegger 2012, 240–42).

Boulez, notorious for considering his works to be always "in progress", made further, smaller revisions to Le Marteau in 1957, in which year Universal Edition issued an engraved score, UE 12450. In the years that have followed, it has become Pierre Boulez's most famous and influential work (Hughes 1998, 123).


The work has nine movements, four of which set the text of three poems of René Char. The remaining movements are instrumental extrapolations of the other four:

  1. Avant "l'artisanat furieux" (before "the furious craftsmanship")
  2. Commentaire I de "bourreaux de solitude" (first commentary on "hangmen of solitude")
  3. "L'artisanat furieux" ("the furious craftsmanship")
  4. Commentaire II de "bourreaux de solitude" (second commentary on "hangmen of solitude")
  5. "Bel édifice et les pressentiments", version première ("stately building and presentiments", first version)
  6. "Bourreaux de solitude" ("hangmen of solitude")
  7. Après "l'artisanat furieux" (after "the furious craftsmanship")
  8. Commentaire III de "bourreaux de solitude" (third commentary on "hangmen of solitude")
  9. "Bel édifice et les pressentiments", double ("stately building and presentiments", again)

These movements are grouped into three cycles by Boulez. The first cycle consists of movements I, III, and VII. The second cycle is movements II, IV, VI, and VIII. Movements V and IX make up the third cycle.


Steven Winick writes in his article "Symmetry and Pitch-Duration Associations in Boulez' Le Marteau sans maître":

It is well known that Boulez is reluctant to explain his own compositions. When asked to supply program notes for the first performance of Le Marteau in 1955 at the Baden-Baden International Society for Contemporary Music, Boulez laconically wrote, as quoted by Friederich Saathen: "Le Marteau sans Maître, after a text by René Char, written for alto, flute, viola, guitar, vibraphone, and percussion. The text is partially sung, partially interpreted through purely instrumental passages." (Winick 1986, 281, translating Saathen 1957)

Despite having been published in 1954 and 1957, analysts were unable to explain Boulez's compositional methods until Lev Koblyakov in 1977 (Heinemann 1998, 72). This is partially due to the fact that Boulez believes in strict control tempered with "local indiscipline," or rather, the freedom to choose small, individual elements while still adhering to an overall structure compatible with serialist principles. Boulez opts to change individual notes based on sound or harmony, choosing to abandon adherence to the structure dictated by strict serialism, making the detailed serial organization of the piece difficult for the listener to discern (Lerdahl 1992, 97–98).


The instrumentation was quite novel for Western music at the time, lacking any kind of bass instrument, and drew some influence from the sound of non-Western instruments. The xylorimba recalls the African balafon; the vibraphone, the Balinese gamelan; and the guitar, the Japanese koto, though "neither the style nor the actual use of these instruments has any connection with these different musical civilizations" ("Speaking, Playing, Singing" (1963) in Boulez 1986, 341). Boulez chose the collection with a continuum of sonorities in mind: "a number of features shared by these instruments (forms) a continuous passage from voice to vibraphone" (Boulez 1986, 340). The purpose is to allow a graduated deconstruction of the voice into percussive noises, a compositional technique which has been common throughout Boulez's work (e.g. the recent Sur Incises of 1998 similarly breaks down the sounds of the piano by combining it with harp and percussion). The voice and five pitched instruments can be arranged in a line, each pair connected by a similarity, as in the following diagram (quoted from Grondines 2000):

Le marteau instrumentation.png

The vocal writing is challenging for the singer, containing wide leaps, glissandi, humming (notated bouche fermée in the score),[vague] and even Sprechstimme, a device found in the work of the Second Viennese School before Boulez. There are also deliberate similarities to Arnold Schoenberg's song cycle, Pierrot Lunaire (Jameux 1989a, 19), one of which is that each movement chooses a different subset of the available instruments:

