Lebak, Sultan Kudarat

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Aerial Photo Lebak.jpg
Lebak official seal
Map of Sultan Kudarat with Lebak highlighted
Map of Sultan Kudarat with Lebak highlighted
Lebak is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 06°38′N 124°04′E / 6.633°N 124.067°E / 6.633; 124.067Coordinates: 06°38′N 124°04′E / 6.633°N 124.067°E / 6.633; 124.067
Country Philippines
Province Sultan Kudarat
District 2nd District
Founded August 18, 1947
Barangays 27
 • Mayor Deonesio B. Besana (Liberal Party)
 • Vice Mayor Gerardo S. Delasan
 • Total 470.86 km2 (181.80 sq mi)
Population (2015 census)[3]
 • Total 88,868
 • Density 190/km2 (490/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 9807
IDD:area code +63 (0)64
Income class 1st municipal income class
PSGC 126506000
Electorate 40,134 voters as of 2016
Languages English, Hiligaynon, see Dialects
Website www.lebak.gov.ph

The Municipality of Lebak (Filipino: Bayan ng Lebak; Hiligaynon: Banwa sang Lebak) is a coastal municipality in the province of Sultan Kudarat, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 88,868 people.[3] The municipality of Lebak lies in the northernmost part of the coastal area of Sultan Kudarat, about 168 kilometres (104 mi) from Isulan, the capital town of Sultan Kudarat.


Lebak is a Maguindanaon word meaning hollow. This is because of the eastern part of Lebak is a mountain and on the western part is the Celebes Sea thus the hollow portion is between a mountain and the sea.

Settlement areas where then set up, giant forest trees were cut to give way for the residential areas and roads were built to connect neighboring areas. Settlers from Luzon and the Visayas were brought by boat to this Promise Land and were distributed to the various Settlement areas where they were allotted a home lot and farm lot to till and develop.

In 1945, World War II when the combined American and Filipino forces took over the supervision of the Philippine Government against Japanese occupation, Marcelino A. Concha was still the Military Governor of the Empire Province of Cotabato. In the same year, Aurelio Freires, Sr. was appointed Municipal District Mayor of Salaman.

Executive Order No.195 dated December 31, 1948 Segregating the Municipal districts of Lebak and Salaman from the Municipalities of Kiamba and Dinaig, Province of Cotabato, as organized under Executive Order No. 82 of August 18, 1947, and organized them into independent municipality under the name of Lebak with the seat of government at the Sitio of Kalamansig. The Municipality of Lebak was created under:

Homes destroyed in Barangay Tibpuan, Lebak, by tsunami

Executive Order No. 432 dated April 12, 1951 Transferring the seat of government of the Municipality of Lebak, province of Cotabato from present location of Barrio of Kalamansig to the Barrio of Salaman of the municipality. It is known as Municipality of Lebak (Salaman) and Municipality of Kalamansig was created later on.[4]

The 7.9 (Mw) earthquake on 16 August 1976 at 08:16 UTC occurred in 6°15′33.09″N 124°1′16.78″E / 6.2591917°N 124.0213278°E / 6.2591917; 124.0213278 inland of Moro Gulf at a depth of 33 kilometres (21 mi), about 40.7 kilometres (25.3 mi) south of the populated barangay of Tibpuan. The quake riggered a tsunami wave that killed 8,000 people.[5]

The municipality was formerly composed of 23 barangays and created 4 new barangays, Bolebak, Barurao II, Poblaciion II and Poblacion III making it to 27 barangays.

The renaming of Poblacion 2 to barangay Aurelio F. Frieres Sr was approve by the Sanguniang Bayan in its resolution number 007 series of 2002. Plebiscite was enacted last March 31, 2005.[6]


Slope aspect and elevation

Lebak is a coastal town separated from the mainland of Sultan Kudarat by mountain ranges. It is located on the western portion of the Province of Sultan kudarat, and bordered in the north by South Upi, Maguindanao; in the south by Kalamansig; in the west by Celebes Sea; in the east by Esperanza.

Lebak is marked with hilly, mountainous ranges. It is about eight feet above sea level. The plains range from level to nearly level while uplands range from nearly level to hilly. Mountainous and gently rolling slopes are suitable for intensive rice and corn farming. Tran River is the longest river in Lebak.

The approximate land area of the municipality of Lebak as of December 31, 1999, is 514.034445 square kilometers. But for planning purposes, the area used is 47,000 hectares, pursuant to the DBM supported by the Land Management Bureau/ Bureau of Lands. Of the 28 barangays, Salangsang has the largest area with 77.2850 square kilometres (29.8399 sq mi), followed by Keytodac with 63.8987 square kilometres (24.6714 sq mi), Villamonte with 46.4137 square kilometres (17.9204 sq mi) and Poloy-Poloy with 338.8183 square kilometres (130.8185 sq mi); while Poblacion III has the smallest area with 5.79411 square kilometres (2.23712 sq mi).

