Livadeia

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Livadeia
Λιβαδειά
General view
General view
Livadeia is located in Greece
Livadeia
Livadeia
Location within the region
2011 Dimos Levadeon.png
Coordinates: 38°26′N 22°52′E / 38.433°N 22.867°E / 38.433; 22.867Coordinates: 38°26′N 22°52′E / 38.433°N 22.867°E / 38.433; 22.867
Country Greece
Administrative region Central Greece
Regional unit Boeotia
Area
 • Municipality 694.016 km2 (267.961 sq mi)
 • Municipal unit 166.691 km2 (64.360 sq mi)
Elevation 200 m (700 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Municipality 31,315
 • Municipality density 45/km2 (120/sq mi)
 • Municipal unit 22,779
 • Municipal unit density 140/km2 (350/sq mi)
Community[1]
 • Population 22,193 (2011)
 • Area (km2) 139.614
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code 321 00
Area code(s) 22610
Vehicle registration ΒΙ
Website www.livadia.gr

Livadeia (Greek: Λιβαδειά Livadiá, pronounced [livaˈðʝa]; Ancient Greek: Λεβάδεια, translit. Lebadeia or Λεβαδία, Lebadia) is a town in central Greece. It is the capital of the Boeotia regional district. Livadeia lies 90 km (56 mi) north-west of Athens, 64 km (40 mi) west of Chalkida, 63 km (39 mi) south-east of Lamia, 44 km (27 mi) east-south-east of Amfissa, and 91 km (57 mi) east-north-east of Nafpaktos. The town lies some five kilometres (3.1 mi) west of Greek National Road 3, to which it is linked by National Road 48.

The area around Livadeia is mountainous, with farming activities mainly confined to the valleys. The area has traditionally been associated with the production and processing of cotton and tobacco, as well as the cultivation of cereal crops and the raising of livestock.

Livadeia is home to Levadiakos FC, members of the Greek Superleague.

Geography[edit]

The municipality of Livadeia covers an area of 694.016 km2 (267.961 sq mi), the municipal unit of Livadeia 166.691 km2 (64.360 sq mi) and the community 139.614 km2 (53.905 sq mi).[2]

Municipality[edit]

View of the Cathedral (St George) of the city

The municipality Livadeia was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 5 former municipalities, that became municipal units (constituent communities in brackets):[3]

The community Livadeia consists of the following outlying settlements (besides the town itself): Agios Nikolaos Livadeias (pop: 25), Analypsis Livadeias (pop: 184), Elikon (pop: 43), Perachora (pop: 279), Stathmos (pop: 3), Tzimeika (pop: 25) and Tsoukalades (pop: 149).

Historical population[edit]

Year Town Municipal unit Municipality
1981 18,885
1991 19,295
2001 20,061 20,769
2011 22,193 22,779 31,315

History[edit]

In antiquity, Lebadeia was a town near the western frontier of ancient Boeotia, described by Strabo as lying between Mount Helicon and Chaeroneia.[4] The ancient town was situated at the foot of a precipitous height, which is an abrupt northerly termination of Mt. Helicon. Pausanias relates that this height was originally occupied by the Homeric city of Mideia, from whence the inhabitants, under the conduct of Lebadus, an Athenian, migrated into the plain, and founded there the city named after him.[5] On the other hand, Strabo maintains that the Homeric cities Arne and Mideia were both swallowed up by Lake Copais.[6]

Lebadeia was originally an insignificant place, but it rose into importance in consequence of its possessing the celebrated oracle of Trophonius. The oracle was consulted both by Croesus[7] and by Mardonius,[8] and it continued to be consulted even in the time of Plutarch, when all the other oracles in Boeotia had become dumb.[9] Pausanias himself consulted the oracle, and he speaks of the town in terms which show that it was in his time the most flourishing place in Boeotia. But notwithstanding the sanctity of the oracle, Lebadeia did not always escape the ravages of war. It was taken and plundered both by Lysander and by Archelaus, the general of Mithridates VI of Pontus.[10] In the war against Perseus of Macedon, it espoused the side of the Romans, while Thebes, Haliartus, and Coroneia declared in favour of the Macedonian king.[11]

