Leader of the Green Party of England and Wales
|Leader of the Green Party of England and Wales|
|Appointer||Members of the Green Party of England and Wales|
through Leadership Elections held biannually
|Formation||5 September 2008|
|First holder||Caroline Lucas|
The Leader of the Green Party of England and Wales is the most senior political figure within the Green Party of England and Wales. The role was introduced alongside that of Deputy Leader in 2008. Prior to this, the party's public spokespersons were Principal Speakers. There were two Principal Speakers, one female and one male, who were elected annually at the Green Party's Autumn Conference and held no vote on the Green Party Executive (GPEx).
A referendum passed on 30 November 2007 that abolished the posts of Principal Speakers and a leader and deputy were elected at Autumn Conference on 5 September 2008.
- 1 Role and history
- 2 Leaders
- 3 Election results
- 4 Regional variations
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Role and history
The Principal Speakers performed the public and media roles undertaken by the leaders of more conventional political parties. Green Parties often consider joint leadership of this kind to embody the widely held Green beliefs in consensus decision making and gender balance. It also symbolises their belief in the need for a society in which people are empowered and involved in making the decisions which affect them. In the Party's Philosophical Basis, it states that the Green Party "reject[s] the hierarchical structure of leaders and followers, and, instead advocate[s] participatory politics" and it is "for this reason" that the Green Party has eschewed an individual leader.
There were six Principal Speakers in the UK Green Party until 1991, when changes introduced by the Green 2000 grouping reduced this to two and streamlined the organisation of the party. This left a system that neither side in the 2007 leadership referendum was happy with.
2007 Leadership referendum
At the party's 2007 Spring Conference in Swansea, members voted to hold a cross-party referendum on whether the posts should be changed to Leader and Deputy Leader (with the option for Co-Leaders if two candidates chose to run together and were gender balanced, in the event of which there would be no Deputy Leader). The new system would allow the Leader and Deputy (or Co-Leaders) to vote on GPEx and, rather than being elected annually (like the Principal Speakers), the posts would be elected every two years. Provisions for recalling the Leader and Deputy were articulated. Despite the controversial nature of this issue, many participants, such as Siân Berry, were struck by the how "constructive" the debate turned out to be.
On Friday 30 November 2007 the ballots were counted and members voted 73% to 27% in favour of the new leadership model, with a 48.3% turnout of Green Party members.
The 'Pro-Leader' side – Green Yes
Supporters of the 'Green Yes' campaign for a yes vote in the referendum include the then-Principal Speaker Caroline Lucas MEP, Siân Berry, Darren Johnson AM (a Green member of the London Assembly), environmental commentator and Green member Mark Lynas, former Principal Speaker Jonathon Porritt, councillors from Lewisham, Brighton, Norwich, Leicester and Lancaster, and members of the Green Party Executive (GPEx), including Jim Killock (External Communications Officer), Elections Coordinator Peter Cranie and Khalid Hussenbux, the party's Financial Coordinator.
The Green Yes campaign believe that the Green Party needs a leader to reach its potential and that, if the party does not reach its potential, it will be "selling-short our planet and everything on it". They suggest that the party's success has been too slow and that "a leader would help set direction, political focus and make sure the party gets the resources to grow". The campaign hopes that having a Leader is "about empowering the party" and "about accountability", in that a Leader "will mean we can identify who to hold to account when things need changing". The group adds that other Green Parties in the world have leaders and remain "just as Green as the rest of us".
Mark Lynas, in several editions of his New Statesman blog, further claims that the name 'Principal Speaker' is not transparent to the public, that it wastes valuable time in explaining the system to the media and that it lacks credibility. Darren Johnson characterizes the lack of single leader as "just a ridiculous barrier in terms of getting our really important message across".
The 'Anti-Leader' side – Green Empowerment
Supporters of the 'Green Empowerment' campaign for a no vote in the leadership referendum include the then-Principal Speaker Derek Wall, Jenny Jones AM (a Green member of the London Assembly), the late Timothy Beaumont (Green member of the House of Lords), prominent human rights campaigner and Green member Peter Tatchell, Noel Lynch (London Green Party Coordinator and former London Assembly member), councillors from Scarborough, Lewisham, York, Norwich and Hackney, and members of the Green Party Executive (GPEx), including Campaigns Coordinator, Tim Summers, and Pete McAskie (Management Coordinator). Some members, like Matt Sellwood, while in favour of a Leader system in principle, were opposed to the current referendum because the term of reelection would be extended to two years.