Vegetative map for Lebak


Lebak is marked with hilly, mountainous ranges. The plains range from level to nearly level while uplands range from nearly level to hilly mountainous and gently rolling slopes which are suitable for intensive rice and corn farming.

Soil types[edit]

Silty Loam which is best suited for agricultural crops such as rice, corn and vegetables. This covers 37.36% or 17,500 has of the total land area. Soils Un-differentiated which is favorable suited to grazing, pasture, forest and agro-forestry. This covers a total of 29,440 has or 62.64%.[7]

Hydrology/ natural resources[edit]

The Municipality is rich in natural resources. Its fishing ground abounds with fish of various species for domestic consumption and export. Marine products bring substantial income to marginal fisherman. Fishing grounds is practically untapped.

Groundwater information[edit]

pH;– A quality that must be considered in water is the balance between alkalis and acids. Good water should be nearly neutral, neither too alkali nor acidic. pH shall be within the range of 6.5 – 8.5. The PH measurements of the sampling stations conformed to the standard. pH within the range of 5-9 is still fit for drinking.

Nitrate is one of the dissolved inorganic contaminants, which has health effect. Results of the analyses showed that three groundwater sources in the municipality were found to have nitrate concentration that is way below the standard limits. Barangay Bolebak has trace, barangay Ragandang has 1 mg\L and barangay Poblacion 1 has 2 mg\L. Thus, the rest of the groundwater sources in the municipality are not yet contaminated with nitrates.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO) refers to the volume of oxygen that is contained in water. Oxygen is one of the dissolved gases in water. DO (Dissolved Oxygen) increases palatability of water. Four barangays Bolebak, Pasandalan, Poblacion 1 and Tibpuan) conformed to the minimum 5 mg\l DAO 34 and Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW)[8] standards. This standard (5 mg\l) is based on the survivability of marine and aquatic organisms.

Iron– The presence of iron in the municipality ranges from trace to greater than 1.2 mg\L. Only trace amount were detected in barangay Poblacion 3, Poloy-Poloy, Purikay, Salaman and Tibpuan. On the other hand, barangay Nuling, Pansud and Tran were found to have iron concentration greater than 1.2 mg\L while the rest of the barangays were not detected with the presence of iron.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) - Because groundwater is in contact with rocks and soil, it has more dissolved minerals. Delicious water contains many dissolved minerals. Without minerals, water would taste flat and unpleasant; however, too much dissolved solids is not fit to drink. TDS values of nearly all water samples in the municipality conform to standards set by the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW and DENR Administrative Order No. 34 (DAO 34)Only barangay Pasandalan and Salaman have TDS concentrations above the maximum limit (500 mg\l) of the DAO and PNSDW. However, they are still acceptable but the aesthetic value of the water maybe affected.

Conductivity — This is a measure of numerical expression of the ability of water to conduct an electric current. Only barangay Salaman has conductivity above 1000 us/cm USEPA standard. This could only affect the aesthetic value of the water And not a health hazard. Recorded conductivity values of the rest of the barangays are within the set standard.

Hardness– Based on the arbitrary scale of hardness, the groundwater of the municipality ranges from soft to hard water. Results in Barangay Barurao I and Poloy-Poloy did not conform to standards but they are still acceptable because only the aesthetic value of the water is affected since they are only slighjtly above the maximum limit.

Turbidity– is the measure of the presence of suspended solid materials such as clay, silt and finely organic materials in water. For the municipality of Lebak, Turbidity values of the sample are way below the standard value of 5 NTU. In other words, the water is clear and all results conformed to the standard.

Salinity — The recorded TDS values did not exceed 1000 mg/l, thus water is not saline.

Unless major changes or contamination occurs, the ground water in this municipality with respect to physical-chemical characteristics is considered potable atmosphere.

The Mangrove forest in wetlands of Lebak, Sultan Kudarat

The water resources of Lebak comprise Tran River, Salaman River, and Barurao Rivers the Makin and Ebi Waterfalls, Nuling, Salangsang and Ebi Springs. Some are tapped for irrigation and other purposes.

Two sites in Tran River are potential hydropower plant capable of producing 52 megawatts. Quarrying is identified in Barangays of Pansud, Poloy-Poloy, Salaman, Kati, tran, Basak, New Calinog and Villamonte.