  1. Alto flute, Vibraphone, Guitar, Viola
  2. Alto flute, Xylorimba, Tambourine, 2 bongos, Frame drum, Viola
  3. Voice, Alto flute
  4. Xylorimba, Vibraphone, Finger cymbals, Agogô, Triangle, Guitar, Viola
  5. Voice, Alto flute, Guitar, Viola
  6. Voice, Alto flute, Xylorimba, Vibraphone, maracas, Guitar, Viola
  7. Alto flute, Vibraphone, Guitar
  8. Alto flute, Xylorimba, Vibraphone, Claves, Agogô, 2 bongos, Maracas
  9. Voice, Alto flute, Xylorimba, Vibraphone, Maracas, Small tam-tam, Low gong, Very deep tam-tam, Large suspended cymbal, Guitar, Viola

The opening of the third movement in the flute is typical of the difficulties required of performers including wide range, large leaps, and complex rhythms:

Opening of the third movement of Boulez's Le marteau with flute (Whittall 2008, 178) features wide leaps and complex rhythms. (About this sound Play )

Analysis of the first cycle: "L'artisanat furieux"[edit]

Boulez uses many serial composition techniques, including pitch multiplication and pitch-class association.[vague] According to Koblyakov, Movements I, III, and VII, are based on multiplying together various sets derived from the following tone row: 3 5 2 1 10 11 9 0 8 4 7 6 (Koblyakov 1990, 4). However, Mosch argues that this is not the basic form, but rather the "série renversée" (inversion) of the basic row (Mosch 2004, 51).

Boulez groups these notes into five sets according to five different rotations on the pattern 2–4–2–1–3, reflecting the highly mathematical nature in which this piece is composed. Following the first rotation of this pattern, the row would be grouped as 3 5 – 2 1 10 11 – 9 0 – 8 – 4 7 6. Using the five possible rotations of this pattern, Boulez creates five rows of five groupings each:

a b c d e
I) 3 5 2 1 10 11 9 0 8 4 7 6
II) 3 5 2 1 10 11 9 0 8 4 7 6
III) 3 5 2 1 10 11 9 0 8 4 7 6
IV) 3 5 2 1 10 11 9 0 8 4 7 6
V) 3 5 2 1 10 11 9 0 8 4 7 6

Using these 25 groups in conjunction with pitch multiplication, Boulez is able to create 25 "harmonic fields" within each set. Koblyakov in his analysis assigns a letter to each cluster within a set, such that two sets multiplied together can be notated as "aa," "bc," "ed," etc. (Koblyakov 1990, 5). Boulez's form of pitch multiplication can be thought of more as pitch addition. With this technique, Boulez takes two clusters and takes the sum of every possible pairing between the two clusters. For example, if we were to multiply groups b and c within set I, we would have the following:

(2 1 10 11) + (9 0) = ((2+9) (1+9) (10+9) (11+9) (2+0) (1+0) (10+0) (11+0)) = (11 10 7 8 2 1 10 11)

Boulez then eliminates any duplicate pitches, which in this case would leave us with the set 11 10 7 8 2 1. In fact, this is the set of notes we get in measure three of movement III, "L'artisanat furieux." This movement, scored only for flute and voice, lays out pitch multiplication in a more straightforward way than movements I and VII. For the first 11 measures, Boulez (mostly) sticks to one pitch multiplication set per measure. Later, Boulez begins to use multiple pitch fields at a time, further complicating the analysis. Koblyakov's analysis reveals that the harmonic fields Boulez employs at certain parts of the piece are laid out very systematically, showing that the movements' overall forms are complexly mathematical as well (Koblyakov 1990, 7–16).

