Leadville, Colorado

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"Leadville" redirects here. For the town in Australia, see Leadville, New South Wales. For book by Edward Platt, see Leadville (book).
City of Leadville, Colorado
Statutory City
Downtown Leadville
Downtown Leadville
Nickname(s): The Two-Mile-High City
Location in Lake County and the State of Colorado
Location in Lake County and the State of Colorado
U.S. Census Map
U.S. Census Map
Coordinates: 39°15′00″N 106°17′30″W / 39.25000°N 106.29167°W / 39.25000; -106.29167Coordinates: 39°15′00″N 106°17′30″W / 39.25000°N 106.29167°W / 39.25000; -106.29167
Country United States
State Colorado
County Lake County Seat[1]
Founded 1877
Incorporated February 18, 1878[2]
 • Type Statutory City[1]
 • Total 1.1 sq mi (2.86 km2)
 • Land 1.1 sq mi (2.86 km2)
 • Water 0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation 10,152 ft (3,094 m)
Population (2010 census)
 • Total 2,602
 • Density 2,358.3/sq mi (910.5/km2)
Time zone Mountain (MST) (UTC-7)
 • Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-6)
ZIP codes[3] 80429 (PO Box), 80461
Area code(s) 719
FIPS code 08-44320
GNIS feature ID 0204683
Highest city in the United States
Crystalline gold specimen from the old Ibex Mine, Breece Hill, Leadville mining district

Leadville is the statutory city that is the county seat and only incorporated municipality in Lake County, Colorado, United States.[4] The city population was 2,602 at the 2010 United States Census. Situated at an elevation of 10,152 feet (3,094 m), Leadville is the highest incorporated city and the second highest incorporated municipality in the United States. A former silver mining town that lies near the headwaters of the Arkansas River in the heart of the Rocky Mountains, the Leadville Historic District contains many historic structures and sites from its dynamic mining era. In the late 19th century, Leadville was the second most populous city in Colorado, after Denver.


Oro City[edit]

The Leadville area was first settled in 1859 when placer gold was discovered in California Gulch during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush.[5] By 1860, a town, Oro City had sprung up and a year later its population had reached more than 5,000. Horace Tabor, who became known as the "Leadville Silver King" and his wife Augusta were among the first prospectors to arrive. Tabor tried his luck at prospecting while his wife worked as a camp cook, laundress, banker and postmistress. But the boom was brief and Oro City never became a major settlement.

Mining for placer gold was hampered by heavy black sand in the sluice boxes.[6] In 1874, the prospectors discovered that the heavy sand that impeded gold recovery was the lead mineral cerussite which had a high silver content. Prospectors traced the cerussite to its source, and by 1876 had discovered several silver-lead lode deposits.[5]

Founding of Leadville[edit]

Leadville was founded in 1877 by mine owners Horace Tabor and August Meyer at the start of the Colorado Silver Boom. The town was built on desolate flat land below the tree line. The first miners lived in a rough tented camp near the silver deposits in California Gulch.[7] Initially the settlement was called Slabtown but when the residents petitioned for a post office the name Leadville was chosen. By 1880 Tabor and Meyer's new town had gas lighting, water mains and 28 miles of streets, five churches, three hospitals, six banks, and a school for 1,100 students. Many business buildings were constructed with bricks hauled in by wagons.[8]

The first post office was in Tabor's store at Oro, Augusta Tabor was the postmistress. Carriers went down to Denver one week and tried to come back the next. Postage was fifty cents a letter. In early 1878, Meyer, Harrison, Tabor established a post office in Leadville, with Henderson as postmaster. The post office and the telegraph office both prospered.

The town's first newspaper was The Reville, a Republican weekly in 1878. Three months later, a competing Democratic weekly, The Eclipse emerged. The Chronicle was the town's first daily and first newspaper in America to employ a full-time female reporter. Like the Rocky Mountain News, The Chronicle took the lead in outing criminals and thieves, in an attempt to clean up the town's shady business culture. Despite violent threats, the Chronicle survived without major incident.