Several caves have guano deposits of commercial volume. Coal, the untapped mineral is detected in several locations.


Under the Köppen climate classification system, the municipality of Lebak features a tropical rainforest climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines, Lebak has a mild climate with evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year. Being located outside of the typhoon path, it does not tropical depressions, typhoons and devastating winds.

Climate is generally classified in terms of rainfall difference due to combined influence of topography and air stream direction prevailing in the locality. The municipality of Lebak falls under TYPE IV classification. Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. Prevailing winds- light to moderate.

The municipality of Lebak, PAG-ASA recorded mean maximum and minimum temperatures of 34.3 and 32.5 °C (93.7 and 90.5 °F), respectively.

Mean, Maximum and Minimum Temperature ( °C ):[9]

Maximum Minimum
Mean 34.3 32.5
Highest 35.7 34.1
Lowest 33.1 31.4

Mean relative humidity for the Municipality of Lebak is 87%. The highest humidity is 89.5% and the lowest is 83.6%.


Administrative map for Lebak

Lebak is politically subdivided into 27 barangays.

  • Aurelio F. Freires (Poblacion II)
  • Barurao
  • Barurao II
  • Basak
  • Bolebak
  • Bululawan
  • Capilan
  • Christiannuevo
  • Datu Karon
  • Kalamongog
  • Keytodac
  • Kinodalan
  • New Calinog
  • Nuling
  • Pansud
  • Pasandalan
  • Poblacion I
  • Poblacion III
  • Poloy-poloy
  • Purikay
  • Ragandang
  • Salaman
  • Salangsang
  • Taguisa
  • Tibpuan
  • Tran
  • Villamonte

Datu Guiabar is a newly created barangay carved out from barangay Poloy-poloy. It is not officially recognized until plebiscite is held.


Population census of Lebak
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1918 889 —    
1939 5,403 +8.97%
1948 67 −38.60%
1960 22,173 +62.16%
1970 27,538 +2.19%
1975 31,478 +2.72%
1980 37,851 +3.75%
1990 52,428 +3.31%
1995 61,884 +3.16%
2000 70,899 +2.96%
2007 77,139 +1.17%
2010 83,280 +2.83%
2015 88,868 +1.24%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[3][10][11][12]

Household Population by Ethnicity

The population of Lebak by age group reveals a dominance of the young population. Based on the 2007 population, children under five years old made up 14% or 11,163 of the total population of the municipality, lower than the percentage for the age group 5 – 9 which is 14.67% or 11,234 of the same year.

Child dependency ratio registered at 78.73% meaning 78 children dependents for every 100 working population. Total dependency ratio is 84.15%, the higher the total dependency ratio, the heavier the burden of the working aged population.

Economically dependent persons less than 15 years old are about 32,979 or 42.75%, Working age population registered 41,888 or 54.23% are between the ages 15–64.

The percentage of female population in the reproductive age (15-49) registered 36,534 or 47.28%. About 47,436 or 61.51% of both men and women belonged to the age group 24 years and below. The population by age group declines with increase in age.

The population of those belonging to ages 65 years and over or the elderly population constitutes a very small proportion of the population. Population age 65 and above constitutes 2,272 or 5.4% of the total population. Old age dependency ratio is 5.4%, meaning for every 100 working population there are 5 old age dependent persons.

The working age group of 15 to 64 years old makes up 54% or 41,888 of the population while 43% or 32,979 are 14 years or younger and 5% or 2,272 are 65 years old or above.

Male population in the municipality is slightly higher than that of the female. The same is true in all barangays. Male population registered a total of 39,958 or 51.80% and 37,181 or 48.20%. The municipality is predominated by males showing males per 100 females.


There are 4 major religious groups in the municipality of Lebak. These are the Islam which comprises 48% of the total population, Roman Catholic, 35%, Protestants, 8% and UCCP, 7%. The remaining percentage are distributed to Evangelical, United Pentecostal Church and other religions which make up 8%.


The major dialects spoken are Ilonggo or Hiligaynon(41.06%), Karay-a (12.98%), Maguindanaon (12.91%), Cebuano (9.42%), Tiruray (8.08%), 5.74% speaks other Manobo, 1.22% speaks Tagalog, 7% speaks Ilocano and 3.35% for other dialects.


