Leaky gut syndrome
|Leaky gut syndrome|
|This article is part of a series on|
|Alternative and pseudo‑medicine|
Leaky gut syndrome is a hypothetical, medically unrecognized condition.
Unlike the scientific phenomenon of increased intestinal permeability ("leaky gut"), claims for the existence of "leaky gut syndrome" as a distinct medical condition come mostly from nutritionists and practitioners of alternative medicine. Proponents claim that a "leaky gut" causes chronic inflammation throughout the body that results in a wide range of conditions, including chronic fatigue syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, migraines, multiple sclerosis, and autism.Systemic inflammation is associated with celiac disease, depression, and psychiatric conditions . As of 2016[update], there is little evidence to support the hypothesis that leaky gut syndrome directly causes this wide array of diseases.
Stephen Barrett has described "leaky gut syndrome" as a fad diagnosis and says that its proponents use the alleged condition as an opportunity to sell a number of alternative-health remedies – including diets, herbal preparations, and dietary supplements. In 2009, Seth Kalichman wrote that some pseudoscientists claim that the passage of proteins through a "leaky" gut is the cause of autism. The belief that a "leaky gut" might actually cause autism is popular among the public, but the evidence is weak and what evidence exists is conflicting.
Advocates tout various treatments for "leaky gut syndrome", such as dietary supplements, probiotics, herbal remedies, gluten-free foods, and low-FODMAP, low-sugar, or antifungal diets, but there is little evidence that the treatments offered are of benefit. None have been adequately tested to determine if they are safe and effective for this purpose. The U.K. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) does not recommend the use of special diets to manage the main symptoms of autism.
- "Leaky gut syndrome". NHS Choices. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- Bischoff SC, Barbara G, Buurman W, Ockhuizen T, Schulzke JD, Serino M, et al. (2014). "Intestinal permeability--a new target for disease prevention and therapy". BMC Gastroenterol (Review). 14: 189. doi:10.1186/s12876-014-0189-7. PMC 4253991. PMID 25407511.
- Odenwald, Matthew A.; Turner, Jerrold R. (2013). "Intestinal Permeability Defects: Is It Time to Treat?". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 11 (9): 1075–83. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2013.07.001. PMC 3758766. PMID 23851019.
- Barrett, Stephen (14 March 2009). "Be Wary of "Fad" Diagnoses". Quackwatch. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Obrenovich, Mark E. M. (2018-10-18). "Leaky Gut, Leaky Brain?". Microorganisms. 6 (4). doi:10.3390/microorganisms6040107. ISSN 2076-2607. PMC 6313445. PMID 30340384.
- Quigley EM (2016). "Leaky gut - concept or clinical entity?". Curr Opin Gastroenterol (Review). 32 (2): 74–9. doi:10.1097/MOG.0000000000000243. PMID 26760399.
- Kalichman, Seth C. (2009). Denying AIDS: Conspiracy Theories, Pseudoscience, and Human Tragedy. Springer. p. 167. ISBN 9780387794761.
- Rao M, Gershon MD (2016). "The bowel and beyond: the enteric nervous system in neurological disorders". Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol (Review). 13 (9): 517–28. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2016.107. PMC 5005185. PMID 27435372.