Learning management system
A learning management system (LMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of educational courses or training programs. They help the instructor deliver material to the students, administer tests and other assignments, track student progress, and manage record-keeping. LMSs are focused on online learning delivery but support a range of uses, acting as a platform for fully online courses, as well as several hybrid forms, such as blended learning and flipped classrooms. LMSs can be complemented by other learning technologies such as a training management system to manage instructor-led training or a Learning Record Store to store and track learning data.
An LMS delivers and manages instructional content, and typically handles student registration, online course administration, and tracking, and assessment of student work. Some LMSs help identify progress towards learning or training goals. Most LMSs are web-based, to facilitate access. LMSs are often used by regulated industries (e.g. financial services and biopharma) for compliance training. Some LMS providers include "performance management systems", which encompass employee appraisals, competency management, skills-gap analysis, succession planning, and multi-rater assessments (i.e., 360 degree reviews). Some systems support competency-based learning.
Though there are a wide variety of terms for digital aids or platforms for education, such as "course management systems", "virtual or managed learning platforms or systems", or "computer-based learning environment", the term "learning management system" has become the ubiquitous term for products that help administer or deliver part or all of a course.
The history of the application of computers to education is filled with broadly descriptive terms such as computer-managed instruction (CMI), and integrated learning systems (ILS), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These terms describe drill-and-practice programs, more sophisticated tutorials, and more individualized instruction, respectively. The term is currently used to describe a number of different educational computer applications.
The earliest networked learning system was the Plato Learning Management system (PLM) developed in the 1970s by Control Data Corporation. FirstClass by SoftArc, used by the United Kingdom's Open University in the 1990s and 2000s to deliver online learning across Europe, was one of the earliest internet-based LMSs.
The emergence and development of the distance learning idea
The concept of eLearning began developing in the early 20th century, marked by the appearance of audio-video communication systems used for remote teaching. In 1909, E.M. Forster published his story 'The Machine Stops' and explained the benefits of using audio communication to deliver lectures to remote audiences.
In 1920, Sidney L. Pressey developed the first teaching machine which offered multiple types of practical exercises and question formats. Nine years later, University of Alberta's Professor M.E. Zerte transformed this machine into a problem cylinder able to compare problems and solutions.
The trend then shifted to video communication, as a result of which Houston University decided to hold telecast classes to their students for approximately 13-15 hours a week. The classes took place in 1953, while in 1956, Robin McKinnon Wood and Gordon Pask released the very first adaptive teaching system for corporate environments SAKI. The idea of automating teaching operations also inspired the University of Illinois experts to develop their Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations (PLATO) which enabled users to exchange content regardless of their location. In the period between 1970 and 1980, educational venues were rapidly considering the idea of computerizing courses, including the Western Behavioral Sciences Institute from California that introduced the first accredited online-taught degree.
The appearance of the first LMS system
The first fully featured Learning Management System (LMS) was called EKKO, developed and released by Norway's NKI Distance Education Network in 1991. Three years later, New Brunswick's NB Learning Network presented a similar system designed for DOS-based teaching, and devoted exclusively to business learners.
In 2000, the University of Zurich revolutionized the concept of digitized learning by introducing the first open-source LMS called OLAT. A year later, the LMS development industry welcomed Microsoft and its first SCORM-certified learning suite SharePoint.
Most LMSs are web-based. There are a variety of integration strategies for embedding content into LMSs, including SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) and LTI (Learning Tools Interoperability). LMSs were originally designed to be locally hosted on-premise, where the organization purchases a license to a version of the software, and installs it on their own servers and network. Many LMSs are also offered as SaaS (software as a service), with hosting provided by the vendors.
Learning management industry
In the U.S. higher education market as of fall 2016, the top three LMSs by number of installations were Blackboard (33%), Moodle (19%) and Canvas (17%). The same three systems lead in terms of number of students enrolled, but in a different order: Blackboard (45%), Canvas (24%), Moodle (17%).
In the corporate market in 2015, the six largest LMS providers constitute approximately 50% of the market, with SuccessFactors Learning, Saba Software, Voniz Inc and SumTotal Systems being the four largest providers. Vendors focused on mid-sized companies (200+ employees) include Absorb Software, Litmos, Halogen Software, ADP, Docebo, and Workday. Another service related to LMS comes from the standardized test preparation vendors, where companies such as Princeton Review or BenchPrep offer online test prep courses.
Many users of LMSs use an authoring tool to create content, which is then hosted on an LMS. In many cases LMSs include a primitive authoring tool for basic content manipulation. There are several standards for creating and integrating complex content into an LMS, including AICC, SCORM, xAPI, CMI5 and Learning Tools Interoperability. All widely adopted LMSs offer one or more of these standards for importing content.