Analysis of the second cycle: "Bourreaux de solitude"[edit]

The second cycle consists of movements II, IV, VI, and VIII. Through these movements, especially movement VI, Boulez uses a technique called "pitch-duration association" by Steven Winick. This technique associates individual pitches with individual durations, for example, C = sixteenth note, C = eighth note, D = dotted-eighth note, so that as the pitch increases by half step the associated duration increases by an added sixteenth note. Winick calls this a pitch-duration association or PDA based on C. In movement VI, these PDAs are most easily observed, with the first twelve notes of the piece forming a PDA on D. The next twelve notes also fall neatly into a PDA on G, though Boulez occasionally swaps the durations of a couple pitches throughout this system, reflecting his interest in "local indiscipline." Another way in which Boulez confuses the analysis of this cycle is by placing some rhythms under triplet markings. After the voice enters in measure 13 of the movement, matters become even more complicated as Boulez employs all 12 possible PDAs simultaneously throughout the rest of the movement (Winick 1986,[page needed]). As with the first cycle, Boulez's overall formal structure is quite complex and shows many patterns. Arrangements in pitch order throughout these PDAs reveals many symmetrical and palindromic arrangements, which are further explored both in Winick's and Koblyakov's analyses.

In addition to coordinating durations with certain pitches, Boulez assigns dynamics and attacks to pitches in a similar manner. Using the opening PDA on D as an example, Boulez arranges the pitches chromatically and then groups them into 6 pairs (D and D, E and F, F and G, etc.), assigning a dynamic from pianissimo to fortissimo to each pair. In addition, the first note within a pair receives an attack of some sort—legato for piano and pianissimo, accent for mezzo forte and mezzo piano, and sforzando for forte and fortissimo. However, while these dynamic and attack associations are consistent enough to be unmistakably deliberate, Boulez returns again to the idea of "local indiscipline" (Savage 2003). Wentzel found that Boulez's association of pitches, dynamics, durations, and attacks agrees with his analysis 80% of the time. A number of these discrepancies are accounted for by differences among the printed and manuscript sources, but it is impossible to say whether any are deliberate compositional decisions (Wentzel 1991, 148–50).

Analysis of the third cycle: "Bel édifice et les pressentiments"[edit]

The third cycle consists only of movements V and IX, making it the shortest of the three cycles. However, both of these movements play essential roles in the piece, especially when one takes into account the extreme levels of symmetry and pattern employed by Boulez in his composition of the work. Movement V occupies the central position in Le marteau, and the movement itself may be broken up into six sections. Boulez designates these sections in his tempo markings and orchestrations—the three odd-numbered sections are written only for instruments and marked assez vif, while the three even-numbered sections are scored for voice and instruments and marked plus large. An interesting characteristic of Boulez's orchestrating during the even sections is that the voice and instruments seem to be in opposition, with the instruments playing similar rhythms and dynamics (or at least more similar than between the instruments and the voice). In the sections where the voice is not present, the writing for the instruments is more contrapuntal. Movement V also uses Sprechgesang while vocal parts in the other cycles do not (Koblyakov 1990, 85).

Movement IX is broken up into three large sections, with the third being broken up further into a number of smaller fragments. The first large section includes variations of quotations from the central movements of all three cycles (movements III, V, and VI) along with the text from movement 5. The movements are quoted in reverse order (i.e. VI, V, III), and each time the text from the quoted movement is combined in some way with the text from movement III. The second large section, also the main section of the movement, includes a voice part without text and is built on a similar set of PDAs as the second cycle of Marteau while also drawing on movement V. The harmony for this section is interesting in that Boulez entirely avoids minor seconds as well as minor thirds (though their inverse, major sixths, are used instead). Unisons are used very rarely (Koblyakov 1990, 98). The third section of movement IX serves as both a coda to the movement and to the piece. It is scored only for flute and percussion.

Another interesting characteristic of movement IX is that all of its tempos are drawn from previous movements. Tempo shifts also almost always increase by a ratio of 1.2 or 1.5 (Koblyakov 1990, 102).


The text for this work was taken from René Char's collection of poems, Le Marteau sans maître, written in the 1930s while Char "still shared the surrealist views of poets like André Breton and Henri Michaux" (Grondines 2000). Boulez had earlier written two cantatas, Visage nuptial and Le Soleil des eaux in 1946 and 1948, which also set poems by René Char.

