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Lebanon bologna

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lebanon bologna
Place of originLebanon County, Pennsylvania
Associated cuisinePennsylvania Dutch
Main ingredientsBeef
Ingredients generally usedSpices

Lebanon bologna is a type of cured, smoked, and fermented semidry beef sausage; it is not, in spite of its name, a pork-based bologna. Similar in appearance and texture to salami, it is somewhat darker in color, and is typically served as a cold cut or appetizer.

Lebanon bologna has a distinct, tangy flavor, more so than other generally similar fermented meat products such as summer sausage. Hardwood smoking imparts a strong smokiness to the traditionally prepared versions of the product; increasingly, liquid smoke is used as a substitute [citation needed] for this costly time- and labor-intensive process.


Lebanon bologna was developed by the Pennsylvania Dutch of Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, prior to the 1780s[1] and was a common item by the early 1800s, reflecting the slow-cured and smoked sausage traditions of Western Europe. Still produced primarily in that area, it is found in markets throughout the United States and typically served as a cold cut and as an appetizer. In addition to the original, a sweet version is made.


Typically, curing salts are added to the ground and spiced beef to control microbial growth during processing.[2] The blended and stuffed sausage is then aged for 10 days prior to smoking to enrich lactic acid bacteria and allow for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite.[3] Fermentation occurs during a slow cold smoke (kept at a temperature below 120 °F (49 °C)) that can last for up to four days.[4] A one pH unit (or more) decline is observed during this step, as well as the development of nitrosohemochrome, the pigment responsible for the red color of cured meats.

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  1. ^ "A slice of history", The Baltimore Sun, Nov. 9, 2005
  2. ^ Chikthimmah, N.; Ananthesweran, R.; Roberts, R.; Mills, E.; Knabel, S. (2001). "Influence of sodium chloride on growth of lactic acid bacteria and subsequent destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 of Lebanon bologna". Journal of Food Protection. 54 (8): 1145–50. doi:10.4315/0362-028X-64.8.1145. ISSN 0362-028X. PMID 11510650.
  3. ^ Smith, J. L.; Palumbo, S. A. (October 1973). "Microbiology of Lebanon bologna". Applied Microbiology. 26 (4): 489–96. doi:10.1128/AEM.26.4.489-496.1973. PMC 379833. PMID 4796166.
  4. ^ Palumbo, S.; Smith, J; Ackerman, S. (1974). "Lebanon Bologna. I. Manufacture and processing". Journal of Milk and Food Technology. 36 (10): 497–503. doi:10.4315/0022-2747-36.10.497. ISSN 0022-2747.

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