Leaky gut syndrome
Leaky gut syndrome is a medically unrecognised condition which some alternative health practitioners claim is the cause of a wide range of serious long-term conditions, including diabetes, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. Proponents of leaky gut syndrome claim that an altered or damaged bowel lining or gut wall results from poor diet, parasites, infection, or medications, and that this allows substances such as toxins, microbes, undigested food, or waste to leak through. They say this prompts the body to initiate an immune reaction leading to potentially severe health conditions. This theory is vague and largely unproven, and there is no evidence that the remedies marketed for treating leaky gut bring the benefits they claim. The scientific community continues to debate whether "leaky gut syndrome" exists at all.
There is little, if any, evidence to support the idea that any of the claimed conditions are caused by a "leaky" gut. Diagnosis of leaky gut syndrome is contentious, has been seen as a dishonest ploy designed to make money from the sale of supposed remedies for it.
Conceptual basis and background
While some intestinal permeability is a normally occurring phenomenon recognized by mainstream science, claims for the existence of "leaky gut syndrome" are mostly made by some nutritionists (not the same as a dietitian) and practitioners of alternative medicine. These supporters say that undigested food particles can pass through the "leaky" bowel wall and into the rest of body, leading to a large number of conditions ranging from migraines to autism. As of 2013[update] the theory, according to the UK National Health Service, is supported by very little evidence.
Seth Kalichman has written that some pseudoscientists claim that that the passage of proteins through a leaky gut is the cause of autism. However, a review of the effectiveness of remedies designed to "treat" this found them not to be effective. A 2013 review said that the connection between leaky gut and autism had aroused controversy, and that within the scientific community this debate was continuing.
Diagnosis and treatment
There is little evidence to support this theory, and no evidence that so-called 'treatments' for 'leaky gut syndrome', such as nutritional supplements and a gluten-free diet, have any beneficial effect for most of the conditions they are claimed to help.
Quackwatch calls leaky gut a "fad diagnosis". Stephen Barrett writes that its proponents use the alleged condition as an opportunity to promote a number of alternative health remedies including diets, herbal preparations, and dietary supplements.
- Kiefer, D; Ali-Akbarian, L (2004). "A brief evidence-based review of two gastrointestinal illnesses: Irritable bowel and leaky gut syndromes". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 10 (3): 22–30; quiz 31, 92. PMID 15154150.
- "Leaky gut syndrome". NHS Choices. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Odenwald, Matthew A.; Turner, Jerrold R. (2013). "Intestinal Permeability Defects: Is It Time to Treat?". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11 (9): 1075–83. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2013.07.001. PMC 3758766. PMID 23851019.
- Kalichman, Seth C. (2009). Denying AIDS: Conspiracy Theories, Pseudoscience, and Human Tragedy. Springer. p. 167. ISBN 9780387794761.
- Catassi C, Bai JC, Bonaz B, Bouma G, Calabrò A, Carroccio A, Castillejo G, Ciacci C, Cristofori F, Dolinsek J, Francavilla R, Elli L, Green P, Holtmeier W, Koehler P, Koletzko S, Meinhold C, Sanders D, Schumann M, Schuppan D, Ullrich R, Vécsei A, Volta U, Zevallos V, Sapone A, Fasano A (2013). "Non-Celiac Gluten sensitivity: the new frontier of gluten related disorders". Nutrients (Review) 5 (10): 3839–53. doi:10.3390/nu5103839. PMC 3820047. PMID 24077239.
The leaky gut/autism connection has fuelled a strong debate within the scientific community, far from being settled
- Barrett, Stephen (14 March 2009). "Be Wary of "Fad" Diagnoses". Quackwatch. Retrieved 24 October 2013.