League of Left-Wing Writers
The League of the Left-Wing Writers (Chinese: 中國左翼作家聯盟; pinyin: Zhōngguó Zuǒyì Zuòjiā Liánméng), commonly abbreviated as the Zuolian or Left League, was an organization of writers formed in Shanghai, China, on 2 March 1930, at the instigation of the Chinese Communist Party and the influence of the celebrated author Lu Xun. The purpose of the League was to promote socialist realism in support of the Communist Revolution, and it eventually became very influential in Chinese cultural circles. Lu Xun delivered the opening address to the organizational meeting, but he became disillusioned when it quickly became clear that he would have little influence. Other members included leaders of the Sun Society and the Creation Society, and Zhou Yang, who became Mao Zedong's favorite literary figure and after 1949 zealously enforced political orthodoxy. The League articulated theories on the political role of literature that foreshadowed Mao's influential Yan'an Talks on Literature and Art, and engaged in running debates with the "art for art's sake" Crescent Moon Society.
Due to the League's prominent political views, it was quickly banned by the Kuomintang government. On 7 February 1931, the government executed five members of the League: Li Weisen, Hu Yepin, Rou Shi, Yin Fu, and Feng Keng. They are known as the Five Martyrs of the League of Left-Wing Writers.
The League was disbanded voluntarily in 1936. This was mainly in order to encourage authors to unite across political boundaries and face the rapidly increasing threat from Japan.
- Leo Oufan Lee, "Literary Trends: The Road to Revolution 1927-1949," Ch 9 in Fairbank, John King; Feuerwerker, Albert; Twitchett, Denis Crispin (1986). The Cambridge history of China. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521243384.
- Spence (1981), p. .
- Wong, Lawrence Wang-Chi (1991). Politics and Literature in Shanghai: The Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers. Manchester University Press. p. 100. ISBN 0-7190-2924-4.
- Spence, Jonathan D. (1981). The Gate of Heavenly Peace: The Chinese and Their Revolution, 1895-1980. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0670292478.