L'artisanat furieux

La roulotte rouge au bord du clou
Et cadavre dans le panier
Et chevaux de labours dans le fer à cheval
Je rêve la tête sur la pointe de mon couteau le Pérou.

The furious craftsmanship

The red caravan on the edge of the nail
And corpse in the basket
And plowhorses in the horseshoe
I dream the head on the point of my knife Peru.

Bourreaux de solitude

Le pas s'est éloigné le marcheur s'est tu
Sur le cadran de l'Imitation
Le Balancier lance sa charge de granit réflexe.

Hangmen of solitude

The step has gone away, the walker has fallen silent
On the dial of Imitation
The Pendulum throws its instinctive load of granite.

Bel édifice et les pressentiments

J'écoute marcher dans mes jambes
La mer morte vagues par dessus tête
Enfant la jetée promenade sauvage
Homme l'illusion imitée
Des yeux purs dans les bois
Cherchent en pleurant la tête habitable.

Stately building and presentiments

I hear marching in my legs
The dead sea waves overhead
Child the wild seaside pier
Man the imitated illusion
Pure eyes in the woods
Are searching in tears for a habitable head.


  • Boulez, Pierre. 1957. Le Marteau sans maître, score. London: Universal Edition.
  • Boulez, Pierre. 1971. Boulez on Music Today. Translated by Susan Bradshaw and Richard Rodney Bennett. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-08006-8.
  • Boulez, Pierre. 1986. Orientations: Collected Writings. Edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez; translated by Martin Cooper. London & Boston: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-14347-4. ISBN 0-571-13811-X (cased). ISBN 0-571-13835-7 (pbk).
  • Boulez, Pierre. 1991. Stocktakings from an Apprenticeship. Translation by Stephen Walsh. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311210-8.
  • Boulez, Pierre. 2005. Le Marteau sans maître. Facsimile of the draft score and the first fair copy of the score, with an introduction in French and English. Veröffentlichungen der Paul Sacher Stiftung. Edited by Pascal Decroupet. Mainz: Schott. ISBN 3-7957-0453-7.
  • Grondines, Pierre. 2000. "Le Marteau sans maître: Serialism Becomes Respectable". La Scena Musicale 6, no. 4 (1 December).
  • Heinemann, Stephen. 1998. "Pitch-Class Set Multiplication in Theory and Practice." Music Theory Spectrum 20, no. 1 (Spring): 72–96.
  • Hughes, Alex. 1998. Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415131865.
  • Jameux, Dominique. 1989a. "Boulez: Le Marteau sans maître", in booklet to Pierre Boulez, Le Marteau sans maître; Notations pour piano; Structures pour deux pianos, livre 2. CBS Masterworks CD MK 42619. (Reissued 2002, Sony 508164.)
  • Jameux, Dominique. 1989b. "The Fate of the Work", in booklet to Pierre Boulez, Le Marteau sans maître; Notations pour piano; Structures pour deux pianos, livre 2. CBS Masterworks CD MK 42619. (Reissued 2002, Sony 508164.)
  • Jameux, Dominique. 1991. Pierre Boulez. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-66740-9. London: Faber. ISBN 0-571-13744-X.
  • Koblyakov, Lev. 1977. "P. Boulez Le Marteau sans maître: Analysis of Pitch Structure". Zeitschrift für Musiktheorie 8, no. 1:24-39.