Interior of the Tabor Opera House

William Nye opened the first saloon early 1877 and it was followed by many others. The same year "The Coliseum Novelty" was the first theater to open. It offered sleeping rooms upstairs for a nightly rate and provided a variety of entertainments: dancing girls, dogfights, cockfighting, wrestling and boxing matches, as well as rooms for gambling. In June 1881, it burned to the ground. Ben Wood who arrived in Leadville in 1878, opened the first legitimate theatre,Wood's Opera House with a thousand seats. It was a first- class theater, where gentleman removed their hats and did not smoke or drink in the presence of a lady. Less than a year later, Wood opened the Windsor Hotel. His opera house was regarded as the largest and best theater constructed in the west, an honor it held until the opening of the Tabor Opera House. Horace Tabor's Opera House was the most costly structure in Colorado at the time. Building materials were brought by wagons from Denver. The massive three-story opera house, constructed of stone, brick, and iron, opened on 20 November 1879. Tabor, originally from Vermont, became the town's first mayor. After striking it rich, he had an estimated net worth of 10 million dollars and was known for his extravagant lifestyle.

Mining and smelting[edit]

By 1880, three years after the town was founded, Leadville was one of the world's largest and richest silver camps, with a population of more than 15,000. Income from more than thirty mines and ten large smelting works producing gold, silver, and lead amounting to $15,000,000 annually.

According to Lincoln H. Hall, "The outpouring of the precious metal from Leadville transformed the struggling Centennial State into a veritable autocrat in the colony of states. As if by magic the rough frontier town of Denver became a metropolis; stately buildings arose on the site of shanties; crystal streams flowed through the arid plains and the desert blossomed and became fruitful. Poverty gave way to the annoyance of wealth and the fame of silver state spread throughout the world." (Conant, 106)

Swindles were not uncommon in the mining community. When the Little Pittsburg mine was exhausted of its rich ore body, its managers sold their shares while concealing the mine's actual condition from the other stockholders. "Chicken Bill" Lovell dumped a wheelbarrow load of silver-rich ore into a barren pit on his Chrysolite claim in order to sell it to Horace Tabor for a large price. Tabor had the last laugh when his miners dug a few feet farther and discovered a rich ore body. Some time later the manager of the Chrysolite mine fooled an outside mining engineer into overestimating the mine's ore reserves.[9]

The city's fortunes declined with the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1893, although afterwards there was another small gold boom. Mining companies came to rely increasingly on income from the lead and zinc. The district is credited with producing over 2.9 million troy ounces of gold, 240 million troy ounces of silver, 1 million short tons of lead, 785 thousand short tons of zinc, and 53 thousand short tons of copper.[10]

A bitter strike by Leadville's hard rock miners in 1896–97 led to bloodshed, at least five deaths, and the burning of the Coronado Mine.[11]

World War II caused an increase in the demand for molybdenum, used to harden steel. It was mined at the nearby Climax mine, which at one time produced 75 percent of the world's output. By 1980 The Climax Mine was the largest underground mine in the world. Taxes paid by the mine provided Leadville with good schools, libraries, and provided employment for many residents. When the market dropped in 1981, Leadville's economy suffered and many people lost their jobs. With little industry other than the tourist trade, most of the former miners left and the standard of living declined. Climax reopened in 2008 and started production in 2010. It currently is the most efficient mine producing the metal in Colorado and estimated to have a production life of thirty years.[12]

Leadville's colorful past[edit]

As the population boomed, by 1878 Leadville had the reputation as one of the most lawless towns in the West. The first city marshal was run out of town a few days after he was appointed and his replacement was shot dead within a month by one of his deputies. Fearing the town would be lost to the lawless element, Mayor Horace Tabor sent for Mart Duggan, who was living in Denver, as a replacement. Duggan is little-known today, but was well-known as a fearless gunfighter. Using strong-arm and lawless tactics, during his two stints as marshal Duggan brought order to Leadville by 1880 when he stepped down. He was shot and killed in 1889 by an unknown assailant, most likely an enemy he had made when he was a Leadville marshal. Historian Robert Dearment writes: "Mart Duggan was a quick-shooting, hard-drinking, brawling tough Irish man, but he was exactly the kind of man a tough, hard-drinking, quick-shooting camp like Leadville needed in its earliest days. His name is all but forgotten today but the name 'Matt Dillon' is recognized around the world. Such are the vagaries of life."[13]