Supporters of Green Empowerment wanted to "uphold the Green Party's long-standing commitment to non-hierarchical structures and 'grassroots' democracy" through "collective leadership". They believed that a single leader "would not only draw attention away from other speakers and the wider Party, but would bring with it risks that the other parties in this country are all too well aware of". The campaign focused on retaining gender balance in party structures, and avoiding the dilution of their radical policies. They focused on success under the Principal Speaker system, seen in the steady buildup of support from the low point of the 1992 General election to the situation at the time of the referendum, where the party has over 100 councilors along with two members of the European Parliament and two members of the London Assembly.
Derek Wall counters pro-leader arguments by stating that "if you are a clear speaker, there's no problem getting coverage and explaining the party's views." He is concerned by the history of past political parties that started off as being participatory until they adopted a single leader system in which the members became "puppets". Wall also opposed the reduction in numbers of Principal Speakers from six to two in 1992, as advocated by the Green 2000 group.
Party Leader era
In September 2008 Caroline Lucas was elected as the party's first leader. Lucas was reelected in 2010 but chose not to stand in 2012, when Natalie Bennett was elected her successor. After Bennett stood down in 2016 Lucas returned as leader, this time sharing the position with Jonathan Bartley.
Principal Speakers (1990–1992)
Prior to 1992 six principal speakers were elected annually.
Principal Speakers (1992–2008)
|Year||Male principal speaker||Female principal speaker|
|Feb–Sep 1992||Richard Lawson||Jean Lambert|
|1992–1993||Mallen Baker||Jean Lambert|
|1993–1994||John Cornford||Jan Clark|
|1994–1995||David Taylor||Jan Clark|
|1995–1996||David Taylor||Peg Alexander|
|1996–1997||David Taylor||Peg Alexander|
|1997–1998||Mike Woodin||-[clarification needed]|
|1998–1999||Mike Woodin||Jean Lambert|
|1999–2000||Mike Woodin||Margaret Wright|
|2000–2001||Mike Woodin||Margaret Wright|
|2001–2002||Darren Johnson||Margaret Wright|
|2002–2003||Darren Johnson||Margaret Wright|
|2003–2004||Mike Woodin||Caroline Lucas|
|2004–2005||Keith Taylor||Caroline Lucas|
|2005–2006||Keith Taylor||Caroline Lucas|
|2006–2007||Derek Wall||Siân Berry|
|2007–2008||Derek Wall||Caroline Lucas|
Party leadership (2008–present)
|Took office||Left office||Deputy leader|
|5 September 2008
|3 September 2012||Adrian Ramsay|
|3 September 2012
|2 September 2016||Will Duckworth (2012–14)|
|Amelia Womack and Shahrar Ali (2014–16)|
|2 September 2016
|4 September 2018||Amelia Womack|
|4 September 2018
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2018)
|Jonathan Bartley and Siân Berry||6,329||75.5|
|Female Principal Speaker|
|Male Principal Speaker|
|Male Principal Speaker election|
|Male Principal Speaker election|
Not all regions of the Green Party used the Principal Speaker system. In particular, the Wales Green Party has a Leader, Pippa Bartalotti, and Deputy Leader Chris Were. The North West of England appointed a Leader some years ago[when?] in the run up to a European election but this has now been abandoned. However, some regional and local groups have adopted the gender balance principle and emulated the Principal Speaker structure, including the LSE Students' Union Green Party, who have a Female and Male Co-Chair.
- "The Green Party of England and Wales' ''Philosophical Basis''". Policy.greenparty.org.uk. Archived from the original on 8 May 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- Wall, Derek, Weaving a Bower Against Endless Night: An Illustrated History of the Green Party, 1994
- "Green Yes Website – Copy of the Full Motion to Conference on Creating a Leader and Deputy Leader or Co-Leaders" (PDF). Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- Berry, Sian (26 March 2007). "Siân Berry's ''New Statesman'' Blog – ''A leader for the Greens?''". Newstatesman.com. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- Green Yes Website
- "Mark Lynas' ''New Statesman'' Blog – ''Even Greens need leaders''". Newstatesman.com. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- "Politics | ''Greens consider getting a leader''". BBC News. 26 March 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- "Green Empowerment Website". Greenempowerment.org.uk. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- BBC News (31 May 2018). "Green leaders: who came before Caroline Lucas?". Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Election results announced, Green Party of England and Wales, 24 November 2006
- "Caroline Lucas & Keith Taylor returned as Greens' Principal Speakers", Brighton & Hove Green Party, 3 November 2004
- "Caroline Lucas and Keith Taylor continue in party's top post", Green Party of England and Wales, 4 November 2004
- "LSE". Young Greens. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- Derek Wall on why the GP needs to keep the Principal Speaker system
- Darren Johnson AM on BBC site explains why the Green party needs a Leader
- Siân Berry describes the debate and her preference for Co-leaders
- Green Yes Website
- Green Empowerment Website
- Caroline Lucas: The greens need a clear voice – and a leader
- Jenny Jones: A political party with a leader? – How 20th century