When Pausanias visited Lebadeia in the 2nd century, he recorded numerous temples. The most remarkable object in the grove of Trophonius was the temple of the hero, containing his statue by Praxiteles, resembling a statue of Asclepius; a temple of Demeter, surnamed Europe; a statue of Zeus Hyetius (Pluvius) in the open air; and higher up, upon the mountain, the oracle (τὸ μαντεῖον). Still higher up was the hunting place of Persephone; a large unfinished temple of Zeus Basileus, a temple of Apollo, and another temple, containing statues of Cronus, Zeus, and Hera. Pausanias likewise mentions a chapel of the Good Daemon and of Good Fortune, where those who were going to consult the oracle first passed a certain number of days.

Antiquities[edit]

Pausanias, writing in the 2nd century AD, reported that the original name of the city was Mideia, and that it took its name Lebadeia from Lebados of Athens, who moved the city from high to low ground,[12] to its current location on the banks of the Herkyna river. The sacred protector of the city was the hero/god Trophonios, whose oracle, involving a harrowing descent into an underground chamber, was famous beyond the borders of Greece. At the springs of the Herkyna river are shallow grottos with niches and marble remnants said to be the site of the oracle. On the hill above is a small medieval castle, mostly the work of the Catalan Company during the 14th century, accessible by foot. This is one of only four Catalan castles in Greece [13]

Livadeia castle wall from the side of the Herkyna river

Further west, commanding a dramatic view from the hill of Profitis Ilias, are the remains of a large temple of Zeus Basileus, perhaps begun in the 3rd century BC but never completed.[14] The cathedral church of St. George houses an important relic, a head of St. George, translated to Venice in the 15th century but restored to Livadeia as a gesture of interfaith cooperation in 1999.[15] In medieval times the river was lined by a series of water mills, one of which is preserved.

During the Byzantine period, Livadeia entered a period of decline, except for the 9th century, when some economic growth occurred. During the Frankish period Livadeia came back on track, then it passes in Catalan sovereignty. The Ottoman domination begins in 1458,when economic and administrative privileges granted to residents, contribute to industry and trade.Today the city is the financial, industrial, commercial center of the law. Finally, Livadeia is also developed in craft, folk art and industry. An important source for the economy is also tourism.

Sports[edit]

Livadeia hosts two sports club with presence in the higher national divisions, Levadiakos F.C. a football club and Livadeia B.C. (A.E. Livadeias) a basketball club.

Sport clubs based in Livadeia
Club Founded Sports Achievements
Levadiakos F.C. 1961 Football Presence in A Ethniki
Livadeia B.C. 1994 Basketball Presence in A2 Ethniki

People[edit]

Sister Cities[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  2. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
  3. ^ Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
  4. ^ Strabo. Geographica. ix. p.414. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  5. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece. 9.39.1.
  6. ^ Strabo. Geographica. ix. p. 413. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  7. ^ Herodotus. Histories. 1.46.
  8. ^ Herodotus. Histories. 8.134.
  9. ^ Plutarch, de Def. Orac. 5.
  10. ^ Plutarch Lys. 28, Sull. 16.
  11. ^ Polybius. The Histories. 27.1.
  12. ^ Pausanias. "Book IX.39.1-2". Description of Greece., Ἑλλάδος περιήγησις (in Greek). At the Perseus Project.
  13. ^ (Source: https://www.kastra.eu/castleen.php?kastro=livadia last visited 2018-08-21]]
  14. ^ Hansen, Mogens et al., Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis, Oxford 2004
  15. ^ "Ναός Αγίου Γεωργίου (Λιβαδειά) - Βοιωτικός Κόσμος". Viotikoskosmos.wikidot.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Lebadeia". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

External links[edit]