Oscar Wilde appeared at the Tabor Opera House during his 1882 American Aesthetic Movement lecture tour. The reviews were mixed and the press satirized Wilde in cartoons as an English dandy decorated with sunflowers and lilies, the floral emblems of the Aesthetic Movement. A Kansas newspaper described the event:

Oscar Wilde's visit to Leadville excited a great deal of interest and curiosity. The Tabor-opera house where he lectured was packed full. It was rumored that an attempt would be make by a number of young men to ridicule him by coming to the lecture in exaggerated costume with enormous sunflowers and lilies and to introduce a number of characters in the costume of the Western "bad men". Probably, however, better council prevailed and no disturbance took place[14]

Mayor David H. Dougan invited Wilde to tour the Matchless Mine and name its new lode, "The Oscar". Wilde later recounted a visit to a local saloon, "where I saw the only rational method of art criticism I have ever come across. Over the piano was printed a notice – 'Please do not shoot the pianist. He is doing his best.'"[15]

Confederate scout, cowboy and stage actor with "Buffalo Bill" Cody's travelling revue, Texas Jack Omohundro died of pneumonia a month before his 34th birthday in summer 1880 in Leadville where he was living on a small estate with his wife, ballerina Giuseppina Morlacchi. Around 1883, shortly after the gun fight at the O.K. Corral, outlaw Doc Holliday moved to Leadville. On 19 August 1884, he shot ex-Leadville policeman, Billy Allen, who had threatened him for failing to pay a $5 debt. Despite overwhelming evidence implicating him, a jury found Holliday not guilty of the shooting or attempted murder.[12] Gunfighter and professional gambler Luke Short also spent time in Leadville.[16]

In 1883 Horace Tabor divorced his wife of 25 years, and married Baby Doe McCourt, who was half his age. Tabor was by then a US senator and the divorce and marriage caused a scandal in Colorado and beyond. Tabor, one of the wealthiest men in Colorado, lost his fortune when the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act caused the Panic of 1893. He died destitute but convinced the price of silver would rebound, and according to legend told Baby Doe to "hold on the Matchless mine … it will make millions again when silver comes back." She returned to Leadville with her daughters, Silver Dollar and Lily, where she spent the rest of her life believing Tabor's prediction. At one time the "best dressed woman in the West", she lived in a cabin at the Matchless Mine for the last three decades of her life. After a snowstorm in March 1935, she was found frozen in her cabin, aged about 81 years.

Post-mining era[edit]

Leadville in the 1950s

The many years of mining left behind substantial contamination of the soil and water, so that the Environmental Protection Agency designated some former mining sites as Superfund sites. The town is now 98% cleaned up and the Superfund designation is about to expire.[when?]

The town has made major efforts to improve its economy by encouraging tourism and emphasizing its history and opportunities for outdoor recreation. The National Mining Museum and Hall of Fame opened in 1987 with a federal charter. The town's altitude and rugged terrain contributes to a number of challenging racing events, such as the Leadville Trail 100 series of races. It is often used as a base for altitude training and hosts a number of other events for runners and mountain bicyclists.


The Army Air Forces built the Leadville Army Airfield northwest of the city.[17] During World War II, Leadville was a popular spot for visits by soldiers at nearby Camp Hale, but only after the town acted to curb prostitution; until then, the United States Army declared the town off-limits for its personnel.


At an elevation of 10,152 ft (3,094 m), Leadville is the highest incorporated city in the United States. Higher towns and unincorporated settlements exist.