  • Koblyakov, Lev. 1990. Pierre Boulez: A World of Harmony. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers. ISBN 3-7186-0422-1.
  • Lerdahl, Fred. 1992. "Cognitive Constraints on Compositional Systems." Contemporary Music Review 6:97-121.
  • Mosch, Ulrich. 1990. "Disziplin oder Indisziplin? Zum seriellen Komponieren im 2. Satz des Marteau sans maître". Musiktheorie 5, no. 1:39–66.
  • Mosch, Ulrich. 1997. "Wahrnehmungsweisen serieller Musik." Musiktheorie 12:61–70.
  • Mosch, Ulrich. 2004. Musikalisches Hören serieller Musik: Untersuchungen am Beispiel von Pierre Boulez' 'Le Marteau sans maître'. Saarbrücken: Pfau-Verlag. ISBN 3-89727-253-9.
  • Piencikowski, Robert T. 1980. "René Char et Pierre Boulez: Esquisse analytique du Marteau sans maître". In Schweizer Beiträge zur Musikwissenchaft 4, edited by Jürg Stenzl, 193–264. Bern and Stuttgart: Haupt.
  • Piencikowski, Robert T. 2000. "Pierre Boulez's Le Marteau sans maître". In Music History from Primary Sources: A Guide to the Moldenhauer Archives, edited by John Newsom and Alfred Mann, 134–41. Washington: Library of Congress.
  • Piencikowski, Robert T. 2003. "Au fil des esquisses du Marteau". Mitteilungen der Paul Sacher Stiftung no. 16:12–17.
  • Roberts, Gwyneth Margaret. 1968. "Rhythm as a Structural Element in Boulez' Le marteau sans maître". M.M. thesis. Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Saathen, Friederich. 1957. "Le Marteau sans Maître". Schweizerische Musikzeitung 97 (15 July): 290.
  • Savage, Roger. 2003. "http://www.ex-tempore.org/savage.html
  • Siegele, Ulrich. 1979. Zwei Kommentare zum «Marteau sans maître» von Pierre Boulez. Tübinger Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft 7. Neuhausen-Stuttgart: Hänssler-Verlag.
  • Souvtchinsky, Pierre. 1955. "Le mot-fantôme: Le marteau sans maître de Pierre Boulez et de René Char". La Nouvelle Revue Français 3, no. 32:1107–09.
  • Souvtchinsky, Pierre. 1971. 2004. "Quatre paragraphes: Pierre Boulez et René Char". In Cahier de l'Herne René Char, edited by Dominique Fourcade. Paris: Herne. Reprinted in Pierre Souvtchinsky, Un siècle de musique russe (1830-1930): Glinka, Moussorgsky, Tchaïkowsky et Autres écrits: Strawinsky, Berg, Messiaen et Boulez, edited by Frank Langlois, preface by Pierre Boulez, 265–76. Arles: Actes Sud, 2004. ISBN 2-7427-4593-9.
  • Steinegger, Catherine. 2012. Pierre Boulez et le théâtre: de la Compagnie Renaud-Barrault à Patrice Chéreau. Wavre: Editions Mardaga. ISBN 9782804700904 (accessed 14 October 2015).
  • Tsaregradskaya, Tatyana. 1997. "Pierre Boulez's Le Marteau sans Maitre: The Composition as a Process and a Result". In A Composition as a Problem, edited by Mart Humal, 45–49. Tallinn: Eesti Muusikaakadeemia. ISBN 9985-60-280-3.
  • Wentzel, Wayne C. 1991. "Dynamic and Attack Associations in Boulez's Le Marteau sans maître". Perspectives of New Music 29, no. 1 (Winter): 142–70.
  • Whittall, Arnold. 2008. The Cambridge Introduction to Serialism. Cambridge Introductions to Music. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68200-8 (pbk).
  • Winick, Steven D. 1986. "Symmetry and Pitch-Duration Associations in Boulez' Le Marteau sans maître" Perspectives of New Music 24, no. 2 (Spring): 280–321.

