A learning cycle is a concept of how people learn from experience. A learning cycle will have a number of stages or phases, the last of which can be followed by the first.
In 1933, John Dewey described five phases or aspects of reflective thought:
In between, as states of thinking, are (1) suggestions, in which the mind leaps forward to a possible solution; (2) an intellectualization of the difficulty or perplexity that has been felt (directly experienced) into a problem to be solved, a question for which the answer must be sought; (3) the use of one suggestion after another as a leading idea, or hypothesis, to initiate and guide observation and other operations in the collection of factual material; (4) the mental elaboration of the idea or supposition as an idea or supposition (reasoning, in the sense in which reasoning is a part, not the whole of inference); and (5) testing the hypothesis by overt or imaginative action.
- Fact finding, about the result of the action
Lewin particularly highlighted the need for fact finding, which he felt was missing from much of management and social work. He contrasted this to the military where
the attack is pressed home and immediately a reconnaissance plane follows with the one objective of determining as accurately and objectively as possible the new situation. This reconnaissance or fact-finding has four functions. First it should evaluate the action. It shows whether what has been achieved is above or below expectation. Secondly, it gives the planners a chance to learn, that is, to gather new general insight, for instance, regarding the strength and weakness of certain weapons or techniques of action. Thirdly, this fact-finding should serve as a basis for correctly planning the next step. Finally, it serves as a basis for modifying the "overall plan."
Kolb and Fry
- Concrete experience
- Observation of and reflection on that experience
- Formation of abstract concepts based upon the reflection
- Testing the new concepts
Kolb developed a theory of learning styles, whereby each style preferred two of the four parts of the cycle.
Honey and Mumford
Peter Honey and Alan Mumford developed Kolb and Fry's ideas into slightly different learning cycle. The stages are:
- Doing something, having an experience
- Reflecting on the experience
- Concluding from the experience, developing a theory
- Planning the next steps, to apply or test the theory
Honey and Mumford gave names (called learning styles) to the people who prefer to enter the cycle at different stages: Activist, Reflector, Theorist and Pragmatist. While different people prefer to enter at different stages, a cycle must be completed to give learning that will change behaviour. The cycle can be performed multiple times to build up layers of learning. Honey and Mumford's learning styles have been criticized for poor reliability and validity, and for lack of empirical evidence that they are useful in improving the performance of teachers or students. For further criticism of learning styles, see Learning styles § Criticism.
- Engage, in which a student's interest is captured and the topic is established.
- Explore, in which the student is allowed to construct knowledge in the topic through facilitated questioning and observation.
- Explain, in which students are asked to explain what they have discovered, and the instructor leads a discussion of the topic to refine the students' understanding.
- Extend, in which students are asked to apply what they have learned in different but similar situations, and the instructor guides the students toward the next discussion topic.
The fifth E is Evaluate, in which the instructor observes each student's knowledge and understanding, and leads students to assess whether what they have learned is true. Evaluation should take place throughout the cycle, not within its own set phase.
- Create the supportive learning environment - safe but stimulating
- Connect the learning - useful knowledge we already have
- Give the big picture
- Describe the learning outcomes we want to achieve
- Input - new information to enable the activity
- Demonstrate the findings of the activity
- Review for recall and retention
Unlike other learning cycles, step 8 is normally followed by step 2, rather than step 1.
In the 2000s, Fred Korthagen and Angelo Vasalos (and others) developed the ALACT model. The five phases of the ALACT cycle are:
- Looking back on the action
- Aspects of essential awareness
- Creating alternative methods of action
Korthagen and Vasalos listed coaching interventions for each phase and described "levels of reflection" inspired by Gregory Bateson's hierarchy of logical types. In 2010, they connected their model of reflective learning to the practice of mindfulness and to Otto Scharmer's U-procedure and Theory U, which is a kind of learning cycle that emphasizes learning from the emerging future rather than from the past.
- Dewey, John (1998) . How we think: a restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 107. ISBN 0395897548. OCLC 38878663.
- Lewin, Kurt (November 1946). "Action research and minority problems" (PDF). Journal of Social Issues 2 (4): 34–46. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1946.tb02295.x.
- Kolb, David A.; Fry, Ronald E. (1975). "Towards an applied theory of experiential learning". In Cooper, Cary L. Theories of group processes. Wiley series on individuals, groups, and organizations. London; New York: Wiley. pp. 33–58. ISBN 0471171174. OCLC 1103318.
- Mumford, Alan (1997). "Putting learning styles to work". Action learning at work. Aldershot, Hampshire; Brookfield, VT: Gower. p. 121. ISBN 0566078902. OCLC 35777384.
- Klein, Britt; McCall, Louise; Austin, David; Piterman, Leon (January 2007). "A psychometric evaluation of the Learning Styles Questionnaire: 40-item version". British Journal of Educational Technology 38 (1): 23–32. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2006.00599.x.
- Vasquez, Kris (2009). "Learning styles as self-fulfilling prophecies". In Gurung, Regan A. R.; Prieto, Loreto R. Getting culture: incorporating diversity across the curriculum. Sterling, VA: Stylus. pp. 53–63. ISBN 9781579222796. OCLC 228374299.
- "5Es Overview: The 5E instructional model". nasa.gov. NASA. 24 February 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- Wegerif, Rupert. "Review of Accelerated Learning in the Classroom, by Alistair Smith" (PDF). University of Exeter. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- Smith, Alistair (1996). Accelerated learning in the classroom. School effectiveness series. Stafford; Williston, VT: Network Educational Press. ISBN 1855390345. OCLC 36747433.
- Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Vasalos, Angelo (February 2005). "Levels in reflection: core reflection as a means to enhance professional growth" (PDF). Teachers and Teaching 11 (1): 47–71. doi:10.1080/1354060042000337093.
- Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Vasalos, Angelo (2010). "Going to the core: deepening reflection by connecting the person to the profession". In Lyons, Nona. Handbook of reflection and reflective inquiry. New York: Springer. pp. 529–552 [539–545]. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-85744-2_27. ISBN 9780387857435. OCLC 664583984.