Leadville lies in a valley at the head waters of the Arkansas River which flows through the southern Rocky Mountains and eventually empties into the Mississippi River. It is situated between two mountain ranges, the Mosquito Range to the east and the Sawatch Range to the west; both of which include several nearby peaks with altitudes above 14,000 feet, the so-called fourteeners. Mount Elbert, about 16 miles southwest of Leadville, is the highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the highest point in the Colorado and the entire Mississippi River drainage basin. An ultra-prominent 14,440-foot (4,401 m) fourteener, Mount Elbert is the highest summit of the Sawatch Range and the second-highest summit in the contiguous United States after Mount Whitney. Mount Massive, 10.6 miles (17.1 km) west-southwest of Leadville, at 14,428-foot (4,398 m) is the second highest summit in the Rocky Mountains and state of Colorado, and the third highest in the nation.

Situated within the San Isabel National Forest[18] and surrounded by three wilderness areas, Leadville is popular with hikers and campers. The Mount Massive Wilderness, the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness,[19] and the Collegiate Peaks Wilderness are all within a few miles of Leadville.[20]


Leadville has an alpine subarctic climate with cold winters and mild summers, bordering on a cold semi-arid climate. The average January temperatures are a maximum of 31.1 °F (−0.5 °C) and a minimum of 3.1 °F (−16.1 °C). The average July temperatures are a maximum of 72.2 °F (22.3 °C) and a minimum of 37.8 °F (3.2 °C). There are an average of 278 days annually with freezing temperatures, which can occur in any month of the year. The record high temperature was 86 °F (30 °C) on June 23, 1954. The record low temperature was −38 °F (−39 °C) on February 21, 1995.

Average annual precipitation is 12.19 inches (310 mm). The wettest year was 1957 with 22.14 inches (562 mm) and the driest year was 1994 with 8.81 inches (224 mm). The most precipitation in one month was 4.83 inches (123 mm) in January 1996. The most precipitation in 24 hours was 2.10 inches (53 mm) on December 24, 1983. Average annual snowfall is 142.7 inches (3.62 m). The most snowfall in one year was 247.9 inches (6.30 m) in 1996. The most snowfall in one month was 63.2 inches (1.61 m) in February 1995.[21]

Climate data for Leadville, Colorado
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 56
Average high °F (°C) 31.1
Average low °F (°C) 3.1
Record low °F (°C) −27
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.66
Average snowfall inches (cm) 18.0
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch) 9 8 10 10 7 6 12 14 9 6 9 9 109
Source: Western Regional Climate Center[21]


Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 14,820
1890 10,384 −29.9%
1900 12,455 19.9%
1910 7,508 −39.7%
1920 4,959 −34.0%
1930 3,771 −24.0%
1940 4,774 26.6%
1950 4,081 −14.5%
1960 4,008 −1.8%
1970 4,314 7.6%
1980 3,879 −10.1%
1990 2,629 −32.2%
2000 2,821 7.3%
2010 2,602 −7.8%
Est. 2014 2,595 [22] −0.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[23]

As of the census[24] of 2000, there were 2,821 people, 1,253 households, and 675 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,659.5 people per square mile (1,027.5/km²). There were 1,514 housing units at an average density of 1,427.3 per square mile (551.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 83.52% White, 0.14% African American, 1.28% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 12.34% from other races, and 2.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 25.45% of the population.

There were 1,253 households out of which 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.1% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.91.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 12.1% from 18 to 24, 34.4% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 109.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $36,714, and the median income for a family was $44,444. Males had a median income of $28,125 versus $23,512 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,607. About 9.1% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.5% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over.

Historic district[edit]

Old Victorian house, Leadville. Marion Post Wolcott, photographer

Leadville Historic District was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1961. The district encompasses 67 mines east of the city up to the 12,000 foot (3658 m) level, and a defined portion of the village area, with specific exclusions for various buildings. The principal historic buildings are: Tabor Grand Hotel, St George's Church, Temple Israel, the Annunciation Church, Tabor Opera House, City Hall, Healy House, Dexter Cabin, Engelbach House, and Tabor House, as well as mining structures and small homes. Structures built after 1917 are considered non-contributing.