Further reading[edit]

  • Aguila, Jésus. 2001. "Boulez: Vingt regards sur une page du Marteau sans maître". Analyse Musicale, no. 41 (4th quarter) 77–94. ISSN 0295-3722.
  • Andersen, Mogens. 2001. "På sporet af hammerens herre: Om 'studiekredsen' og Le Marteau sans maître". In Fluktuationer: Festskrift til Ib Nørholm på 70-års dagen 24. januar 2001, edited by Eva Hvidt, Mogens Andersen, and Per Erland Rasmussen, 15–29. Frederiksberg: MAmusik. ISBN 978-87-987722-2-4.
  • Bacht, Nikolaus. 2001. "'L'artisanat furieux' und sein Modell: Vergleichende Analyse von Arnold Schönbergs 'Der kranke Mond' aus Pierrot lunaire und Pierre Boulez' 'L'artisanat furieux' aus Le marteau sans maître". Die Musikforschung 54, no. 2:153–64.
  • Boesche, Thomas. 1990. "Einige Beobachtungen zu Technik und Ästhetik des Komponierens in Pierre Boulez' Marteau sans Maître", Musiktheorie 5, no. 3:253–70.
  • Decarsin, François. 1998. "L’organisation du temps en musique sur l’axe passé/futur". In Les universaux en musique: Actes du quatrième congrès international sur la signification musicale, edited by Costin Miereanu, Xavier Hascher, and Michel Guiomar, 589–97. Serie Esthétique. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne. ISBN 2-85944-355-X.
  • Decroupet, Pascal, and Jean-Louis Leleu. 2006. "'Penser sensiblement' la musique: Production et description du matériau harmonique dans le troisième mouvement du Marteau sans maître". In Pierre Boulez: Techniques d'écriture et enjeux esthétiques, edited by Pascal Decroupet and Jean-Louis Leleu, 177–215. Geneva: Contrechamps. ISBN 978-2-940068-23-4.
  • Fink, Wolfgang G. 1997. "'Schönes Gebäude und die Vorahnung': Zur Morphologie des 5. Satzes von Pierre Boulez' Le marteau sans maître". In Pierre Boulez II, Muzik-Konzepte 96, edited by Heinz-Klaus Metzger and Rainer Riehn, 3–61. Munich: Edition Text und Kritik.
  • 福岡由仁郎 [Fukuoka, Yujiro]. 2005.『ピエール・ブーレーズ論:セリー主義の美学』[Pierre Boulez: Aesthetics of Serialism]. Ph.D. diss. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  • Gligo, Nikša. 2009. "Skladba kao kritika skladbe: Le marteau sans maître (Čekić bez gospodara) vs. Pierrot lunaire—O nekim specifičnim funkcijama skladateljske teorije u glazbi 20. stoljeća". In Glazba prijelaza: Svečani zbornik za Evu Sedak/Music of Transition: Essays in Honour of Eva Sedak, edited by Nikša Gligo, Dalibor Davidović, and Nada Bezić, 110–18. Zagreb: ArTresor and Hrvatska Radiotelevizija. ISBN 978-953-6522-67-5; ISBN 978-953-6173-38-9.
  • Goldberg, Albert. 1957. "The Sounding Board: The Battle of Boulez: The Defense Rallies Its Forces and Launches a Strong Counterattack". Los Angeles Times (21 April): E5.
  • Grout, Donald, and Claude Palisca. 2001. A History of Western Music, 6th edition. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, p. 726. ISBN 0-393-97527-4.
  • Haas, Georg Friedrich. 1990. "Disziplin oder Indisziplin. Anmerkungen zu der von Ulrich Mosch veröffentlichten Reihentabelle von Pierre Boulez", Musiktheorie 5, no. 3:271–74.
  • Hirsbrunner, Theo. 1974. "Die surrealistische Komponente in Pierre Boulez' Le Marteau sans maître". Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 124, no. 7:420–25.
  • Hoffman, Michael. 1997. "Pierre Boulez's Le marteau sans maître: An Overview Analysis". 20th-Century Music 4, no. 10 (October): 4–11.
  • Heinemann, Stephen. 1993. "Pitch-Class Set Multiplication in Boulez's Le Marteau sans maître. D.M.A. diss., University of Washington.
  • Koblyakov, Lev. 1981. "The World of Harmony of Pierre Boulez: Analysis of Le Marteau sans maître. Ph.D. diss., Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
  • Roxburgh, Edwin. 2014. Conducting for a New Era. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 9781843838029 (accessed 14 October 2015).