Transport of goods from and into the town was very difficult and tricky. Rough road to Isulan by provincial road sometimes take 1 day. The shipping from Port of Cotabato to Lebak by motorboat locally called "lantsa" also take a day to travel. Even in its isolation from the nearby cities in early days. This municipality managed to boast its local economy to its full potential. The opening of new routes and improvement in transport system are expect to deliver the town into an economic promise. Strengthen inter-regional trade linkage, gain access to potential agricultural production and will support various economic activities in the adjacent areas. These are Construction and Improvement of Awang-Upi-Lebak-Kalamansig Road,[13] the Isulan - Bagumbayan, Senator Ninoy Aquino - Lebak Road,[14] the planned Lebak-Kalamansig-Bagumbayan-Maitum Road.[15]
The major source of income are:

Agricultural Products

Crops Area Harvested Production (metric tons)
Irrigated 6,241.2 29,957.8
Rainfed 835.41 3,337.0
Yellow Corn 10,236.20 52,204.70
White Corn 4,061.30 20,306.55

The Municipal Agriculture's Office (MAGO) introduce to farmers the cultivation of rubber trees.

Livestock like swine/hog, ducks, cattle, carabao, goat and poultry products, fruits and vegetables.

Fishing Coastal barangay like Salaman, Tibpuan, Kinudalan, Datu Karon and Taguisa rely on fishing as their livelihood.

Metric Tons Area
Commercial 64 M.T. 207 hectares
Brackish aquaculture
Freshwater/backyard ponds 24 M.T. 50 hectares

Lebak is known for its crab (alimango), prawns (sugpo), milkfish (bangus) on shallow ponds. Shell fish are also abundant in shallow areas. The introduction of floating fish cages and fish sanctuary particularly in Barangay Tibpuan and in the coastal barangay will expect the rise of fish production in next few months.[16]


Smart Communications provide services like wireless 3G connection and broadband connection on its Smart Bro product. While Globe Telecom offers 3G and HSDPA signal that boost mobile internet connectivity. Some complain of unstable and frequent disconnection on Globe Tattoo and WiMax services. Fixed telephone line are provided by the Sultan Kudarat Telephone System Incorporated (SKTSI) subsidiary of PLDT.

FM station is also present in Lebak. The 105.1 MHz DXLR Radyo Natin of the Manila Broadcasting Company broadcast local news and advertisements with power of 500 Watts Kalamansig-Lebak Cable System, Inc. (KALECA) carries cable television signal to barangay Poblacion, Salaman, Pasandalan, Tibpuan, Barurao 1 & 2, Purikay and far as barangay Pansud. Direct-To-Home satellite TV such as G Sat, Cignal and Dream are common in the rural areas.

Banking and financial services[edit]

Banking services like automated teller machines (ATMs), loans, fund transfer and other services. Land Bank of the Philippines[17] - 2 ATMs installed in its branch along National Highway. One Network Bank[18] - 1 ATM installed in its branch fronting Agora 3 & 4. Rural Bank of Lebak (SK)- offer rural banking services Western Union and G-cash.[19] Money transfer services are also available in LBC Express, M Lhuillier and Cebuana Lhuillier.

Local water utilities are supplied by Lebak Water District (LEWADI). Sultan Kudarat Electric Cooperative (SUKELCO) powering up to the barangay Basak which 21 kilometers from Poblacion.

Tourism and culture[edit]

The seashore of Lebak, Sultan Kudarat

Tourism is still at its infancy but in a promising stage. The beautiful beaches of Sodoy, Tibpuan stretch some three (3) kilometers. Among these are the Ramirez Beach Resort, Po Beach Resort and Lady Grace Freires Beach Resort. The enchanting Makin falls in Makin, Villamonte,Pancho Falls and Hot Spring located in Nuling are another big things in Lebak's tourism industry and the recently explored Tinubak Falls in Keytodac are potential sites for tourism.[20]

Notable events and festivals[edit]

Part of the culture of the people of Lebak are the celebration of fiesta ( religious and ethnic celebration). Patronal Fiesta Celebration every 4th Sunday of May and Fiestas in different barangays are Part of the fiesta celebration are the usual cockfighting and horsefighting.

The municipality celebrates its Patronal fiesta Queenship of Mary every 4th Sunday of the month of May and its Foundation anniversary every August 17–18, 2009 including the yearly HINUGYAW FEST. The Araw ng Lebak is celebrated during August 18 yearly.

