Lebanon bologna

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Lebanon bologna

Lebanon bologna is a type of cured, smoked, and fermented semidry sausage. Made of beef, it is similar in appearance and texture to salami, though somewhat darker in color, and typically served as a cold cut or appetizer. Lebanon bologna has a distinct tangy flavor, more so than other fermented meat products such as summer sausage. Hardwood smoking imparts a strong smokiness to the traditionally prepared versions of the product; increasingly, liquid smoke is used as a substitute for this costly time- and labor-intensive process.

Origin[edit]

Lebanon bologna was developed in the 19th century by the Pennsylvania Dutch of Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, reflecting the slow-cured and smoked sausage traditions of Western Europe. Still produced primarily in that area, it is found in markets throughout the United States and typically served as a cold cut and as an appetizer. In addition to the original, a sweet version is made.[citation needed]

Manufacturing[edit]

Lebanon bologna is slow cold smoked at a temperature below 120 °F (49 °C). Curing salts are added to control microbial growth during processing.[1]

Typically, the blended and stuffed beef sausage is aged for 10 days prior to smoking to enrich lactic acid bacteria and allow for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite.[2] Fermentation occurs during the smoking step, which can last for up to four days.[3] A one pH unit (or more) decline is observed during this step, as well as the development of nitrosohemochrome, the pigment responsible for the red color of cured meats.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chikthimmah, N.; Ananthesweran, R.; Roberts, R.; Mills, E.; Knabel, S. (2001). "Influence of sodium chloride on growth of lactic acid bacteria and subsequent destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 of Lebanon bologna". Journal of Food Protection. 54 (8): 1145–50. ISSN 0362-028X.
  2. ^ Smith, J. L.; Palumbo, S. A. (October 1973). "Microbiology of Lebanon bologna". Applied Microbiology. 26 (4): 489–96. PMC 379833. PMID 4796166.
  3. ^ Palumbo, S.; Smith, J; Ackerman, S. (1974). "Lebanon Bologna. I. Manufacture and processing". Journal of Milk and Food Technology. 36 (10): 497–503. ISSN 0022-2747.

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