The National Mining Hall of Fame and Museum is dedicated to commemorating the work of miners and people that work with natural resources. Major exhibits include an elaborate model railroad,[25] a walk-through replica of an underground hardrock mine,[26] the Gold Rush Room, with specimens of native gold,[27] a large collection of mineral specimens,[28] and a mining art gallery.

The Matchless Mine and cabin, former home of Baby Doe Tabor, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places[29] and is part of the National Mining Hall of Fame and Museum. The mine and cabin are open for tours in the summer.

Some historic sites are linked by Mineral Belt National Recreation Trail, an 11.6 mile all-season biking/walking trail that loops around Leadville and through its historic mining district. In part it follows old mining-camp railbeds. Interpretative kiosks recount the history and a photograph of what was on that particular site more than a century ago. The trail is well-marked with interpretive signs and altitude and mileage markers.

Culture and sport[edit]

Boom Days, held on the first full weekend of August, is a tribute to the city's mining past. The event has been honored by the United States Congress as a Local Legacy Event. [1] The festivities held over three days include mining competitions and burro racing, motorcycle games, a rod and gun show, live music, a craft fair and parade. The annual Skijoring event and Crystal Carnival take place in March.[30] This is a horse-drawn skiing for the family since the 1960s.[31] The town has frequent, sometimes small parades held in the downtown area, such as the quirky "St Patrick's Day Practice Parade".

The Leadville Trail 100, an ultramarathon, takes place each August on an out-and-back course on trails around Turquoise Lake, over Hagerman Pass, the Colorado Trail, through Twin Lakes, across the Arkansas River, up and over Hope Pass, to the ghost town of Winfield. It then returns along the same course.

The Mineral Belt Trail is an 11.6 mile, two way non-motorized paved trail around the city. Five access points offer opportunities to walk shorter sections: Ice Palace Park, Lake County Middle School, Dutch Henry Hill, California Gulch, and the East 5th Street Bridge. Mineral Belt is completely ADA-accessible for wheelchairs and strollers, cyclists, runners and in-line skaters. http://mineralbelttrail.com/

The "Route of the Silver Kings" is a driving tour of the 20-square-milehistoric mining district. The tour passess mines, power plants, ghost towns and mining camps.[32]

View of Mount Massive looking west from Harrison Street in downtown Leadville


Aerial view of Lake County Airport and Leadville, December 2006

Leadville is served by Lake County Airport. However, there are no scheduled airline services available from this airport. The closest airports to provide scheduled services are Eagle County Airport and Aspen-Pitkin County Airport, both located 62 miles (100 km) away.

All of the highways in Lake County are part of the Top of the Rockies Scenic and Historic Byway.



  • In 1880, Denver & Rio Grande Railway opened a 3 feet narrow gauge railway branch from Malta. Third rail was added in 1888 and from 1940 it was only standard gauge.[33] The last 1.8 miles was abandoned by Union Pacific in 1998.[34] This severed the connection between Leadville, Colorado & Southern Railroad and the rest of the railroad system. The remaining three miles from Malta have not seen any traffic in many years.[33]
    • In the past, D&RG operated branch lines from Leadville to Oro City (1883-1941), Ibex/Chrysolite (1898-1944), Graham Park (1898-1941) and Fryer Hill (1881-1944). Another branch run over Fremont Pass as far as Robinson, Wheeler, Dillon (1881/2-1923).[35]
  • The former Colorado & Southern Railway line from Leadville to Climax is now operated as a tourist line by Leadville, Colorado & Southern Railroad.
  • In 2010, rail and coach commuter service was proposed between Minturn and Dotsero, in 2012 from Leadville to Vail and Dotsero with intermediate stations at Minturn, Avon, Eagle and Gypsum.[36]