Local government[edit]

Lebak view seen from Km 12, Salangsang

List of former mayors:

  • Aurelio F. Freires, Sr. 1948-1955
  • Timoteo P. Belarmino 1956–1959
  • Aurelio F. Freires, Sr. 1960–1963
  • Aurelio C. Freires, Jr. 1964–1967
  • Jorge T. Labog 1968–1971
  • Romeo F. Almirante 1972–1975
  • Reynaldo P. Palileo, Sr. 1976-1979
  • Romeo F. Almirante 1980-1986 (died in office)
  • Salvador G. Ang, MD 1986-1987 (appointed)
  • David Gestosani 1987-1988 (appointed)
  • Sergio P. Sabio 1988-1998
  • Kahirup C. Ang, M.D. 1998-2003
  • Gerardo S. Delasan 2003-2010
  • Dionesio Besana 2010–present


Junction Awang - Upi - Lebak - Kalamansig Road Project

The municipality is 186 km from Isulan, the capital town of Sultan Kudarat. It can be reached by Public Utility Jeep, vans and private vehicles for about 8 to 12 hours to and from Isulan and for about 5 hours via Cotabato City, the nearest city. Lebak Terminal in Cotabato City is located at Malagapas near Cotabato City Hall. Also, there's a passenger van that travels daily from Davao City to Lebak. It is located in NCCC Mall Terminal Davao City. If you are from Manila,you can reach Lebak by plain via Manila-Gensan or Manila- Cotabato. The completion of concrete national road from junction of Awang — Upi — Lebak road will be a great impact on the economy of Lebak.[21]

This municipality has two airstrips: Lebak Municipal Airport (IATA: LWA 6°40′25″N 124°3′29″E / 6.67361°N 124.05806°E / 6.67361; 124.05806), just 4 kilometers located at Kumalawit, Brgy. Purikay is already concreted and will be fully operational accommodating from Cessna, turboprop to Airbus A320.

Another way of reaching this municipality is by the sea. The existing Port of Lebak is in nearby municipality of Kalamansig.[22]


Daycare services are widely encouraged and are provided by barangay day care workers under the supervision of the office of Municipal Social Welfare Development. Alternative Learning System (ALS), a non-formal education system that offers alternative learning opportunities for the out of school youth and adults who are 15 years and above and unable to avail themselves of the educational services and programs of the formal education, is also present. It reaches out to citizens of varied interest, demographic, characteristics and socio-economic origins and status. The primary objective is to provide literacy programs to eradicate illiteracy. Elementary education is divided into three districts: East, Central and West. These districts in total comprise the 11 primary schools, 26 elementary schools and three central schools of Lebak.

Notre Dame of Salaman College

List of Elementary School (Elementary School)and Primary School (Primary School)[23]

Medical facilities[edit]

  • Lebak Doctors Hospital
  • Lebak Sto. Niño Hospital
  • Lebak Medical Group of Hospital
  • Medicare Community Hospital of Lebak
  • Lebak Family Doctors Hospital
  • Sabio Medical Clinic
  • Tanangonan Medical and Surgical Clinic
  • Municipal Health Center (Birthing Section)
  • Labian Medical Clinic

Sister City[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Official City/Municipal 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 11 September 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "Province: SULTAN KUDARAT". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c Census of Population (2015). "Region XII (Soccsksargen)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  4. ^ ELPIDIO QUIRINO (1951-04-12). Text
  5. ^ "7.9 MW moro Gulf earthquake". Retrieved 2011-07-29. 
  6. ^ "Sanguniang Bayan Resolution". Resolution No. 007 Series of 2002. 2005-03-31. 
  7. ^ "Provincial Profile". Provincial Planning and Development Office of Sultan Kudarat. 
  8. ^ "Local Water Utilities Administration Standards for Drinking water". Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  9. ^ "Airport and Surface Synoptic Station". Pagasa Information Center. 
  10. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region XII (Soccsksargen)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 
  11. ^ Census of Population (1995, 2000 and 2007). "Region XII (Soccsksargen)". Total Population by Province, City and Municipality. NSO. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. 
  12. ^ "Province of Sultan Kudarat". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  13. ^ "Construction and Improvement of Awang-Upi-Lebak- Kalamansig Road" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-07-27. 
  14. ^ "Infrastructure Projects Region XII". Retrieved 2011-07-27. 
  15. ^ "President aquino meets region xii multistakeholders". Retrieved 2011-07-27. 
  16. ^ "BFAR leads assessment of sanctuarie". Manila Bulletin. March 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-05. 
  17. ^ "Land Bank of the Philippines — Lebak". Retrieved 2011-07-03. 
  18. ^ "One Network Bank Branch". Retrieved 2011-07-03. 
  19. ^ "Rural Bank of Lebak". Retrieved 2011-07-03. 
  20. ^ "State of Local Governance Performance, Electronic Report". Retrieved 2011-07-09. 
  21. ^ "Jct. Awang — Upi — Lebak Road". Department of Public Works and Highways. DPWH. Retrieved 2011-07-03. 
  22. ^ "Port of Lebak". Retrieved 2011-07-03. 
  23. ^ School0708.xls "Elementary School in Region 12" Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 2011-07-03. 

External links[edit]