Evaluation of LMSs is a complex task and significant research supports different forms of evaluation, including iterative processes where students' experiences and approaches to learning are evaluated.
- Authoring system
- Competency management system
- Competency-based management
- Digital content creation
- Educational technology (e-learning)
- Intelligent tutoring system
- LAMS – Learning Activity Management System
- Learning objects
- Learning Record Store (LRS)
- List of learning management systems
- SCORM – Sharable Content Object Reference Model
- Student information system
- Virtual learning environment
- Ellis, Ryann K. (2009), Field Guide to Learning Management, ASTD Learning Circuits
- Gilhooly, Kym (16 July 2001). "Making e-learning effective". Computerworld. 35 (29): 52–53.
- Szabo, Micheal; Flesher, K. (2002). "CMI Theory and Practice: Historical Roots of Learning Management Systems". Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2002 (White Paper). Montreal, Canada: In M. Driscoll & T. Reeves (Eds.): 929–936. ISBN 1-880094-46-0.
- Parr, Judy M.; Fung, Irene (3 October 2006). "A Review of the Literature on Computer-Assisted Learning, particularly Integrated Learning Systems, and Outcomes with Respect to Literacy and Numeracy". New Zealand Ministry of Education. Archived from the original on 9 March 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Watson, William R. (2007). "An Argument for Clarity: What are Learning Management Systems, What are They Not, and What Should They Become?" (PDF). TechTrends. 51 (2): 28–34. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "History and Trends of Learning Management System (Infographic)". Oxagile. 12 April 2016.
- Ashok Sharma. "The History of Distance Learning and the LMS". ELH Online Learning Made Simple.
- "History of learning management systems". ProProfs.
- "The History of LMS Software", financesonline.com.
- E.M. Forster, "THE MACHINE STOPS", archive.ncsa.illinois.edu.
- Solomon Arulraj DAVID, " A Critical Understanding of Learning Management System", academia.edu.
- Solomon Arulraj DAVID, " Teaching Machines", teachingmachin.es.
- "The NKI Internet College: A review of 15 years delivery of 10,000 online courses", irrodl.org,.
- "OLAT – Online Learning And Training", id.uzh.ch,.
- Learning management system, stratbeans consulting
- Lin, Sandi (16 November 2015). "SaaS Learning Management System: Is your LMS Truly SaaS? - eLearning Industry". eLearning Industry. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- 4th Annual LMS Data Update, 2016.
- Bersin, Josh. "Talent Management Software Market Surges Ahead". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
- Ellis, R.; Calvo, R.A. (2007), "Minimum indicators to quality assure blended learning supported by learning management systems" (PDF), Journal of Educational Technology and Society
- Levensaler, Leighann; Laurano, Madeline (2009), Talent Management Systems 2010, Bersin & Associates
- Connolly, P. J. (2001). A standard for success. InfoWorld, 23(42), 57-58. EDUCAUSE Evolving Technologies Committee (2003). Course Management Systems (CMS). Retrieved 25 April 2005, from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/DEC0302.pdf
- A field guide to learning management systems. (2005). Retrieved 12 November 2006, from http://www.learningcircuits.org/NR/rdonlyres/BFEC9F41-66C2-42EFBE9D-E4FA0D3CE1CE/7304/LMS_fieldguide1.pdf
- Gibbons, A. S., Nelson, J. M., & Richards, R. (2002). The nature and origin of instructional objects. In D. A. Wiley (Ed.), The instructional use of learning objects: Online version. Retrieved 5 April 2005, from http://reusability.org/read/chapters/gibbons.doc
- Gilhooly, K. (2001). Making e-learning effective. Computerworld, 35(29), 52-53.
- Carolin, L. (2010). Reasons For Using E-Learning In Corporate, from https://www.ipixtechnologies.com/6-reasons-for%20using-e-learning-in-corporate-training.html
- Hodgins, H. W. (2002). The future of learning objects. In D. A. Wiley (Ed.), The instructional use of learning objects: Online version. Retrieved 13 March 2005, from http://reusability.org/read/chapters/hodgins.doc
- Introduction: why we need AMG, first version, and redesign. (2006). Retrieved 20 November 2006, from http://ariadne.cs.kuleuven.be/amg/Intro.jsp
- Wiley, D. (2002). Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy. In D. A. Wiley (Ed.), The instructional use of learning objects: Online version. Retrieved 13 March 2005, from http://reusability.org/read/chapters/wiley.doc