Notable residents[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

"The Hat", a Leadville bar of "rather dubious reputation."
  • Against the Day, a 2006 novel by Thomas Pynchon. Much of the story is set in Colorado mining towns at the end of the 19th century.
  • "Silver Lies", a 2003 novel by Ann Parker
  • "Wilde West", a 1991 novel by Walter Satterthwait built around Oscar Wilde's visit to Leadville on a tour of the American West.
  • "The Golden Fury", a 1949 novel by Marian Castle (published by Morrow) with the setting in Leadville and Denver at the turn of 20th century.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Active Colorado Municipalities". State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  2. ^ "Colorado Municipal Incorporations". State of Colorado, Department of Personnel & Administration, Colorado State Archives. 2004-12-01. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  3. ^ "ZIP Code Lookup" (JavaScript/HTML). United States Postal Service. Retrieved November 14, 2007. 
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  5. ^ a b "Leadville". Colorado Geological Survey. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  6. ^ "Leadville - Cloud City USA". Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  7. ^ "National register of historic places inventory Nomination form" (pdf). National Park Service. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  8. ^ "Leadville District History". Denver and Rio Grande. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
  9. ^ Mining Swindles: Leadville
  10. ^ Ogden Tweto (1968) Leadville district, Colorado, in Ore Deposits in the United States 1933/1967, New York: American Institute of Mining Engineers, p.683.
  11. ^ William Philpott, The Lessons of Leadville, Colorado Historical Society, 1995, pages 3–4.
  12. ^ a b Voynick, Steve (June 2006). "Restarting Climax: The who, when, and why". Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  13. ^ Dearment, Robert K. "Deadly Dozen". University of Oklahoma Press. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  14. ^ "Oscar Wilde in America". A Selected Resource Of Oscar Wilde's Visits To America. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  15. ^ "Oscar Wilde in Leadville". Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  16. ^ "Luke Short". Frontier Gambler. Retrieved 4 September 2015. 
  17. ^ Air Fields Database: Leadville
  18. ^ Pike25202520and2520San2520Isabel2520National2520Forest2520and2520Cimarron2520and2520Comanche2520National2520Grasslands-2520Home/recreation/wilderness/ldv_coll_wild.shtml/
  19. ^ Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Area
  20. ^ Wilderness.net - Collegiate Peaks Wilderness - General Information
  21. ^ a b http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?co4885; http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?co4884
  22. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  23. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  24. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  25. ^ National Mining Hall of Fame and Museum - Leadville, Colorado, minerals, gems, history
  26. ^ National Mining Hall of Fame and Museum - Leadville, Colorado, minerals, gems, history
  27. ^ National Mining Hall of Fame and Museum - Leadville, Colorado, minerals, gems, history
  28. ^ National Mining Hall of Fame and Museum - Leadville, Colorado, minerals, gems, history
  29. ^ "Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 12/27/11 through 12/30/11". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  30. ^ Leadville Community Calendar
  31. ^ Leadville Chronicle
  32. ^ Route of the Silver Kings (scroll down)
  33. ^ a b http://www.drgw.net/info/LeadvilleBranch
  34. ^ STB Docket No. AB-33 (Sub-No. 117X), Union Pacific Railroad Company — Abandonment Exemption--in Lake County, CO, 4 Jun 1998
  35. ^ http://www.drgw.net/info/TennesseePass
  36. ^ Eagle Valley Enterprise, February 1, 2012

20."Leadville: The Struggle to Revive An American Town" by Gillian Klucas p. 21 21. Conant Graff, Marshall. "A History of Leadville, Colorado." 1920. 22. Scanlon, Gretchen. "A History of Leadville Theatre: Opera Houses, Variety Acts and Burlesque Shows." 2012. 23. Kent, Lewis A. "Leadville: The City. Mines and Bullion Product. Personal Histories of Prominent Citizens, Facts and Figures Never Before Given to the Public." 1880. 24. "Holliday Bound Over to Appear at the Criminal Court in the Sum of Eight Thousand Dollars." Leadville Daily Herald. August 26, 1884. (P.4)

Further reading[edit]

  • Plazak, Dan. A Hole in the Ground with a Liar at the Top ISBN 978-0-87480-840-7. Includes a chapter on mining in early Leadville.

External links[edit]